Tashkent Mechanical Plant
Tashkent Mechanical Plant Tashkent Aviation Production Association named after V. P. Chkalov is a leading high-technology company of Uzbekistan, moved from Russia to the rear of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan in 1941 during World War II; the enterprise declared bankruptcy in September 2010 and was planning to end all aircraft production in 2012 with the external management procedure was terminated in November 2013 after settling with its creditors in October. However, due to Russian interest, the plant considered resuming production and focus on the production of Ilyushin Il-114 passenger and cargo aircraft, as well as keep its major specialization: assembly and repair of aircraft; these plans, contradicted the Uzbek government's desire to close aircraft-related activities and focus on its current production of structural units, household products, spare parts for cars and agricultural equipment. The plant renamed as "Tashkent Mechanical Plant" on 1 January 2014 and resume operation as legal entity on 24 January 2014.
The company exited aircraft production in 2015, but retaining aircraft parts, components production and aviation MRO services. Based on the presidential decree from the Uzbekistan president Islam Karimov on 30 April 2015, Uzbekistan Railways takes control of Tashkent Mechanical Plant on 1 May 2015. During the first and the second five-year plans, the Soviet government tried to supply the aviation sector with the national production. In the first plan was created the ANT aircraft family; the planes played a great role in the civil aircraft sector but the progress in the following decades has rendered these planes obsolete and they have been modernized or replaced. In the second plan, it was founded in 1932 in the city of Khimki, Moscow region as the 84 Repairing Factory of GVF, it was remnants the Aviation Factory, after V. P. Chkalov. TAPOiCh was a multifunctional company; this association was responsible for aircraft production, for the social development of the city where it is situated and for the health-care system for its employees.
In 1935, the factory received an order to update a civil plane ANT-9, in a propaganda airplane, "Krokodil". In 1936, the preparations was begun for a licensed production of the Douglas DC-3. In 1939, the airplane was modified for local use, its production started and it was renamed as the PS-84. In 1937, there were built some prototypes of the V. Levkov's hovercraft, named L-5. In 1939, V. F. Bolkhovitinov controlled the construction of a new light bomber Su-2; the factory and its entire staff were transported in December of the 1941 by a train convoy. In January 1942 production started; this period was focused on the production of Li-2, a licensed airplane variant of Douglas DC-3. This plane became a symbol for the employees, it was put on a pedestal next to the main entrance. When World War II was nearing the end, but a new conflict, the Cold War, was beginning; this arms race brought new goals to the factory N° 84. In 1954, the first transport aircraft, Il-14s were manufactured at the factory. In 1957, the first An-8 was built.
In 1960, the factory took part in the development of the Ka-22 rotorcraft. In 1962, the first An-12 was built. In 1966, the factory was able to get over technical difficulties and build the first example of the An-22, named “Antaeus”. In 1972, basing on the existing factory in Tashkent and new firms in Andijan and Fergana was formed the Tashkent Aviation Production Association. In 1973, the first Il-76 was manufactured. 950 examples of this multipurpose transporter were built in this factory. This plant manufactured the wings of the An-124, AN-225 and An-70 aircraft; the government-controlled Chkalov Tashkent Aircraft Production Company, headquartered outside of Tashkent, maintains one of the largest and most significant aircraft assembly plants in Central Asia. The V. P. Chkalov Tashkent Aircraft Production Corporation State Joint-Stock Company has great potential in the aircraft production industry. Chkalov is one of the largest businesses in Uzbekistan. President Islam Karimov, supportive of aviation, is one of the main reasons so many improvements have been implemented so quickly.
The Tashkent Aviation Production Organisation was established in 1932 at Khimki in the Moscow region but moved to its present site in Uzbekistan in 1941, during WW II. Valeriy Chkalov was the most experienced of all Soviet test pilots. Along with Rostislav Evgenievich Alekseev, he piloted the first non-stop flight between the USSR and USA. Chkalov lost his life on 15 December 1938, while testing the new Polikarpov I-180 prototype; this tragedy sent shockwaves throughout the entire Soviet aviation community. Several designers from the Polikarpov Design Bureau were arrested for "Wrecking" and "Sabotage" by Stalin, no other Polikarpov design entered production. Chkalov was enshrined as a national hero following his death, many dedications, voluntary funds, memorials were erected in his name throughout the Great Patriotic War. During its long existence, the company has been involved in the production of a wide range of aircraft including: I-15, I-16, I-153, Li-2, Il-14, An-8, An-12, An-22, Ka-22, as well as the wing and centre section of the An-124 and An-225.
