A frame story is a literary technique. Sometimes this serves as a companion piece to a story within a story, where an introductory or main narrative is presented, at least in part, for the purpose of setting the stage either for a more emphasized second narrative or for a set of shorter stories; the frame story leads readers from a first story into smaller one within it. The frame story may be used to allow readers to understand a part of the story jump to another part that can now be understood; this is not however, to be mixed up with a narrative character personality change. Some of the earliest known frame stories are those from ancient Egypt, including one found in the Papyrus Westcar, the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, The Eloquent Peasant. Other early examples are from Indian literature, including the Sanskrit epics Mahabharata, Panchatantra, Syntipas's The Seven Wise Masters, the fable collections Hitopadesha and Vikram and The Vampire; this form spread west through the centuries and became popular, giving rise to such classic frame tale collections as the One Thousand and One Nights, The Decameron, Canterbury Tales.
This format had flexibility in that various narrators could retain the stories they liked or understood, while dropping ones they didn't and adding new ones they heard from other places. This occurred with One Thousand and One Nights, where different versions over the centuries have included different stories; the use of a frame story in which a single narrative is set in the context of the telling of a story is a technique with a long history, dating back at least to the beginning section of the Odyssey, in which the narrator Odysseus tells of his wandering in the court of King Alcinous. This literary device acts as a convenient conceit for the organization of a set of smaller narratives, which are either of the devising of the author or taken from a previous stock of popular tales altered by the author for the purpose of the longer narrative. Sometimes a story within the main narrative can be used to sum up or encapsulate some aspect of the framing story, in which case it is referred to in literary criticism by the French term mise en abyme.
A typical example of a frame story is One Thousand and One Nights, in which the character Shahrazad narrates a set of fairy tales to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights. Many of Shahrazad's tales are frame stories, such as Tale of Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Landsman, a collection of adventures related by Sindbad the Seaman to Sindbad the Landsman. Extensive use of this device is found in Ovid's Metamorphoses, where the stories nest several deep, to allow the inclusion of many different tales in one work. Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights uses this literary device to tell the story of Heathcliff and Catherine, along with the subplots, her sister Anne uses this device in her epistolary novel The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. The main heroine's diary is framed by the narrator's story and letters. Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein is another good example of a book with multiple framed narratives. In the book, Robert Walton writes letters to his sister describing the story told to him by Victor Frankenstein.
Frame stories have appeared in other media, such as comic books. Neil Gaiman's comic book series The Sandman featured a story arc called Worlds End which consisted of frame stories, sometimes featured stories within stories within stories. Frame stories are organized as a gathering of people in one place for the exchange of stories; each character tells his or her tale, the frame tale progresses in that manner. Famous frame stories include Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, about a group of pilgrims who tell stories on their journey to Canterbury. Sometimes only one storyteller exists, in this case there might be different levels of distance between the reader and author. In this mode, the frame tale can become more fuzzy. In Washington Irving's Sketch Book, which contains "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle" among others, the conceit is that the author of the book is not Irving, but a certain gentleman named Crayon. Here the frame includes the world of the imagined Crayon, his stories, the possible reader, assumed to play along and "know" who Crayon is.
Donald Westlake's short story "No Story" is a parody of frame stories, in which a series of narrators start to tell stories, each of which contains a narrator who starts to tell a story, culminating in a narrator who announces that there will be no story. It is a frame story without a story to be framed; when there is a single story, the frame story is used for other purposes – chiefly to position the reader's attitude toward the tale. One common one is to draw attention to the narrator's unreliability. By explicitly making the narrator a character within the frame story, the writer distances him or herself from the narrator. In P. G. Wodehouse's stories of Mr Mulliner, Mulliner is made a fly fisherman in order to cast doubt on the outrageous stories he tells; the movie Amadeus is framed as a story an old Antonio Salieri tells to a young priest, because the movie is based more on stories Salieri told about Mozart than on historical fact. Another use is a form of procatalepsis, where the writer puts the readers' possible reactions to the st
In the medieval chanson de geste cycle of the Matter of France, the paladins or Twelve Peers are the twelve foremost knights of Charlemagne's court, comparable to the Knights of the Round Table in Arthurian romance. They represent the valour of Christian chivalry against the Saracen invasion of Europe, their most notable appearance is in The Song of Roland, narrating the heroic death of Roland at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. The historical nucleus of the legendary material of the "Matter of France" cycle is the Umayyad invasion of Gaul and the subsequent conflict between the Frankish Empire and the Emirate of Córdoba in the Marca Hispanica; the term paladin is from Old French from Latin palātīnus, the title given to the closest retainers of the Roman emperors. The earliest recorded instance of the word paladin in the English language dates to 1592, in Delia by Samuel Daniel, it entered English through the Middle French word paladin, which itself derived from the Latin palatinus. A presumtive Old French form *palaisin was loaned into late Middle English as palasin in c.
