Max Brod was a German-speaking Jewish Czech Israeli, author and journalist. Although he was a prolific writer in his own right, he is most famous as the friend and biographer of writer Franz Kafka. Kafka, who had named Brod as his literary executor, instructed him to burn his unpublished work upon the former's death, but he refused and had them published instead. Max Brod was born in Prague part of the province of Bohemia in Austria-Hungary, now the capital of the Czech Republic. At the age of four, Brod was diagnosed with a severe spinal curvature and spent a year in corrective harness. A German-speaking Jew, he went to the Piarist school together with his lifelong friend Felix Weltsch attended the Stephans Gymnasium studied law at the German Charles-Ferdinand University and graduated in 1907 to work in the civil service. From 1912, he was a pronounced Zionist and when Czechoslovakia became independent in 1918, he served as vice-president of the Jüdischer Nationalrat. From 1924 an established writer, he worked as a critic for the Prager Tagblatt.
In 1939, as the Nazis took over Prague and his wife Elsa Taussig fled to Palestine. He settled in Tel Aviv, where he continued to write and worked as a dramaturg for Habimah the Israeli national theatre, for 30 years. For a period following the death of his wife in 1942, Brod published few works, he became close to a couple named Otto and Esther Hoffe taking vacations with the two and employing Esther as a secretary for many years. He would pass stewardship of the Kafka materials in his possession to Esther in his will, he was additionally supported by his close companion Felix Weltsch. Their friendship lasted 75 years, from the elementary school of the Piarists in Prague to Weltsch's death in 1964. Brod died on December 1968 in Tel Aviv. Unlike Kafka, Brod became a prolific, successful published writer who published 83 titles, his first novel and fourth book overall, Schloss Nornepygge, published in 1908 when he was only 24, was celebrated in Berlin literary circles as a masterpiece of expressionism.
This and other works made Brod a well-known personality in German-language literature. In 1913, together with Weltsch, he published the work Anschauung und Begriff which made him more famous in Berlin and in Leipzig, where their publisher Kurt Wolff worked, he promoted other musicians. Among his protégés was Franz Werfel, whom he would fall out with as Werfel abandoned Judaism for Christianity, he would write at various times both for and against Karl Kraus, a convert from Judaism to Roman Catholicism. His critical endorsement would be crucial to the popularity of Jaroslav Hašek's The Good Soldier Svejk, he played a crucial role in the diffusion of Leoš Janáček's operas. Brod first met Kafka on October 1902, when both were students at Charles University. Brod had given a lecture at the German students' hall on Arthur Schopenhauer. Kafka, one year older, accompanied him home. "He tended to participate in all the meetings, but up to we had hardly considered each other," wrote Brod. The quiet Kafka "would have been... hard to notice... his elegant dark-blue, suits were inconspicuous and reserved like him.
At that time, something seems to have attracted him to me, he was more open than usual, filling the endless walk home by disagreeing with my all too rough formulations."From on, Brod and Kafka met often daily, remained close friends until Kafka's death. Kafka was a frequent guest in Brod's parents' house. There he met his future girlfriend and fiancée Felice Bauer, cousin of Brod's brother-in-law Max Friedmann. After graduating, Brod worked for some time at the post office; the short working hours gave him time to begin a career as an art critic and freelance writer. For similar reasons, Kafka took a job at an insurance agency involved in workmen's accident insurance. Brod and Brod's close friend Felix Weltsch constituted the so-called "enge Prager Kreis" or "close Prague circle". During Kafka's lifetime, Brod tried to reassure him of his writing talents, of which Kafka was chronically doubtful. Brod pushed Kafka to publish his work, it is owing to Brod that he began to keep a diary. Brod failed, to arrange common literary projects.
