Peterborough is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, with a population of 196,640 in 2015. Part of Northamptonshire, it is 75 miles north of London, on the River Nene which flows into the North Sea 30 miles to the north-east; the railway station is an important stop on the East Coast Main Line between Edinburgh. The city is 70 miles east of Birmingham, 38 miles east of Leicester, 81 miles south of Kingston upon Hull and 65 miles west of Norwich; the local topography is flat, in some places the land lies below sea level, for example in parts of the Fens to the east of Peterborough. Human settlement in the area began before the Bronze Age, as can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the current city centre with evidence of Roman occupation; the Anglo-Saxon period saw the establishment of a monastery, which became Peterborough Cathedral. The population grew after the railways arrived in the 19th century, Peterborough became an industrial centre noted for its brick manufacture.
After the Second World War, growth was limited until designation as a New Town in the 1960s. Housing and population are expanding and a £1 billion regeneration of the city centre and surrounding area is under way; as in much of the United Kingdom, industrial employment has fallen, with a significant proportion of new jobs in financial services and distribution. EtymologyThe town's name changed to Burgh from the late tenth century after Abbot Kenulf had built a defensive wall around the abbey, developed into the form Peterborough; the contrasting form Gildenburgh is found in the 12th century history of the abbey, the Peterborough version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and in a history of the abbey by the monk Hugh Candidus. Present-day Peterborough is the latest in a series of settlements which have at one time or other benefited from its site where the Nene leaves large areas of permanently drained land for the fens. Remains of Bronze Age settlement and what is thought to be religious activity can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the city centre.
The Romans established a fortified garrison town at Durobrivae on Ermine Street, five miles to the west in Water Newton, around the middle of the 1st century AD. Durobrivae's earliest appearance among surviving records is in the Antonine Itinerary of the late 2nd century. There was a large 1st century Roman fort at Longthorpe, designed to house half a legion, or about 3,000 soldiers. Peterborough was an important area of ceramic production in the Roman period, providing Nene Valley Ware, traded as far away as Cornwall and the Antonine Wall, Caledonia. Peterborough is shown by its original name Medeshamstede to have been an Anglian settlement before AD 655, when Sexwulf founded a monastery on land granted to him for that purpose by Peada of Mercia, who converted to Christianity and was ruler of the smaller Middle Angles sub-group, his brother Wulfhere murdered his own sons converted and finished the monastery by way of atonement. Hereward the Wake rampaged through the town in 1069 or 1070. Outraged, Abbot Turold erected a fort or castle, from his name, was called Mont Turold: this mound, or hill, is on the outside of the deanery garden, now called Tout Hill, although in 1848 Tot-hill or Toot Hill.
The abbey church was rebuilt and enlarged in the 12th century. The Peterborough Chronicle, a version of the Anglo-Saxon one, contains unique information about the history of England after the Norman conquest, written here by monks in the 12th century; this is the only known prose history in English between the conquest and the 14th century. The burgesses received their first charter from "Abbot Robert" – Robert of Sutton; the place suffered materially in the war between King John and the confederate barons, many of whom took refuge in the monastery here and in Crowland Abbey, from which sanctuaries they were forced by the king's soldiers, who plundered the religious houses and carried off great treasures. The abbey church became one of Henry VIII's retained, more secular, cathedrals in 1541, having been assessed at the Dissolution as having revenue of £1,972.7s.0¾d per annum. When civil war broke out, Peterborough was divided between supporters of King Charles I and the Long Parliament; the city lay on the border of the Eastern Association of counties which sided with Parliament, the war reached Peterborough in 1643 when soldiers arrived in the city to attack Royalist strongholds at Stamford and Crowland.