1400. The word is derived from the Latin palatinus, most through the Old French palatin from the name of Palatine Hill is translated "of the palace" in the Frankish title of Mayor of the Palace. Over time this word came to refer to other high-level officials in the imperial and royal courts; the word palatine, used in various European countries in the medieval and modern eras, has the same derivation. By the 13th century words referring to Charlemagne's peers began appearing in European languages. Modern French has paladin, Spanish has paladino, while German has Paladin. By extension, paladin has come to refer to any chivalrous hero such as King Arthur's Knights of the Round Table. In the Roman imperial period, a palatinus was one of the closest retainers of the emperor, who lived in the imperial residence as part of the emperor's household; the title survived into the medieval period. However, the modern spelling paladin is now reserved for the fictional characters of the chanson de geste, while the conventional English translation of comes palatinus is count palatine.
After the fall of Rome, a new feudal type of title known as palatinus, started developing. The Frankish kings of the Merovingian dynasty employed a high official, the comes palatinus, who at first assisted the king in his judicial duties and at a date discharged many of these himself. Other counts palatine were employed on administrative work. In the Visigothic Kingdom, the Officium Palatinum consisted of a number of men with the title of count that managed the various departments of the royal household; the Comes Cubiculariorum oversaw the chamberlains, the Comes Scanciorun directed the cup-bearers, the Comes Stabulorum directed the equerries in charge of the stables, etc. The Ostrogothic Kingdom maintained palatine counts with titles such as Comes Patrimonium, in charge of the patrimonial or private real estate of the king, others; the system was maintained by the Carolingian sovereigns. A Frankish capitulary of 882 and Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, writing about the same time, testify to the extent to which the judicial work of the Frankish Empire had passed into their hands.
Instead of remaining near the person of the king, some of the counts palatine were sent to various parts of his empire to act as judges and governors, the districts ruled by them being called palatinates. By the High Middle Ages, the title "count" had become common, to the point that both great magnates who ruled regions that were the size of duchies, local castle-lords, might style themselves "count"; as the great magnates began to centralize their power over their local castle-lords, they felt the need to assert the difference between themselves and these minor "counts". Therefore, several of these great magnates began styling themselves "Count Palatine", signifying great counts ruling regions equivalent to duchies, such as the Counts Palatine of Champagne in the 13th century; the Count Palatine of the Rhine served as prince-elector from "time immemorial", noted as such in a papal letter of 1261, confirmed as elector in the Golden Bull of 1356. Palatin was used as a title in the Kingdom of Hungary.
In the French courtly literature of the 12th century, the paladins are the twelve closest companions of Charlemagne, comparable to the role of the Knights of the Round Table in Arthurian romance. The names of the twelve paladins vary from romance to romance, more than twelve are named; the number is popular. Always named among the paladins are Oliver, their greatest moments come in The Song of Roland, which depicts their defense of Charlemagne's army against the Saracens of Al-Andalus, their deaths at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass due to the treachery of Ganelon. The Song of Roland lists the twelve paladins as Roland, Charlemagne's nephew and the chief hero among the paladins. Other characters elsewhere considered part of the twelve appear in the song, such as Archbishop Turpin and Ogier the Dane; the paladins figure into many chansons de geste and
One Thousand and One Nights
One Thousand and One Nights is a collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age. It is known in English as the Arabian Nights, from the first English-language edition, which rendered the title as The Arabian Nights' Entertainment; the work was collected over many centuries by various authors and scholars across West and South Asia and North Africa. Some tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Indian, Greek and Turkish folklore and literature. In particular, many tales were folk stories from the Abbasid and Mamluk eras, while others the frame story, are most drawn from the Pahlavi Persian work Hezār Afsān, which in turn relied on Indian elements. What is common throughout all the editions of the Nights is the initial frame story of the ruler Shahryār and his wife Scheherazade and the framing device incorporated throughout the tales themselves; the stories proceed from this original tale. Some editions contain only a few hundred nights.
