Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. Genre is most popularly known as a category of literature, music, or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, communicative, or functional. Genres form by conventions that change over time as cultures invent new genres and discontinue the use of old ones. Works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand-alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, but genres are amalgams of these texts based on agreed-upon or inferred conventions; some genres may have rigid adhered-to guidelines, while others may show great flexibility. Genre began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature. Poetry and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story. Speech patterns for comedy would not be appropriate for tragedy, actors were restricted to their genre under the assumption that a type of person could tell one type of story best.
In periods genres proliferated and developed in response to changes in audiences and creators. Genre became a dynamic tool to help the public make sense out of unpredictable art; because art is a response to a social state, in that people write/paint/sing/dance about what they know about, the use of genre as a tool must be able to adapt to changing meanings. Genre suffers from the ills of any classification system, it has been suggested that genres resonate with people because of the familiarity, the shorthand communication, as well as because of the tendency of genres to shift with public mores and to reflect the zeitgeist. While the genre of storytelling has been relegated as lesser form of art because of the borrowed nature of the conventions, admiration has grown. Proponents argue that the genius of an effective genre piece is in the variation and evolution of the codes; the term genre is much used in the history and criticism of visual art, but in art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly.
Genre painting is a term for paintings where the main subject features human figures to whom no specific identity attaches – in other words, figures are not portraits, characters from a story, or allegorical personifications. These are distinguished from staffage: incidental figures in what is a landscape or architectural painting. Genre painting may be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, marine paintings and animal paintings; the concept of the "hierarchy of genres" was a powerful one in artistic theory between the 17th and 19th centuries. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a central role in academic art; the genres in hierarchical order are: History painting, including narrative religious mythological and allegorical subjects Portrait painting Genre painting or scenes of everyday life Landscape and cityscape Animal painting Still life A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
Genres may be determined by literary technique, content, or length. Genre should not be confused with age category, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult, or children's, they must not be confused with format, such as graphic novel or picture book. The distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined with subgroups; the most general genres in literature are epic, comedy and short story. They can all be in the genres poetry, which shows best how loosely genres are defined. Additionally, a genre such as satire might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre but as a mixture of genres, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. In popular fiction, divided by genres, genre fiction is the more usual term. In literature, genre has been known as an intangible taxonomy; this taxonomy implies a concept of containment. The earliest recorded systems of genre in Western history can be traced back to Aristotle.
Gérard Genette, a French literary theorist and author of The Architext, describes Plato as creating three Imitational genres: dramatic dialogue, pure narrative, epic. Lyric poetry, the fourth and final type of Greek literature, was excluded by Plato as a non-mimetic mode. Aristotle revised Plato's system by eliminating the pure narrative as a viable mode and distinguishing by two additional criteria: the object to be imitated, as objects could be either superior or inferior, the medium of presentation such as words, gestures or verse; the three categories of mode and medium can be visualized along an XYZ axis. Excluding the criteria of medium, Aristotle's system distinguished four types of classical genres: tragedy, epic and parody. Genette continues by explaining the integration of lyric poetry into the classical system during the romantic period, replacing the now removed pure narrative mode. Lyric poetry, once considered non-mimetic, was deemed to imi
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus; the earliest known form of printing as applied to paper was woodblock printing, which appeared in China before 220 AD. Developments in printing technology include the movable type invented by Bi Sheng around 1040 AD and the printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century; the technology of printing played a key role in the development of the Renaissance and the scientific revolution, laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns, used throughout East Asia, it originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220 A.
D. The earliest surviving woodblock printed fragments are from China, they are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty. They are the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper and appeared in the mid-seventh century in China. By the ninth century, printing on paper had taken off, the first extant complete printed book containing its date is the Diamond Sutra of 868. By the tenth century, 400,000 copies of some sutras and pictures were printed, the Confucian classics were in print. A skilled printer could print up to 2,000 double-page sheets per day. Printing spread early to Korea and Japan, which used Chinese logograms, but the technique was used in Turpan and Vietnam using a number of other scripts; this technique spread to Persia and Russia. This technique was transmitted to Europe via the Islamic world, by around 1400 was being used on paper for old master prints and playing cards. However, Arabs never used this to print the Quran because of the limits imposed by Islamic doctrine.