The Royalist forces were defeated within a few weeks and retreated to Burghley House, where they were captured and sent to Cambridge. While the Parliamentary soldiers were in Peterborough, they ransacked the cathedral, destroying the Lady Chapel, chapter house, high altar and choir stalls, as well as mediaeval decoration and records. Housing and sanitary improvements were effected under the provisions of an Act of Parliament passed in 1790. After the dissolution the dean and chapter, who succeeded the abbot as lords of the manor, appointed a high bailiff and the constables and other borough officers were elected at their court leet. Among the privileges claimed by the abbot as early as the 13th century was that of ha
Cereals Event is the UK’s largest arable farming event which takes place each year. The event attracts around 470 exhibitors and around 27,000 visitors and features 64ha of working demonstrations of agricultural equipment, business advice and specialist services, covering the entire arable industry and renewable energy. Cereals was launched in 1979 and has grown since. Cereals 2012 took place at Boothby Graffoe, Lincolnshire on 14 June; the 2013 Cereals Event took place on 13 June at Boothby Graffoe, Lincolnshire. Official website A short video production by http://www.talkthetalk.tv about the Cereals Event
Farmers Guardian is a weekly newspaper aimed at the British farming industry. It provides comprehensive and topical news with Livestock and Machinery sections, it is published each Friday. Based in Preston, Lancashire, it was for many years owned by United Business Media but it, sister title Pulse, were sold to UK business-to-business publisher AgriBriefing in February 2012 in a deal worth £10 million. Related products in include: Dairy Farmer, Arable Farming and the website www.fginsight.com. The website was launched in February 2015, includes sections on news, arable and machinery; the newspaper started life on 10 February 1844, priced 4½d, as the Preston Guardian, was founded by Joseph Livesey, the "father" of the total abstinence movement in Britain to support the campaign for the repeal of the Corn Laws. He was assisted by his sons: William, as manager of the business department. Livesey Snr was, the overall superintendent and wrote the leaders for local news items; the success of the newspaper can be attested by a remark of Richard Cobden: I never remember a case of a local newspaper succeeding as this has done in so short a time and subject to the same competition.
The paper lasted for 15 years under the Livesey's management, until 1859. By it had become a valuable commodity and was sold to local businessman and fellow teetotaller, Councillor George Toulmin JP, who owned the paper until 1883. Thomas Wemyss Reid was an editor from 1864-1866. In 1872, a new office building was completed in Fishergate and the paper moved into the ground floor; the paper lasted under its original name until May 1958 and continued to the present day as the Farmers Guardian. John Boyle O'Reilly, a future Irish poet and activist in the United States, worked as an apprentice at the Preston Guardian in the early 1860s. Farmers Guardian Official website Pulse
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
An anti-roll bar is a part of many automobile suspensions that helps reduce the body roll of a vehicle during fast cornering or over road irregularities. It connects opposite wheels together through short lever arms linked by a torsion spring. A sway bar increases the suspension's roll stiffness—its resistance to roll in turns, independent of its spring rate in the vertical direction; the first stabilizer bar patent was awarded to Canadian inventor Stephen Coleman of Fredericton, New Brunswick on April 22, 1919. Anti-roll bars were unusual on pre-war cars due to the much stiffer suspension and acceptance of body roll. From the 1950s on, production cars were more fitted with anti-roll bars those vehicles with softer coil spring suspension. An anti-sway or anti-roll bar is intended to force each side of the vehicle to lower, or rise, to similar heights, to reduce the sideways tilting of the vehicle on curves, sharp corners, or large bumps. With the bar removed, a vehicle's wheels can tilt away by much larger distances.
Although there are many variations in design, a common function is to force the opposite wheel's shock absorber, spring or suspension rod to lower, or rise, to a similar level as the other wheel. In a fast turn, a vehicle tends to drop closer onto the outer wheels, the sway bar soon forces the opposite wheel to get closer to the vehicle; as a result, the vehicle tends to "hug" the road closer in a fast turn, where all wheels are closer to the body. After the fast turn the downward pressure is reduced, the paired wheels can return to their normal height against the vehicle, kept at similar levels by the connecting sway bar; because each pair of wheels is cross-connected by a bar, the combined operation causes all wheels to offset the separate tilting of the others and the vehicle tends to remain level against the general slope of the terrain. A sway bar is a torsion spring that resists body roll motions, it is constructed out of a cylindrical steel bar, formed into a "U" shape, that connects to the body at two points, at the left and right sides of the suspension.