Notwithstanding their inability to write in tandem – which stemmed from clashing literary and personal philosophies – they were able to publish one chapter from an attempted travelogue in May 1912, for which Kafka wrote the introduction. It was published in the journal Herderblätter. Brod prodded his friend to complete the project several years but the effort was in vain. After Brod's 1913 marriage with Elsa Taussig, he and Kafka remained each other's closest friends and confidants, assisting each other in problems and life crises. On Kafka's death in 1924, Brod was the administrator of the estate. Although Kafka stipulated that all of his unpublished works were to be burned, Brod refused, he justified this move by stating that when Kafka told him to burn his unpublished work, Brod replied that he would outright refuse, that "Franz should have appointed another executor if he had been and determined that his instructions should stand." Before a line of Kafka's most famous work had been made public, Brod had alre
Regine Schlegel was a Danish woman, engaged to the philosopher and theologian Søren Kierkegaard from September 1840 to October 1841. Olsen's relationship with Kierkegaard exerted a crucial influence over his intellectual development and theology, the legacy of their engagement figures prominently in his writings. Olsen was born on January 1822, in Frederiksberg, a district of Copenhagen, Denmark, she first met Kierkegaard on a spring day in 1837 when she was 15 and he 24. Olsen recalled that upon this first meeting Kierkegaard had made "a strong impression" upon her. A mutual infatuation developed between the two while Olsen was being tutored by Johan Frederik Schlegel, her future husband. Olsen had made a strong impression on Kierkegaard, who began to pursue her over a long period of time, ingratiating himself first as a friend and attempting to court her. On 8 September 1840, Kierkegaard revealed his feelings to Olsen when she was playing the piano for him at her family's house, he recounted the events years in his journal: "'Oh!
What do I care for music, it's you I want, I have wanted you for two years.' She kept silent." Kierkegaard proceeded to plead his case to Olsen's father, immediately. Her father granted Kierkegaard his blessing, the two became engaged to be married. However, Kierkegaard began to have doubts about his ability to be a husband. Throughout the following year, Kierkegaard threw himself into his work, he began his seminarian studies, preached his first sermon, wrote his dissertation for his magister degree. Olsen sensed, they did maintain a voluminous correspondence. Kierkegaard's letters have survived, aside from a few lines, Olsen's letters seem to have been destroyed. Kierkegaard's letters were reminiscent of Abelard's letter to Philintus where Abelard wrote: Fulbert surprised me with Heloise, but what man that had a soul in him would not have borne any ignominy on the same conditions? The next day I provided myself with a private lodging near the loved house, being resolved not to abandon my prey. I abode some time without appearing publicly.
Ah! How long did those few days seem to me! When we fall from a state of happiness with what impatience do we bear our misfortunes! It being impossible that I could live without seeing Heloise, I endeavoured to engage her servant, whose name was Agaton, in my interest, she was brown, well-shaped, a person superior to her rank. I entreated her to have pity on a distressed lover; the Love Letters of Abelard and Heloise On August 11, 1841, Kierkegaard broke off the engagement, sending Olsen a farewell letter along with his engagement ring. Olsen, heartbroken went to Kierkegaard's house. Kierkegaard seems to have genuinely loved Olsen but was unable to reconcile the prospect of marriage with his vocation as a writer, his passionate, introspective Christianity and his constant melancholy. Olsen was shattered by his rejection of her, was unwilling to accept Kierkegaard's breaking of their engagement, threatening to kill herself if he did not take her back. Kierkegaard attempted to quell her interest, he wrote, "there was nothing else for me to do but to venture to the uttermost, to support her, if possible, by means of deception, to do everything to repel her from me in order to rekindle her pride."
He wrote her cold, calculated letters in order to make it seem that he didn't love her anymore, but Olsen clung to the hope that they would get back together pleading to him to take her back. On October 11, 1841, Kierkegaard again broke off the engagement in person, her father tried to persuade him to reconsider after assessing Olsen's desperate condition, claiming that "It will be the death of her. To her query as to whether he would marry, Kierkegaard icily responded: "Well, yes, in ten years, when I have begun to simmer down and I need a lusty young miss to rejuvenate me." In reality, Kierkegaard had no such plans, would remain a celibate bachelor for the rest of his life. Olsen was crushed by the whole affair, as was Kierkegaard, who described spending his nights crying in his bed without her; the story of the engagement became a source of gossip in Copenhagen, with Kierkegaard's flippant dismissal and cruel seduction of Olsen becoming wildly exaggerated. Olsen's family reacted with a mixture of confusion, finding Kierkegaard's actions incomprehensible, to outright hatred for causing Olsen such pain.
Kierkegaard would beg for Olsen to forgive him for his actions. In a famous letter, he wrote, "Above all, forget the one who writes this. Kierkegaard was so concerned that Olsen might destroy herself because she said she couldn't live without him that he tried to give her advice in his Fourth Upbuilding Discourse of 1844, he wanted her to be able to stand on her own without him. He asked her: "When the first self submits to the deeper self, they are reconciled and walk on together.... Would you be better off now by having lost some of that burning desire and having won the understanding that life cannot deceive you; that little secret we two have between us. What is this sec
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard was a Danish philosopher, poet, social critic and religious author, considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. He wrote critical texts on organized religion, morality, ethics and the philosophy of religion, displaying a fondness for metaphor and parables. Much of his philosophical work deals with the issues of how one lives as a "single individual", giving priority to concrete human reality over abstract thinking and highlighting the importance of personal choice and commitment, he was against literary critics who defined idealist intellectuals and philosophers of his time, thought that Swedenborg, Fichte, Schelling and Hans Christian Andersen were all "understood" far too by "scholars". Kierkegaard's theological work focuses on Christian ethics, the institution of the Church, the differences between purely objective proofs of Christianity, the infinite qualitative distinction between man and God, the individual's subjective relationship to the God-Man Jesus the Christ, which came through faith.