In addition, the company has produced the following variants of the Il-76: Il-76K, ‘Scalpel’, Scip, Il-78 and A-50. Current production features the TD, MD, MF and TF variants of the Il-76 cargo aircraft, as well as the wings for the An-70 cargo aircraft. In September 1996 the Chkalov pla
Komsomolsk-on-Amur is a city in Khabarovsk Krai, located on the left bank of the Amur River in the Russian Far East. It is located on the Baikal-Amur Mainline, 356 kilometers northeast of Khabarovsk; as of 2010, it had a population of 263,906 . The city and its suburbs stretch for over 30 kilometers along the left bank of the Amur River; the river at this point is up to 2.5 kilometers wide. The distance to Khabarovsk—the administrative center of the krai—is 356 kilometers; the nearest other major town is Amursk, about 45 kilometers south. It is about 3,900 miles east of Moscow, lies at the eastern end of the BAM Railway; the future site of Komsomolsk-on-Amur was conquered by Mongols in the 13th century, becoming part of Mongol Empire under the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and Manchus held until 1858 treaty of Aigun ceded the area to the Russian Empire. The village of Permskoye was established on the site of Komsomolsk in 1860 by migrant peasants from what is now Perm Krai; the government of the Russian SFSR announced in 1931 plans to construct a shipyard on the Amur at the present site of Komsomolsk, with construction beginning in 1932.
The town was built using volunteer labor from the Communist youth organization Komsomol, thus receiving the name Komsomolsk. However, the construction of the town was aided with the use of penal labour from the prison camps situated in the area; the suffix on Amur was added to differentiate from other towns with the same name. It was granted town status in 1933. By the end of the 1930s, the shipyards along with facilities for other heavy industry had been completed; the city developed into a regional center for industries such as aircraft manufacturing, machinery, oil refining, shipbuilding. At present, Komsomolsk-on-Amur is the main center for the manufacture of Sukhoi military aircraft and the Sukhoi Superjet airliner; the MiG-15bis and the Lisunov Li-2 were both manufactured in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Komsomolsk-on-Amur serves as the administrative center of Komsomolsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of krai significance of Komsomolsk-na-Amure—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Komsomolsk-na-Amure is incorporated as Komsomolsk-na-Amure Urban Okrug. The city is administratively divided into 2 okrugs, coinciding with the historical parts: Leninsky and Central. In the Soviet period, the administrative-territorial division of the city was different from the present. In accordance with the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of 19 October 1943 were formed Lenin and Central areas. Stalinsky district included the territory of residential community. Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR "On the Abolition of the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Khabarovsk Krai" on August 7, 1957 in the district division was abolished, but the decree of March 31, 1972 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the newly divided the city into two districts - Central and Leninsky. Komsomolsk-on-Amur consists of two historical parts: the center, or "city", where the main enterprise - Shipyard, the Dzemgi - an area that has formed during the construction of an aircraft factory.
In fact, each of the parts is a separate town, itself a single center in the city. Areas of the city are different architectural appearance: Center Stalinist buildings dominated the 40-50s, Dzemgi is built up typical panel apartment blocks; the "sleeping" area Dzemgi is not, as the majority of their residents work in enterprises located here. Komsomolsk-on-Amur has a humid continental climate. Temperatures in the area of the city change by over 56 °C over the course of the year, with a daily average of −24.7 °C in January, compared to +20.3 °C in July. Komsomolsk-on-Amur is an important industrial center of Khabarovsk Krai and of the Russian Far East, it has a diversified economy where machine building and timber enterprises dominate. The city's most notable company is Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association, Russia's largest aircraft-manufacturing enterprise, it is among Khabarovsk Krai's most successful enterprises, for years has been the largest taxpayer of the territory. It has manufactured hundreds of civil aircraft and thousands of various-role military aircraft from the first recon aircraft to modern Su- series fighters and light amphibian aeroplanes.