If the left and right wheels move together, the bar rotates about its mounting points. If the wheels move relative to each other, the bar is forced to twist; each end of the bar is connected to an end link through a flexible joint. The sway bar end link connects in turn to a spot near a wheel or axle, transferring forces from a loaded axle to the opposite side. Forces are therefore transferred: from the loaded axle to the connected end link via a bushing to the anti-sway bar via a flexible joint to the connected end link on the opposite side of the vehicle to the opposite axle; the bar resists the torsion through its stiffness. The stiffness of an anti-roll bar is proportional to the stiffness of the material, the fourth power of its radius, the inverse of the length of the lever arms. Stiffness is related to the geometry of the mounting points and the rigidity of the bar's mounting points; the stiffer the bar, the more force required to move the left and right wheels relative to each other. This increases the amount of force required to make the body roll.
In a turn the sprung mass of the vehicle's body produces a lateral force at the centre of gravity, proportional to lateral acceleration. Because the CG is not on the roll axis, the lateral force creates a moment about the roll axis that tends to roll the body.. The moment is called the roll couple. Roll couple is resisted by the suspension roll stiffness, a function of the spring rate of the vehicle's springs and of the anti-roll bars, if any; the use of anti-roll bars allows designers to reduce roll without making the suspension's springs stiffer in the vertical plane, which allows improved body control with less compromise of ride quality. One effect of body lean, for typical suspension geometry, is positive camber of the wheels on the outside of the turn and negative on the inside, which reduces their cornering grip. Anti-roll bars provide two main functions; the first function is the reduction of body lean. The reduction of body lean is dependent on the total roll stiffness of the vehicle.
Increasing the total roll stiffness of a vehicle does not change the steady state total load transfer from the inside wheels to the outside wheels, it only reduces body lean. The total lateral load transfer is determined by the CG track width; the other function of anti-roll bars is to tune the handling balance of a car. Understeer or oversteer behavior can be tuned out by changing the proportion of the total roll stiffness that comes from the front and rear axles. Increasing the proportion of roll stiffness at the front increases the proportion of the total load transfer that the front axle reacts to—and decreases the proportion that the rear axle reacts to. In general, this makes the outer front wheel run at a comparatively higher slip angle, the outer rear wheel to run at a comparatively lower slip angle, an understeer effect. Increasing the proportion of roll stiffness at the rear axle has the opposite effect and decreases understeer; because an anti-roll bar connects wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle, the bar transmits the force of a bump on one wheel to the opposite wheel.
On rough or broken pavement, anti-roll bars can produce jarring, side-to-side body motions, which increase in severity with the diameter and stiffness of the sway bars. Other suspension techniques can
Air suspension is a type of vehicle suspension powered by an electric or engine-driven air pump or compressor. This compressor pumps the air into a flexible bellows made from textile-reinforced rubber; the air pressure inflates the bellows, raises the chassis from the axle. Air suspension is used in place of conventional steel springs in heavy vehicle applications such as buses and trucks, in some passenger cars, it is used on semi trailers and trains. The purpose of air suspension is to provide a smooth, constant ride quality, but in some cases is used for sports suspension. Modern electronically controlled systems in automobiles and light trucks always feature self-leveling along with raising and lowering functions. Although traditionally called air bags or air bellows, the correct term is air spring. In 1901 an American, William W. Humphreys, patented an idea - a'Pneumatic Spring for Vehicles'; the design consisted of a left and right air spring longitudinally channeled nearly the length of the vehicle.