The bulk of the text is in prose, although verse is used for songs and riddles and to express heightened emotion. Most of the poems are single quatrains, although some are longer; some of the stories associated with The Nights, in particular "Aladdin's Wonderful Lamp", "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves", "The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor", were not part of The Nights in its original Arabic versions but were added to the collection by Antoine Galland and other European translators. The main frame story concerns Shahryār, whom the narrator calls a "Sasanian king" ruling in "India and China". Shahryār is shocked to learn. In his bitterness and grief, he decides. Shahryār begins to marry a succession of virgins only to execute each one the next morning, before she has a chance to dishonor him; the vizier, whose duty it is to provide them, cannot find any more virgins. Scheherazade, the vizier's daughter, offers herself as the next bride and her father reluctantly agrees. On the night of their marriage, Scheherazade does not end it.
The king, curious about how the story ends, is thus forced to postpone her execution in order to hear the conclusion. The next night, as soon as she finishes the tale, she begins another one, the king, eager to hear the conclusion of that tale as well, postpones her execution once again; this goes on for one one nights, hence the name. The tales vary widely: they include historical tales, love stories, comedies, poems and various forms of erotica. Numerous stories depict jinns, apes, sorcerers and legendary places, which are intermingled with real people and geography, not always rationally. Common protagonists include the historical Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, his Grand Vizier, Jafar al-Barmaki, the famous poet Abu Nuwas, despite the fact that these figures lived some 200 years after the fall of the Sassanid Empire, in which the frame tale of Scheherazade is set. Sometimes a character in Scheherazade's tale will begin telling other characters a story of his own, that story may have another one told within it, resulting in a richly layered narrative texture.
The different versions have different individually detailed endings but they all end with the king giving his wife a pardon and sparing her life. The narrator's standards for what constitutes a cliffhanger seem broader than in modern literature. While in many cases a story is cut off with the hero in danger of losing his life or another kind of deep trouble, in some parts of the full text Scheherazade stops her narration in the middle of an exposition of abstract philosophical principles or complex points of Islamic philosophy, in one case during a detailed description of human anatomy according to Galen—and in all these cases turns out to be justified in her belief that the king's curiosity about the sequel would buy her another day of life; the history of the Nights is complex and modern scholars have made many attempts to untangle the story of how the collection as it exists came about. Robert Irwin summarises their findings: In the 1880s and 1890s a lot of work was done on the Nights by Zotenberg and others, in the course of which a consensus view of the history of the text emerged.
Most scholars agreed that the Nights was a composite work and that the earliest tales in it came from India and Persia. At some time in the early 8th century, these tales were translated into Arabic under the title Alf Layla, or'The Thousand Nights'; this collection formed the basis of The Thousand and One Nights. The original core of stories was quite small. In Iraq in the 9th or 10th century, this original core had Arab stories added to it—among them some tales about the Caliph Harun al-Rashid. From the 10th century onwards independent sagas and story cycles were added to the compilation Then, from the 13th century onwards, a further layer of stories was add
Persian mythology are traditional tales and stories of ancient origin, all involving extraordinary or supernatural beings. Drawn from the legendary past of Iran, they reflect the attitudes of the society to which they first belonged - attitudes towards the confrontation of good and evil, the actions of the gods and the exploits of heroes and fabulous creatures. Myths play a crucial part in Iranian culture and our understanding of them is increased when we consider them within the context of Iranian history. For this purpose we must ignore modern political boundaries and look at historical developments in the Greater Iran, a vast area covering the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and Central Asia, beyond the frontiers of present-day Iran; the geography of this region, with its high mountain ranges, plays a significant role in many of the mythological stories. The second millennium BC is regarded as the age of migration because of the emergence in western Iran of a new form of Iranian pottery, similar to earlier wares of north-eastern Iran, suggesting the arrival of the Ancient Iranian peoples.