The company is hugely important to the city's economy, contributing 45% of all payments into the local budget. Based in the city is Amur Shipbuilding Plant, an important producer of ships and submarines; the eastern-most GLONASS telemetry and tracking station is located in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Two air bases are located near Khurba to the south and Dzemgi to the north. Komsomolsk-on-Amur railway station is an important rail junction of Baikal-Amur Mainline and Komsomolsk-Dezhnyovka railway line; the city is served by the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Airport Public transport includes 5 tram routes and fixed-taxi. The first sortie of the Sukhoi Su-57 prototype occurred at the Gagarin Factory. Komsomolsk-on-Amur is twinned with: Jiamusi, China Kamo, Japan Weinan, China Alex Chubrevich, Israeli Russian professional basketball player for Maccabi Haifa
United States customary units
United States customary units are a system of measurements used in the United States. The United States customary system developed from English units which were in use in the British Empire before the U. S. became an independent country. However, the United Kingdom's system of measures was overhauled in 1824 to create the imperial system, changing the definitions of some units. Therefore, while many U. S. units are similar to their Imperial counterparts, there are significant differences between the systems. The majority of U. S. customary units were redefined in terms of the meter and the kilogram with the Mendenhall Order of 1893 and, in practice, for many years before. These definitions were refined by the international yard and pound agreement of 1959. Americans use customary units in commercial activities, as well as for personal and social use. In science, many sectors of industry, some of government and military, metric units are used; the International System of Units, the modern form of the metric system, is preferred for many uses by the U.
S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. For newer units of measure where there is no traditional customary unit, international units are used, sometimes mixed with customary units, such as electrical resistance of wire expressed in ohms per thousand feet; the United States system of units is similar to the British imperial system. Both systems are derived from English units, a system which had evolved over the millennia before American independence, which had its roots in Roman and Anglo-Saxon units; the customary system was championed by the U. S.-based International Institute for Preserving and Perfecting Weights and Measures in the late 19th century. Advocates of the customary system saw the French metric, system as atheistic. An auxiliary of the Institute in Ohio published a poem with wording such as "down with every'metric' scheme" and "A perfect inch, a perfect pint". One adherent of the customary system called it "a just weight and a just measure, which alone are acceptable to the Lord".
The U. S. government passed the Metric Conversion Act of 1975, which made the metric system "the preferred system of weights and measures for U. S. trade and commerce". The legislation states that the federal government has a responsibility to assist industry as it voluntarily converts to the metric system, i.e. metrification. This is most evident in U. S. labeling requirements on food products, where SI units are always presented alongside customary units. According to the CIA Factbook, the United States is one of three nations that have not adopted the metric system as their official system of weights and measures. U. S. Customary units are used on consumer products and in industrial manufacturing. Metric units are standard in science, medicine, as well as many sectors of industry and government, including the military. There are anecdotal objections to the use of metric units in carpentry and the building trades, on the basis that it is easier to remember an integer number of inches plus a fraction than a measurement in millimeters, or that foot-inch measurements are more suitable when distances are divided into halves and quarters in parallel.
The metric system lacks a parallel to the foot. For measuring length, the U. S. customary system uses the inch, foot and mile, which are the only four customary length measurements in everyday use. Since July 1, 1959, these have been defined on the basis of 1 yard = 0.9144 meters except for some applications in surveying. The U. S. the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries agreed on this definition, so it is termed international measure. When international measure was introduced in the English-speaking countries, the basic geodetic datum in North America was the North American Datum of 1927, constructed by triangulation based on the definition of the foot in the Mendenhall Order of 1893, 1 foot = 1200/3937 meters: this definition was retained for data derived from NAD27, but renamed the US survey foot to distinguish it from the international foot. For most applications, the difference between the two definitions is insignificant – one international foot is 0.999998 of a US survey foot, for a difference of about 1/8 inch per mile – but it affects the definition of the State Plane Coordinate Systems, which can stretch over hundreds of miles.
The NAD27 was replaced in the 1980s by the North American Datum of 1983, defined in meters. The SPCSs were updated, but the National Geodetic Survey left the decision of which definition of the foot to use to the individual states. All SPCSs are defined in meters, but seven states have SPCSs defined in US survey feet and an eighth state in international feet: the other 42 states use only meter-based SPCSs. State legislation is important for determining the conversion factor to be used for everyday land surveying and real estate transactions, although the difference is of no practical significance given the precision of normal surveying measurements over short distances. Twenty-four states have legislated that surveying measures should be based on the US survey foot, eight have legislated that they be made on the basis of the international foot, eighteen have not specified the conversion factor from metric units; the most used area unit with a name unrelated to any length unit is the acre. The National Institute of Standards and Technology contends that customary area units are defined in terms of the square survey foot, not the square international foot.