Block printing, called tarsh in Arabic, developed in Arabic Egypt during the ninth and tenth centuries for prayers and amulets. There is some evidence to suggest that these print blocks made from non-wood materials tin, lead, or clay; the techniques employed are uncertain and they appear to have had little influence outside of the Muslim world. Though Europe adopted woodblock printing from the Muslim world for fabric, the technique of metal block printing remained unknown in Europe. Block printing went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China. Block printing first came to Europe as a method for printing on cloth, where it was common by 1300. Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could elaborate; when paper became easily available, around 1400, the technique transferred quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper. These prints produced in large numbers from about 1425 onward. Around the mid-fifteenth-century, block-books, woodcut books with both text and images carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type.
These were all short illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. There is still some controversy among scholars as to whether their introduction preceded or, the majority view, followed the introduction of movable type, with the range of estimated dates being between about 1440 and 1460. Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. Movable type allowed for much more flexible processes than block printing. Around 1040, the first known movable type system was created in China by Bi Sheng out of porcelain. Bi Sheng used clay type, which broke but Wang Zhen by 1298 had carved a more durable type from wood, he developed a complex system of revolving tables and number-association with written Chinese characters that made typesetting and printing more efficient. Still, the main method in use there remained woodblock printing, which "proved to be cheaper and more efficient for printing Chinese, with its thousands of characters".
Copper movable type printing originated in China at the beginning of the 12th century. It was used in large-scale printing of paper money issued by the Northern Song dynasty. Movable type spread to Korea during the Goryeo dynasty. Around 1230, Koreans invented a metal type movable printing using bronze; the Jikji, published in 1377, is the earliest known metal printed book. Type-casting was adapted from the method of casting coins; the character was cut in beech wood, pressed into a soft clay to form a mould, bronze poured into the mould, the type was polished. The Korean form of metal movable type was described by the French scholar Henri-Jean Martin as "extremely similar to Gutenberg's". Eastern metal movable type was spread to Europe between the late 14th century and the early 15th century. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg introduced the first movable type printing system in Europe, he advanced innovations in casting type based on a matrix and hand mould, adaptations to the screw-press, the use of an oil-based ink, the creation of a softer and more absorbent paper.
Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, antimony and bismuth – the same components still used today. Johannes Gutenberg started work on his printing press around 1436, in partnership with Andreas Dritzeh
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Book design is the art of incorporating the content, format and sequence of the various components and elements of a book into a coherent unit. In the words of the renowned typographer Jan Tschichold, book design, "though forgotten today and rules upon which it is impossible to improve, have been developed over centuries. To produce perfect books, these rules have to be brought back to life and applied". Richard Hendel describes book design as "an arcane subject", refers to the need for a context to understand what that means. Modern books are paginated consecutively, all pages are counted in the pagination whether or not the numbers appear; the page number, or folio, is most found at the top of the page, flush left verso, flush right recto. The folio may be printed at the bottom of the page, in that location it is called a drop folio. Drop folios appear either centered on each page or flush left verso and flush right recto. Front matter comprises the first section of a book, is the smallest section in terms of the number of pages.
Front-matter pages are traditionally numbered in lower-case Roman numerals, which prevents renumbering the remainder of a book when front-matter content is added at the last moment, such as a dedication page or additional acknowledgments. Page number is omitted on blank pages and display pages, it is either omitted or a drop folio is used on the opening page of each section of the front matter. Front matter appears only in the first of a multi-volume work, although some elements may appear in each volume; the following table defines some common types of front matter, the "voice" in which each can be said to be given: The structure of a work—and of its body matter—is described hierarchically. Volumes A volume is a set of leaves bound together, thus each work is divided into volumes. Books and parts Single-volume works account for most of the non-academic consumer market in books. A single volume may embody either the whole of a book. Chapters and sections A chapter or section may be contained within a book.
When both chapters and sections are used in the same work, the sections are more contained within chapters than the reverse. Modules and units In some books the chapters are grouped into bigger parts, sometimes called modules; the numbering of the chapters can begin again at the start of every module. In educational books the chapters are called units; the first page of the actual text of a book is the opening page, which incorporates special design features, such as initials. Arabic numbering starts at this first page. If the text is introduced by a second half title or opens with a part title, the half title or part title counts as page one; as in the front matter, page numbers are omitted on blank pages, are either omitted or a drop folio is used on the opening page of each part and chapter. On pages containing only illustrations or tables, page numbers are omitted, except in the case of a long sequence of figures or tables; the following are two instructive examples: The Lord of the Rings has three parts, with each part containing two books, each containing, in turn, multiple chapters.