The channels were concaved to receive two long pneumatic cushions. Each one was provided with an air valve at the other end. From 1920, Frenchman George Messier provided aftermarket pneumatic suspension systems, his own 1922-1930 Messier automobiles featured a suspension "to hold the car aloft on four gas bubbles."During World War II, the U. S. developed the air suspension for heavy aircraft in order to save weight with compact construction. Air systems were used in heavy trucks and aircraft to attain self-levelling suspension. With adjustable air pressure, the axle height was independent of vehicle load. In 1946, American William Bushnell Stout built a non-production prototype Stout Scarab that featured numerous innovations, including a four-wheel independent air suspension system. In 1950, Air Lift Company patented a rubber air spring, inserted into a car's factory coil spring; the air spring expanded into the spaces in the coil spring, keeping the factory spring from compressing, the vehicle from sagging.
In 1954, Frenchman Paul Magès developed a functioning air/oil hydropneumatic suspension, incorporating the advantages of earlier air suspension concepts. Citroën replaced the conventional steel springs on the rear axle of their top-of-range model, the Traction Avant 15 Hydraulique. In 1955, the Citroën DS incorporated four wheel hydropneumatic suspension; this combined a soft, comfortable suspension, with controlled movements, for sharp handling, together with a self-levelling suspension. In 1956 air suspension was used on EMD's experimental Aerotrain. In the U. S. General Motors built on its World War II experience with air suspension for airplanes, it introduced air suspension as standard equipment on the new 1957 Cadillac Eldorado Brougham. An "Air Dome" assembly at each wheel included sensors to compensate for uneven road surfaces and to automatically maintain the car's height. For 1958 and 1959, the system continued on the Eldorado Brougham, was offered as an extra cost option on other Cadillacs.
In 1958, Buick introduced an optional "Air-Poised Suspension" with four cylinders of air for automatic leveling, as well as a "Bootstrap" control on the dashboard to raise the car 5.5 inches for use on steep ramps or rutted country roads, as well as for facilitating tire changes or to clean the whitewall tires. For 1959, Buick offered an optional "Air Ride" system on all models that combined "soft-rate" steel coil springs in the front with air springs in the rear. An optional air suspension system was available on the 1958 and 1959 Rambler Ambassadors, as well as on all American Motors "Cross Country" station wagon models; the "Air-Coil Ride" utilized an engine-driven compressor, air bags within the coil springs, a ride-height control, but the $99 optional system was not popular among buyers and American Motors discontinued it for 1960. Only Cadillac continued to offer air suspension through the 1960 model year, where it was standard equipment on the Eldorado Seville and Brougham. In 1960, the Borgward P 100 was the first German car with self-levelling air suspension.
In 1962, the Mercedes-Benz W112 platform featured an air suspension on the 300SE models. The system used a Bosch main valve with two axle valves on one on the rear; these controlled a cone-shaped air spring on each wheel axle. The system maintained a constant ride height utilizing an air reservoir, filled by a single-cylinder air compressor powered by the engine. In 1964, the Mercedes-Benz 600 used larger air springs and the compressed air system powered the brake servo. Rolls-Royce incorporated self-levelling suspension on the 1965 Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow, a system built under license from Citroën. In 1975, the Mercedes-Benz 450SEL 6.9 incorporated a hydropneumatic suspension when the patents on the technology had expired. This design replaced the expensive and problematic compressed air system, still used on the 600 models until 1984. Air suspension was not included in standard production American-built cars between 1960 and 1983. In 1984, Ford Motor Company incorporated a new design as a feature on the Lincoln Continental Mark VII.