Conversion factors are based on Astin and National Institute
The Shvetsov ASh-62 is a nine-cylinder, air-cooled, radial aircraft engine produced in the Soviet Union. A version of this engine is produced in Poland as the ASz-62 and the People's Republic of China as the HS-5; the ASh-62 was a development of the Wright R-1820 Cyclone, built in Russia under licence as the Shvetsov M-25, the main improvements including a two-speed supercharger and a more efficient induction system. Power was increased from the Cyclone's 775 hp to 1,000 hp. First run in 1937, licensed versions are still in production by WSK "PZL-Kalisz" in Poland; the Ash-62 was produced in China. It is estimated that 40,361 were produced in the USSR. Polish-built ASz-62IR engines, by WSK "PZL-Kalisz" in Kalisz, are compatible with FAR-33 requirements. Further developments in Poland are the K9-AA, K9-BA and K9-BB engines, with take-off power of 1178 hp, indicated power 698 kW. From 2015 there is produced ASz-62IR-16E with electronic injection, offering greater power and possibility to run on automobile fuel.
The M-63 was an improved version of the M-62 with power output increased to 821 kW at 2,300 rpm for takeoff and 671 kW at 2,200 rpm at 4,500 m due to a greater compression ratio of 7.2:1 and a higher redline. Antonov An-2 Antonov An-6 de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Douglas TS-62 Junkers Ju 52 Lisunov Li-2 Kharkiv KhAI-5 Polikarpov I-153 Polikarpov I-16 PZL-106 Kruk PZL-Mielec M-18 Dromader PZL M-24 Dromader Super Sukhoi Su-2 Sukhoi Su-12 VL Myrsky Data from Liss. Type: Nine-cylinder single-row supercharged air-cooled radial engine Bore: 156 mm Stroke: 175 mm Displacement: 29.8 l Length: 1,213 mm Diameter: 1,378 mm Dry weight: 560kg Valvetrain: Overhead valves Supercharger: Two-speed centrifugal type supercharger Fuel system: Carburetor Fuel type: 92 RON, 87 /2 octane rating gasoline Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: * 746 kW at 2,200 rpm for takeoff 634 kW at 2,100 rpm at 4,200 m Specific power: 25.03 kW/l Compression ratio: 6.4:1 Specific fuel consumption: 469 g/ Power-to-weight ratio: 1.3 kW/kg Related development Shvetsov M-25 Warbirds ASz-62 IR Related lists List of aircraft engines Producer's page WSK "PZL-Kalisz" asz-62ir.pl.tl AN-2 Aircraft
Operation Barbarossa was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II. The operation stemmed from Nazi Germany's ideological aims to conquer the western Soviet Union so that it could be repopulated by Germans, to use Slavs as a slave labour force for the Axis war effort, to murder the rest, to acquire the oil reserves of the Caucasus and the agricultural resources of Soviet territories. In the two years leading up to the invasion and the Soviet Union signed political and economic pacts for strategic purposes; the German High Command began planning an invasion of the Soviet Union in July 1940, which Adolf Hitler authorized on 18 December 1940. Over the course of the operation, about three million personnel of the Axis powers – the largest invasion force in the history of warfare – invaded the western Soviet Union along a 2,900-kilometer front. In addition to troops, the Wehrmacht deployed some 600,000 motor vehicles, between 600,000 and 700,000 horses for non-combat operations.
The offensive marked an escalation of World War II, both geographically and in the formation of the Allied coalition. Operationally, German forces achieved major victories and occupied some of the most important economic areas of the Soviet Union and inflicted, as well as sustained, heavy casualties. Despite these Axis successes, the German offensive stalled in the Battle of Moscow at the end of 1941, the subsequent Soviet winter counteroffensive pushed German troops back; the Red Army absorbed the Wehrmacht's strongest blows and forced the Germans into a war of attrition that they were unprepared for. The Wehrmacht never again mounted a simultaneous offensive along the entire Eastern front; the failure of the operation drove Hitler to demand further operations of limited scope inside the Soviet Union, such as Case Blue in 1942 and Operation Citadel in 1943 – all of which failed. The failure of Operation Barbarossa proved a turning point in the fortunes of the Third Reich. Most the operation opened up the Eastern Front, in which more forces were committed than in any other theater of war in world history.