The Christian Bible comprises two "testaments". In turn, each book contains multiple chapters, which are traditionally divided into "verses" each containing one independent clause; the back matter known as end matter, if used consists of one or more of the following components: Arabic numbering continues for the back matter. The front cover is the front of the book, is marked appropriately by text or graphics in order to identify it as such; the front cover contains at least the title or author, with an appropriate illustration. On the inside of the cover page, extending to the facing page is the front endpaper sometimes referred as FEP; the free half of the end paper is called a flyleaf. Traditionally, in hand-bound books, the endpaper was just a sheet of blank or ornamented paper physically masking and reinforcing the connection between the cover and the body of the book. In modern publishing it can be either plain, as in many text-oriented books, or variously ornamented and illustrated in books such as picture books, other children's literature, some arts and craft and hobbyist books, novelty/gift-market and coffee table books, graphic novels.
These books have an audience and traditions of their own where the graphic design and immediacy is important and publishing tradition and formality are less important. The spine is the vertical edge of a book as it stands on a bookshelf, it is customary for it to have printed text on it. In texts published or printed in the United States and the United Kingdom, the spine text, when vertical, runs from the top to the bottom, such that it is right side up when the book is lying flat with the front cover on top. In books from continental Europe, vertical spine text traditionally runs from the bottom up, th
Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. Alternative methods of binding that are cheaper but less permanent include loose-leaf rings, individual screw posts or binding posts, twin loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, plastic spine combs. For protection, the bound stack is either attached to stiff boards. An attractive cover is adhered to the boards, including identifying information and decoration. Book artists or specialists in book decoration can greatly enhance a book's content by creating book-like objects with artistic merit of exceptional quality. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions. First, there was Stationery binding that deals with books intended for handwritten entries such as accounting ledgers, business journals, blank books, guest log books, along with other general office stationery such as note books, manifold books, day books, portfolios, etc.
Computers have now replaced the pen and paper based accounting that constituted most of the stationery binding industry. Second was Letterpress binding which deals with making books intended for reading, including library binding, fine binding, edition binding, publisher's bindings. A third division deals with the repair and conservation of old used bindings. Today, modern bookbinding is divided between hand binding by individual craftsmen working in a shop and commercial bindings mass-produced by high-speed machines in a factory. There is a broad grey area between the two divisions; the size and complexity of a bindery shop varies with job types, for example, from one-of-a-kind custom jobs, to repair/restoration work, to library rebinding, to preservation binding, to small edition binding, to extra binding, to large-run publisher's binding. There are cases where binding jobs are combined in one shop. For the largest numbers of copies, commercial binding is effected by production runs of ten thousand copies or more in a factory.
Bookbinding is a specialized trade that relies on basic operations of measuring and gluing. A finished book might need dozens of operations to complete, according to the specific style and materials. Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, graphic arts, it requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with all the internal and external details of assembly. A working knowledge of the materials involved is required. A book craftsman needs a minimum set of hand tools but with experience will find an extensive collection of secondary hand tools and items of heavy equipment that are valuable for greater speed and efficiency. Bookbinding is an artistic craft of great antiquity, at the same time, a mechanized industry; the division between craft and industry is not so wide. It is interesting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder.
The first problem is still. The craft of bookbinding originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves with a metal stylus; the leaf was dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book; when the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the idea through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC. Similar techniques can be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex. Writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls. Court records and notes were written on wax tablets, while important documents were written on papyrus or parchment; the modern English word book comes from the Proto-Germanic *bokiz, referring to the beechwood on which early written works were recorded.