This pottery, light grey to black in colour, appeared around 1400 BC. It is called Early Grey Ware or Iron I, the latter name indicating the beginning of the Iron Age in this area; the central collection of Persian mythology is the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, written over a thousand years ago. Ferdowsi's work draws with attribution, on the stories and characters of Mazdaism and Zoroastrianism, not only from the Avesta, but from texts such as the Bundahishn and the Denkard as well as many others; the characters of Persian mythology always fall into one of two camps. They are either good; the resultant discord mirrors the nationalistic ideals of the early Islamic era as well as the moral and ethical perceptions of the Zoroastrian period, in which the world was perceived to be locked in a battle between the destructive Ahriman and his hordes of demonic dews and their un-Iranian supporters, versus the Creator Ormuzd, who although not participating in the day-to-day affairs of mankind, was represented in the world by the izads and the righteous ahlav Iranians.
The most famous legendary character in the Persian epics and mythology is Rostam. On the other side of the fence is Zahhak, a symbol of despotism, defeated by Kāve, who led a popular uprising against him. Zahhak was guarded by two vipers. No matter how many times they were beheaded, new heads grew on them to guard him; the snake, like in many other mythologies, was a symbol of evil, but many other animals and birds appear in Iranian mythology, the birds were signs of good omen. Most famous of these is the Simurgh, a large beautiful and powerful bird. Peri, considered a beautiful though evil woman in early mythology became less evil and more beautiful, until during the Islamic period she became a symbol of beauty similar to the houris of Paradise; the conflict between good and evil is prevalent in Persian Zoroastrianism. Iranian mythology List of articles related to Persian mythology Persian folklore Persian literature Proto-Indo-Iranian religion Zoroastrianism Armenian mythology Iran almanac and book of facts 1964-1965.
Fourth edition, new print. Published by Echo of Iran, Tehran 1965. Iranian Mythology by Albert J. Carnoy Indo-Iranian Mythology Iran Almanac 2006
Cú Chulainn spelled Cú Chulaind or Cúchulainn and sometimes known in English as Cuhullin, is an Irish mythological hero who appears in the stories of the Ulster Cycle, as well as in Scottish and Manx folklore. He is believed to be an incarnation of the god Lugh, his father, his mother is sister of Conchobar mac Nessa. Born Sétanta, he gained his better-known name as a child, after killing Culann's fierce guard-dog in self-defence and offered to take its place until a replacement could be reared. At the age of seventeen he defended Ulster single-handedly against the armies of queen Medb of Connacht in the famous Táin Bó Cúailnge, it was prophesied that his great deeds would give him everlasting fame, but his life would be a short one. He is known for his terrifying battle frenzy, or ríastrad, in which he becomes an unrecognisable monster who knows neither friend nor foe, he fights from his chariot, driven by his loyal charioteer Láeg and drawn by his horses, Liath Macha and Dub Sainglend. In more modern times, Cú Chulainn is referred to as the "Hound of Ulster".
Cú Chulainn shows striking similarities to the legendary Persian hero Rostam, as well as to the Germanic Lay of Hildebrand and the labours of the Greek epic hero Heracles, suggesting a common Indo-European origin, but lacking in linguistic and archaeological material. There are a number of versions of the story of Cú Chulainn's miraculous birth. In the earliest version of Compert Con Culainn, his mother Deichtine is the daughter and charioteer of Conchobar mac Nessa, king of Ulster, accompanies him as he and the nobles of Ulster hunt a flock of magical birds; as snow begins to fall, Ulstermen seek shelter in a nearby house. As the host's wife goes into labour, Deichtine assists in the birth of a baby boy, while a mare gives birth to twin colts; the next morning, the Ulstermen find themselves at the Brug na Bóinde —the house and its occupants have disappeared, but the child and the colts remain. Deichtine takes the boy home and begins raising him as her own; the god Lug appears to her and tells her he was their host that night, that he has put his child in her womb, to be called Sétanta.
Her pregnancy turns into a scandal as she is betrothed to Sualtam mac Róich, the Ulstermen suspect Conchobar of being the father, so she aborts the child and goes to her husband's bed "virgin-whole". She conceives a son whom she names Sétanta. In the and better-known version of Compert Con Culainn, Deichtine is Conchobar's sister, disappears from Emain Macha, the Ulster capital; as in the previous version, the Ulstermen go hunting a flock of magical birds, are overtaken by a snowstorm and seek shelter in a nearby house. Their host is Lug, a member of the Tuatha Dé Danann, but this time his wife, who gives birth to a son that night, is Deichtine herself; the child is named Sétanta. The nobles of Ulster argue over which of them is to be his foster-father, until the wise Morann decides he should be fostered by several of them: Conchobar himself, he is brought up in the house of Amergin and Findchóem on Muirthemne Plain in modern County Louth, alongside their son Conall Cernach. The County Louth town of Dundalk has the motto Mé do rug Cú Chulainn cróga "I gave birth to brave Cú Chulainn".