Much of his work deals with Christian love. He was critical of the practice of Christianity as a state religion that of the Church of Denmark, his psychological work explored the emotions and feelings of individuals when faced with life choices. Kierkegaard's early work was written under the various pseudonyms that he used to present distinctive viewpoints and to interact with each other in complex dialogue, he explored complex problems from different viewpoints, each under a different pseudonym. He wrote many Upbuilding Discourses under his own name and dedicated them to the "single individual" who might want to discover the meaning of his works. Notably, he wrote: "scholarship want to teach that becoming objective is the way. Christianity teaches that the way is to become subjective, to become a subject." While scientists can learn about the world by observation, Kierkegaard emphatically denied that observation could reveal the inner workings of the world of the spirit. Some of Kierkegaard's key ideas include the concept of "subjective and objective truths", the knight of faith, the recollection and repetition dichotomy, the infinite qualitative distinction, faith as a passion, the three stages on life's way.
Kierkegaard wrote in Danish and the reception of his work was limited to Scandinavia, but by the turn of the 20th century his writings were translated into French and other major European languages. By the mid-20th century, his thought exerted a substantial influence on philosophy and Western culture. Kierkegaard was born to an affluent family in Copenhagen, his mother, Ane Sørensdatter Lund Kierkegaard, had served as a maid in the household before marrying his father, Michael Pedersen Kierkegaard. She was an unassuming figure: quiet and not formally educated, but Henriette Lund, her granddaughter, wrote that she "wielded the sceptre with joy and protected like a hen protecting her chicks", she wielded influence on her children so that Peter said that his brother preserved many of their mother's words in his writings. His father, on the other hand, was a well-to-do wool merchant from Jutland, he was a "very stern man, to all appearances dry and prosaic, but under his'rustic cloak' demeanor he concealed an active imagination which not his great age could blunt".
He was interested in philosophy and hosted intellectuals at his home. The young Kierkegaard read the philosophy of Christian Wolff, he preferred the comedies of Ludvig Holberg, the writings of Georg Johann Hamann, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Edward Young, Plato those referring to Socrates. Copenhagen in the 1830s and 1840s had crooked streets where carriages went. Kierkegaard loved to walk them. In 1848, Kierkegaard wrote, "I had real Christian satisfaction in the thought that, if there were no other, there was one man in Copenhagen whom every poor person could accost and converse with on the street. Our Lady's Church was at one end of the city. At the other end was the Royal Theatre where Fru Heiberg performed. Based on a speculative interpretation of anecdotes in Kierkegaard's unpublished journals a rough draft of a story called "The Great Earthquake", some early Kierkegaard scholars argued that Michael believed he had earned God's wrath and that none of his children would outlive him, he is said to have believed that his personal sins indiscretions such as cursing the name of God in his youth or impregnating Ane out of wedlock, necessitated this punishment.
Though five of his seven children died before he did, both Kierkegaard and his brother Peter Christian Kierkegaard outlived him. Peter, seven years Kierkegaard's elder became bishop in Aalborg. Julia Watkin thought Michael's early interest in the Moravian Church could have led him to a deep sense of the devastating effects of sin. Kierkegaard came to hope that no one would retain their sins though they have been forgiven, and by the same token that no one who believed in the forgiveness of sin would live their own life as an objection against the existence of forgiveness. He made the point; this fear of not finding forgiveness is devastating. Edna H. Hong quoted Kierkegaard in her 1984 book, For
An academy is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the worldwide group composed of professors and researchers at institutes of higher learning; the name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy, founded 385 BC at Akademia, a sanctuary of Athena, the goddess of wisdom and skill, north of Athens, Greece. The word comes from the Academy in ancient Greece, which derives from Akademos. Outside the city walls of Athens, the gymnasium was made famous by Plato as a center of learning; the sacred space, dedicated to the goddess of wisdom, had been an olive grove, hence the expression "the groves of Academe". In these gardens, the philosopher Plato conversed with followers. Plato developed his sessions into a method of teaching philosophy and in 387 BC, established what is known today as the Old Academy. By extension academia has come to mean the cultural accumulation of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations and its practitioners and transmitters.