In 1986, Toyota Soarer introduced the first electronically controlled, a semi-active full air suspension. Dunlop Systems Coventry UK were pioneers of Elecronically Controlled Air Suspension for off-road vehicles - the term ECAS was trade marked; the system was first fitted to the 93MY Land Rover Range Rover. In 1989, Arnott Air Suspension Products is founded, eventuall
Agricultural machinery is machinery used in farming or other agriculture. There are many types of such equipment, from hand tools and power tools to tractors and the countless kinds of farm implements that they tow or operate. Diverse arrays of equipment are used in both nonorganic farming. Since the advent of mechanised agriculture, agricultural machinery is an indispensable part of how the world is fed. With the coming of the Industrial Revolution and the development of more complicated machines, farming methods took a great leap forward. Instead of harvesting grain by hand with a sharp blade, wheeled machines cut a continuous swath. Instead of threshing the grain by beating it with sticks, threshing machines separated the seeds from the heads and stalks; the first tractors appeared in the late 19th century. Power for agricultural machinery was supplied by ox or other domesticated animals. With the invention of steam power came the portable engine, the traction engine, a multipurpose, mobile energy source, the ground-crawling cousin to the steam locomotive.
Agricultural steam engines took over the heavy pulling work of oxen, were equipped with a pulley that could power stationary machines via the use of a long belt. The steam-powered machines were low-powered by today's standards but, because of their size and their low gear ratios, they could provide a large drawbar pull, their slow speed led farmers to comment that tractors had two speeds: "slow, damn slow." The internal combustion engine. These engines contributed to the development of the self-propelled, combined harvester and thresher, or combine harvester. Instead of cutting the grain stalks and transporting them to a stationary threshing machine, these combines cut and separated the grain while moving continuously through the field. Combines might have taken the harvesting job away from tractors, but tractors still do the majority of work on a modern farm, they are used to push/pull implements—machines that till the ground, plant seed, perform other tasks. Tillage implements prepare the soil for planting by loosening the soil and killing weeds or competing plants.
The best-known is the plow, the ancient implement, upgraded in 1838 by John Deere. Plows are now used less in the U. S. than with offset disks used instead to turn over the soil, chisels used to gain the depth needed to retain moisture. The most common type of seeder is called a planter, spaces seeds out in long rows, which are two to three feet apart; some crops are planted by drills, which put out much more seed in rows less than a foot apart, blanketing the field with crops. Transplanters automate the task of transplanting seedlings to the field. With the widespread use of plastic mulch, plastic mulch layers and seeders lay down long rows of plastic, plant through them automatically. After planting, other implements can be used to cultivate weeds from between rows, or to spread fertilizer and pesticides. Hay balers can be used to package grass or alfalfa into a storable form for the winter months. Modern irrigation relies on machinery. Engines and other specialized gear provide water and in high volumes to large areas of land.
Similar types of equipment can be used to deliver pesticides. Besides the tractor, other vehicles have been adapted for use in farming, including trucks and helicopters, such as for transporting crops and making equipment mobile, to aerial spraying and livestock herd management; the basic technology of agricultural machines has changed little in the last century. Though modern harvesters and planters may do a better job or be tweaked from their predecessors, the US$250,000 combine of today still cuts and separates grain in the same way it has always been done. However, technology is changing the way that humans operate the machines, as computer monitoring systems, GPS locators, self-steer programs allow the most advanced tractors and implements to be more precise and less wasteful in the use of fuel, seed, or fertilizer. In the foreseeable future, there may be mass production of driverless tractors, which use GPS maps and electronic sensors. Many farmers are upset by their inability to fix the new types of high-tech farm equipment.
This is due to companies using intellectual property law to prevent farmers from having the legal right to fix their equipment. In October 2015 an exemption was added to the DMCA to allow inspection and modification of the software in cars and other vehicles including agricultural machinery. List of agricultural machinery Mechanised agriculture Agricultural robot AGCO ARGO SpA Art's Way Claas CNH Industrial Mahindra & Mahindra Minsk Tractor Works SDF Group JCB Mirrlees Blackstone Industry of Machinery and Tractors IMT Kubota John Deere Rostselmash Hay Harvesting in the 1940s instructional films, Center for Digital Initiatives, University of Vermont Library Worldwide Agricultural Machinery and Farm Equipment Directory Economic Situation of the agricultural machinery sector - VDMA Report