The book was not needed in ancient times, as many early Greek texts—scrolls—were 30 pages long, which were customarily folded accordion-fashion to fit into the hand. Roman works were longer, running to hundreds of pages; the Greeks used to call their books tome, meaning "to cut". The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a massive 200 pages long and was used in funerary services for the deceased. Torah scrolls, editions of the Jewish holy book, were—and still are—also held in special holders when read. Scrolls can be rolled in one of two ways; the first method is to wrap the scroll around a single core, similar to a modern roll of paper towels. While simple to construct, a single core scroll has a major disadvantage: in order to read text at the end of the scroll, the entire scroll must be unwound; this is overcome in the second method, to wrap the scroll around two cores, as in a Torah. With a double scroll, the text can be accessed from both beginning and end, th
Franz Kafka Prize
The Franz Kafka Prize is an international literary award presented in honour of Franz Kafka, the German language novelist. The prize was first awarded in 2001 and is co-sponsored by the Franz Kafka Society and the city of Prague, Czech Republic. At a presentation held annually in the Old Town Hall, the recipient receives $10,000, a diploma, a bronze statuette; each award is called the "Kafka Prize" or "Kafka Award". The award earned some prestige in the mid 2000s by foreshadowing the Nobel Prize when two of its winners went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature the same year, Elfriede Jelinek and Harold Pinter; the criteria for winning the award include the artwork's "humanistic character and contribution to cultural, national and religious tolerance, its existential, timeless character, its human validity and its ability to hand over a testimony about our times." Previous winners. List of literary awards List of Czech literary awards Official website
A bookmark is a thin marker made of card, leather, or fabric, used to keep the reader's place in a book and to enable the reader to return to it with ease. Other used materials for bookmarks are paper, metals like silver and brass, wood and plastic. Many bookmarks can be clipped on a page with the aid of a page-flap. According to new results of the research done on the history of bookmarks, there are indications that bookmarks have accompanied codices since their first emergence in the 1st century AD; the earliest existing bookmark dates from the 6th century AD and it is made of ornamented leather lined with vellum on the back and was attached with a leather strap to the cover of a Coptic codex. It was found near Sakkara, under the ruins of the monastery Apa Jeremiah. Further earliest bookmarks and remnants of them have been found in Coptic codices dating from the 1st to the 11th century and in Carolingian codices from the 8th to the 12th century. Bookmarks were used throughout the medieval period, consisting of a small parchment strip attached to the edge of folio.
As the first printed books were quite rare and valuable, it was determined early on that something was needed to mark one's place in a book without causing its pages any harm. Some of the earliest bookmarks were used at the end of the sixteenth century. Modern bookmarks are available in a huge variety of materials in a multitude of styles. Many are made of cardboard or heavy paper, but they are constructed of paper, fabric, steel, tin, wood, vinyl, silver and other precious metals, some decorated with gemstones; the first detached, therefore collectible, bookmarkers began to appear in the 1850s. One of the first references to these is found in Mary Russell Mitford's Recollections of a Literary Life: "I had no marker and the richly bound volume closed as if instinctively." Note the abbreviation of'bookmarker' to'marker'. The modern abbreviation is usually'bookmark'. Historical bookmarks can be valuable, are sometimes collected along with other paper ephemera. By the 1860s, attractive machine-woven markers were being manufactured in Coventry, the centre of the silk-ribbon industry.
One of the earliest was produced by J.&J. Cash to mark the death of Albert, Prince Consort, in 1861. Thomas Stevens of Coventry soon became pre-eminent in the field and claimed to have nine hundred different designs. Woven pictorial bookmarks produced by Thomas Steven, a 19th-century English silk weaver, starting around 1862, are called Stevengraphs. Woven silk bookmarks were appreciated gifts in the Victorian Era and Stevens seemed to make one for every occasion and celebration. One Stevengraph read: All of the gifts which heaven bestows, there is one above all measure, that's a friend midst all our woes, a friend is a found treasure to thee I give that sacred name, for thou art such to me, proudly will I claim to be a friend to thee. Most 19th-century bookmarks were intended for use in Bibles and prayer books and were made of ribbon, woven silk, or leather. By the 1880s the production of woven silk markers was declining and printed markers made of stiff paper or cardboard began to appear in significant numbers.
This development paralleled the wider availability of books themselves, the range of available bookmarkers soon expanded dramatically. Bookmarks are known to be popular collectibles; as bookmarks are considered by collectors as an advertising art, the main criteria is one's favorite book for choosing which bookmarks to collect. Shapes, materials and publishers can be important factors for bookmark collectors. There are many book collector clubs worldwide. Many members of these clubs are bookmark collectors as well. Online clubs contain catalogs to provide information about bookmarks alongside a photo; these clubs include a forum to assist with discussions among collectors. Bookmark Dog ears Rotating bookmark Earliest History of Bookmarks by Asim Maner World of Bookmarks, Reference site featuring history of bookmarks History of Bookmarks by Lois R. Densky-Wolff. International Friends of Bookmarks, community website with lots of information about bookmarks