The stories of Cú Chulainn's childhood are told in a flashback sequence in Táin Bó Cúailnge. As a small child, living in his parents' house on Muirthemne Plain, he begs to be allowed to join the boy-troop at Emain Macha. However, he sets off on his own, when he arrives at Emain he runs onto the playing field without first asking for the boys' protection, being unaware of the custom; the boys take this as a challenge and attack him, but he has a ríastrad and beats them single-handed. Conchobar puts a stop to the fight and clears up the misunderstanding, but no sooner has Sétanta put himself under the boys' protection than he chases after them, demanding they put themselves under his protection. Culann the smith invites Conchobar to a feast at his house. Before going, Conchobar goes to the playing field to watch the boys play hurling, he is so impressed by Sétanta's performance. Sétanta promises to follow the king later, but Conchobar forgets, Culann lets loose his ferocious hound to protect his house.
When Sétanta arrives, the enormous hound attacks him, but he kills it in self-defence, in one version by smashing it against a standing stone, in another by driving a sliotar down its throat with his hurley. Culann is devastated by the loss of his hound, so Sétanta promises he will rear him a replacement, until it is old enough to do the job, he himself will guard Culann's house; the druid Cathbad announces that his name henceforth will be Cú Chulainn—"Culann's Hound". One day at Emain Macha, Cú Chulainn overhears Cathbad teaching his pupils. One asks him what that day is auspicious for, Cathbad replies that any warrior who takes arms that day will have everlasting fame. Cú Chulainn, though only seven years old, asks for arms. None of the weapons given to him withstand his strength, but when Cathbad sees this he grie
The Tale of the Heike
The Tale of the Heike is an epic account compiled prior to 1330 of the struggle between the Taira clan and Minamoto clan for control of Japan at the end of the 12th century in the Genpei War. Heike refers to the Taira, hei being an alternate reading of the first kanji. Note that in the title of the Genpei War, "hei" is in this combination read as "pei" and the "gen" is the first kanji used in the Minamoto clan's name; the Tale of Heike is likened to a Japanese Iliad. It has been translated into English at least five times, the first by Arthur Lindsay Sadler in 1918–1921. A complete translation in nearly 800 pages by Hiroshi Kitagawa & Bruce T. Tsuchida was published in 1975. Translated by Helen McCullough in 1988. An abridged translation by Burton Watson was published in 2006. In 2012, Royall Tyler completed his translation, which seeks to be mindful of the performance style for which the work was intended, it was famously retold in Japanese prose by historical novelist Eiji Yoshikawa, published in Asahi Weekly in 1950 with the title New Tale of the Heike.
The Tale of the Heike's origin cannot be reduced to a single creator. Like most epics, it is the result of the conglomeration of differing versions passed down through an oral tradition by biwa-playing bards known as biwa hōshi; the monk Yoshida Kenkō offers a theory as to the authorship of the text, in his famous work Tsurezuregusa, which he wrote in 1330. According to Kenkō, "The former governor of Shinano, wrote Heike monogatari and showed it to a blind man called Shōbutsu to chant it", he confirms the biwa connection of that blind man, who "was natural from the eastern tract", and, sent from Yukinaga to "recollect some information about samurai, about their bows, their horses and their war strategy. Yukinaga wrote it after that". One of the key points in this theory is that the book was written in a difficult combination of Chinese and Japanese, which in those days was only mastered by educated monks, such as Yukinaga. However, in the end, as the tale is the result of a long oral tradition, there is no single true author.