The Eastern Front became the site of some of the largest battles, most horrific atrocities, highest World War II casualties, all of which influenced the course of both World War II and the subsequent history of the 20th century. The German armies captured 5,000,000 Red Army troops, who were denied the protection guaranteed by the Hague Conventions and the 1929 Geneva Convention. A majority of Red Army POWs never returned alive; the Nazis deliberately starved to death, or otherwise killed, 3.3 million prisoners of war, as well as a huge number of civilians. Einsatzgruppen death-squads and gassing operations murdered over a million Soviet Jews as part of the Holocaust; as early as 1925, Adolf Hitler vaguely declared in his political manifesto and autobiography Mein Kampf that he would invade the Soviet Union, asserting that the German people needed to secure Lebensraum to ensure the survival of Germany for generations to come. On 10 February 1939, Hitler told his army commanders that the next war would be "purely a war of Weltanschauungen... a people's war, a racial war".
On 23 November, once World War II had started, Hitler declared that "racial war has broken out and this war shall determine who shall govern Europe, with it, the world". The racial policy of Nazi Germany portrayed the Soviet Union as populated by non-Aryan Untermenschen, ruled by Jewish Bolshevik conspirators. Hitler claimed in Mein Kampf that Germany's destiny was to "turn to the East" as it did "six hundred years ago". Accordingly, it was stated Nazi policy to kill, deport, or enslave the majority of Russian and other Slavic populations and repopulate the land with Germanic peoples, under the Generalplan Ost; the Germans' belief in their ethnic superiority is evident in official German records and discernible in pseudoscientific articles in German periodicals at the time, which covered topics such as "how to deal with alien populations". While older histories tended to emphasize the notion of a "Clean Wehrmacht", the historian Jürgen Förster notes that "In fact, the military commanders were caught up in the ideological character of the conflict, involved in its implementation as willing participants."
Before and during the invasion of the Soviet Union, German troops were indoctrinated with anti-Bolshevik, anti-Semitic, anti-Slavic ideology via movies, lectures and leaflets. Likening the Soviets to the forces of Genghis Khan, Hitler told Croatian military leader Slavko Kvaternik that the "Mongolian race" threatened Europe. Following the invasion, Wehrmacht officers told their soldiers to target people who were described as "Jewish Bolshevik subhumans", the "Mongol hordes", the "Asiatic flood", the "Red beast". Nazi propaganda portrayed the war against the Soviet Union as both an ideological war between German National Socialism and Jewish Bolshevism and a racial war between the Germans and the Jewish and Slavic Untermenschen. An'order from the Führer' stated that the Einsatzgruppen were to execute all Soviet functionaries who were "less valuable Asiatics and Jews". Six months into the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Einsatzgruppen had murdered in excess of 500,000 Soviet Jews, a figure greater than the number of Red Army soldiers killed in combat during that same time frame.
German army command
Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp
The Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp is an American aircraft engine used in the 1930s and 1940s. Produced by Pratt & Whitney, it is a two-row, 14-cylinder, air-cooled radial design with seven cylinders on a row, it displaces 1,830 cu in and its bore and stroke are both 5.5 in. A total of 173,618 R-1830 engines were built, from their use in two of the most-produced aircraft built, the four-engined B-24 heavy bomber and twin-engined DC-3 transport, more Twin Wasps may have been built than any other aviation piston engine in history. A "bored-out" version with a higher power rating and other slight changes in detail design was produced as the R-2000. Retired today, it is still used on Douglas DC-3 and various museum aircraft and warbirds seen at airshows, it is not manufactured anymore, but spares are still available and there exists a wide market for second-hand engines and parts. R-1830-1: 800 hp R-1830-9: 850 hp, 950 hp R-1830-11: 800 hp R-1830-13: 900 hp, 950 hp, 1,050 hp R-1830-17: 1,200 hp R-1830-21: 1,200 hp R-1830-25: 1,100 hp R-1830-33: 1,200 hp R-1830-35: 1,200 hp Fitted with GE B-2 turbosupercharger R-1830-41: 1,200 hp Fitted with GE B-2 turbosupercharger R-1830-43: 1,200 hp R-1830-45: 1,050 hp R-1830-49: 1,200 hp R-1830-64: 850 hp, 900 hp R-1830-65: 1,200 hp R-1830-66: 1,000 hp, 1,050 hp, 1,200 hp R-1830-72: 1,050 hp R-1830-75: 1,350 hp R-1830-76: 1,200 hp R-1830-82: 1,200 hp R-1830-86: 1,200 hp R-1830-88: 1,200 hp R-1830-90: 1,200 hp R-1830-90-B: 1,200 hp R-1830-92: 1,200 hp R-1830-94: 1,350 hp R-1830-S1C3-G: 1,050 hp, 1,200 hp R-1830-S3C4: 1,200 hp R-1830-S3C4-G: 1,200 hp R-1830-S6C3-G: 1,100 hp R-1830-SC-G: 900 hp R-1830-SC2-G: 900 hp, 1,050 hp R-1830-SC3-G: 1,065 hp same engine built in Sweden as STWC-3G by SFA company for Swedish J-22, B-17 and B-18.