Moreover, as it is true that there are frequent steps back, that the style is not the same throughout the composition, this cannot mean anything but that it is a collective work. The story of the Heike was compiled from a collection of oral stories recited by traveling monks who chanted to the accompaniment of the biwa, an instrument reminiscent of the lute; the most read version of the Heike monogatari was compiled by a blind monk named Kakuichi in 1371. The Heike is considered one of the great classics of medieval Japanese literature; the central theme of the story is the Buddhist law of impermanence in the form of the fleeting nature of fortune, an analog of sic transit gloria mundi. The theme of impermanence is captured in the famous opening passage: 祇園精舎の鐘の聲、諸行無常の響き有り。 沙羅雙樹の花の色、盛者必衰の理を顯す。 驕れる者も久しからず、唯春の夜の夢の如し。 猛き者も遂には滅びぬ、偏に風の前の塵に同じ。 Gionshōja no kane no koe, Shogyōmujō no hibiki ari. Sarasōju no hana no iro, Jōshahissui. Ogoreru mono mo hisashikarazu, tada haru no yo no yume no gotoshi. Takeki mono mo tsui ni wa horobin, hitoeni kaze no mae no chiri ni onaji.
The sound of the Gion Shōja bells echoes the impermanence of all things. The proud do not endure, they are like a dream on a spring night. -- Chapter 1.1, Helen Craig McCullough's translation The 4-character expression "the prosperous must decline" is a phrase from the Humane King Sutra, in full "The prosperous decline, the full empty". The second concept evident in the Tale of the Heike is karma; the concept of karma says that every action has consequences that become apparent in life. Thus, karma helps to deal with the problem of both natural evil. Evil acts in life will bring about an inevitable suffering in life; this can be seen with the treatment of Kiyomori in The Tale of the Heike, cruel throughout his life, falls into a painful illness that kills him. The fall of the powerful Taira – the samurai clan who defeated the imperial-backed Minamoto in 1161–symbolizes the theme of impermanence in the Heike; the Taira warrior family sowed the seeds of their own destruction with acts of arrogance and pride that led to their defeat in 1185 at the hands of the revitalized Minamoto.
The story is designed to be told in a series of nightly installments. It is a samurai epic focusing on warrior culture – an ideology that laid the groundwork for bushido; the Heike includes a number of love stories, which harkens back to earlier Heian literature. The story is divided into three sections; the central figure of the first section is Taira no Kiyomori, described as arrogant, ruthless and so consumed by the fires of hatred that in death his feverish body does not cool when immersed in water. The main figure of the second section is the Minamoto general Minamoto no Yoshinaka. After he dies the main figure of the third section is the great samurai, Minamoto no Yoshitsune, a military genius, falsely accused of treachery by his politically astute elder brother Minamoto no Yoritomo; the Tale of the Heike has provided material for many artistic works ranging from N
Scheherazade is a major female character and the storyteller in the Middle Eastern literature One Thousand and One Nights. According to modern scholarship, the name Scheherazade derives from the Middle Persian name Čehrāzād, composed of the words čehr and āzād; the earliest forms of Scheherazade's name in Arabic sources include Shirazad in Masudi, Shahrazad in Ibn al-Nadim, the latter meaning in New Persian "the person whose realm/dominion is free". It is shortened to "Shahrzad" in modern Persian; the story goes that the monarch Shahryar found out one day that his first wife was unfaithful to him. He thus resolved to marry a new virgin each day as well as behead the previous day's wife, so that she would have no chance to be unfaithful to him, he had killed 1,001 such women by the time he was introduced to the vizier's daughter. In Sir Richard Burton's translation of The Nights, Scheherazade was described in this way: Scheherazade had perused the books and legends of preceding Kings, the stories and instances of bygone men and things.
She knew them by heart. Against her father's wishes, Scheherazade volunteered to spend one night with the king. Once in the king's chambers, Scheherazade asked if she might bid one last farewell to her beloved sister, who had secretly been prepared to ask Scheherazade to tell a story during the long night; the king listened with awe as Scheherazade told her first story. The night passed by and Scheherazade stopped in the middle; the king asked her to finish. So, the king spared her life for one day to finish the story the next night; the following night, Scheherazade finished the story and began a second more exciting tale, which she again stopped halfway through at dawn. Again, the king spared her life for one more day, and so the king kept Scheherazade alive day by day, as he eagerly anticipated the finishing of the previous night's story. At the end of 1,001 nights, 1,000 stories, Scheherazade told the king that she had no more tales to tell him. During these 1,001 nights, the king had fallen in love with Scheherazade.
He spared her life, made her his queen. Scheherazade in popular culture The Arabian Nights Entertainments—Project Gutenberg