Bristol Beaufort Bloch MB.176 Boeing XB-15 Budd RB Conestoga Burnelli CBY-3 CAC Boomerang CAC Woomera Consolidated B-24 Liberator Consolidated PBY Catalina Consolidated PB2Y Coronado Consolidated PB4Y Privateer Curtiss P-36 Hawk Douglas C-47 Skytrain Douglas DC-3 Douglas DB-7 Douglas TBD Devastator FFVS J 22 Grumman F4F Wildcat I. Ae. 24 Calquin Laird-Turner Meteor LTR-14 Lioré et Olivier LeO 453 Lisunov Li-3 - A Yugoslav version of the Soviet Lisunov Li-2 Martin Maryland Restored Mitsubishi A6M Zero warbird aircraft Republic P-43 Lancer Saab 17 Saab 18 Short Sunderland V Seversky P-35 Vickers Wellington IV VL Myrsky Vultee P-66 Vanguard Model R-1830-92 displayed at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC Model R-1830-86 on display at the New England Air Museum, Bradley International Airport, Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Model R-1830 on display at the Northeast Classic Car Museum in Norwich, New York Model R-1830 on display at the Dutch aviation museum Aviodrome Model R-1830 cut-away display at Airbase Arizona Museum in Mesa, Arizona Model R-1830/65 on display at the Museo Nacional de Aeronautica, Buenos Aires, Argentina Data from Type: Fourteen-cylinder two-row supercharged air-cooled radial engine Bore: 5.5 in Stroke: 5.5 in Displacement: 1,829.4 in³ Length: 59.06 in Diameter: 48.03 in Dry weight: 1,250 lb Valvetrain: Two overhead valves per cylinder Supercharger: Single-speed General Electric centrifugal type supercharger, 1:7.15 speed increase Fuel system: Two-barrel Stromberg carburetor Fuel type: 95-100 octane rating gasoline Cooling system: Air-cooled Reduction gear: Epicyclic gearing, 2:3 Power output: 1,200 hp at 2,700 rpm for takeoff 700 hp at 2,325 rpm cruise power at 13,120 ft Specific power: 0.66 hp/in³ Compression ratio: 6.7:1 Specific fuel consumption: 0.49 lb/ Power-to-weight ratio: 0.96 hp/lb Related development Pratt & Whitney Wasp series Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp Pratt & Whitney R-1535 Twin Wasp Junior Pratt & Whitney R-2000 Twin Wasp Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major Comparable engines BMW 801 Bristol Taurus Fiat A.74 Gnome-Rhône 14N Mitsubishi Kinsei Nakajima Sakae Piaggio P.
XI Piaggio P. XIX Shvetsov ASh-82 Tumansky M-88 Wright R-1820Related lists List of aircraft engines Angelucci, Enzo. Complete Book of World War II Combat Aircraft. VMB Publishers. ISBN 978-88-540-0829-8. Bridgman, Leonard, ed. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1951–1952. London: Samson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd 1951. Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines: From the Pioneers to the Present Day. 5th edition, Stroud, UK: Sutton, 2006. ISBN 0-7509-4479-X White, Graham. Allied Aircraft Piston Engines of World War II: History and Development of Frontline Aircraft Piston Engines Produced by Great Britain and the United States During World War II. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: SAE International, 1995. ISBN 1-56091-655-9 Pratt & Whitney's R-1830 page List of R-1830 Variants