In the 17th century, British and French scholars used the term to describe types of institutions of higher learning. Before Akademia was a school, before Cimon enclosed its precincts with a wall, it contained a sacred grove of olive trees dedicated to Athena, the goddess of wisdom, outside the city walls of ancient Athens; the archaic name for the site was Hekademia, which by classical times evolved into Akademia and was explained, at least as early as the beginning of the 6th century BC, by linking it to an Athenian hero, a legendary "Akademos". The site of Akademia was sacred to other immortals. Plato's immediate successors as "scholarch" of Akademia were Speusippus, Polemon and Arcesilaus. Scholarchs include Lacydes of Cyrene, Carneades and Philo of Larissa. Other notable members of Akademia include Aristotle, Heraclides Ponticus, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Philip of Opus and Antiochus of Ascalon. After a lapse during the early Roman occupation, Akademia was refounded as a new institution of some outstanding Platonists of late antiquity who called themselves "successors" and presented themselves as an uninterrupted tradition reaching back to Plato.
However, there cannot have been any geographical, economic or personal continuity with the original Academy in the new organizational entity. The last "Greek" philosophers of the revived Akademia in the 6th century were drawn from various parts of the Hellenistic cultural world and suggest the broad syncretism of the common culture: Five of the seven Akademia philosophers mentioned by Agathias were Syriac in their cultural origin: Hermias and Diogenes, Isidorus of Gaza, Damascius of Syria, Iamblichus of Coele-Syria and even Simplicius of Cilicia; the emperor Justinian closed the school in AD 529, a date, cited as the end of Antiquity. According to the sole witness, the historian Agathias, its remaining members looked for protection under the rule of Sassanid king Khosrau I in his capital at Ctesiphon, carrying with them precious scrolls of literature and philosophy, to a lesser degree of science. After a peace treaty between the Persian and the Byzantine empire in 532 guaranteed their personal security, some members found sanctuary in the pagan stronghold of Harran, near Edessa.
One of the last leading figures of this group was Simplicius, a pupil of Damascius, the last head of the Athenian school. It has been speculated. After his exile, may have travelled to Harran, near Edessa. From there, the students of an Academy-in-exile could have survived into the 9th century, long enough to facilitate the Arabic revival of the Neoplatonist commentary tradition in Baghdad. In ancient Greece, after the establishment of the original Academy, Plato's colleagues and pupils developed spin-offs of his method. Arcesilaus, a Greek student of Plato established the Middle Academy. Carneades, another student, established the New Academy. In 335 BC, Aristotle refined the method with his own theories and established the Lyceum in another gymnasium; the library of Alexandria in Egypt was frequented by intellectuals from Africa and Asia studying various aspects of philosophy and mathematics. The University of Timbuktu was a medieval university in Timbuktu, present-day Mali, which comprised three schools: the Mosque of Djinguereber, the Mosque of Sidi Yahya, the Mosque of Sankore.
During its zenith, the university had an average attendance of around 25,000 students within a city of around 100,000 people. In China a higher education institution Shang Xiang was founded by Shun in the Youyu era before the 21st century BC; the Imperial Central Academy at Nanjing, founded in 258, was a result of the evolution of Shang Xiang and it became the first comprehensive institution combining education and research and was divided into five faculties in 470, which became Nanjing University. In the 8th century another kind of institution of learning emerged, named Shuyuan, which were privately owned. There were thousands of Shuyuan recorded in ancient times; the degrees from them varied from one to another and those advanced Shuyuan such as Bailudong Shuyuan and Yuelu Shuyuan can be classified as higher institutions of learning. Taxila or Takshashila, in ancient India, modern-day Pakistan, was an early centre of learning, near present-day Islamabad in the city of Taxila, it is considered as one
Copyright is a legal right, existing in many countries, that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine whether, under what conditions, this original work may be used by others. This is only for a limited time. Copyright is one of two types of intellectual property rights, the other is industrial property rights; the exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright on ideas is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, not the underlying ideas themselves. Copyright is applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require "fixing" copyrighted works in a tangible form, it is shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, who are referred to as rights holders. These rights include reproduction, control over derivative works, public performance, moral rights such as attribution. Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered "territorial rights".
This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state, do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Copyright is enforced as a civil matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions. Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing "fair" exceptions to the creator's exclusivity of copyright and giving users certain rights; the development of digital media and computer network technologies have prompted reinterpretation of these exceptions, introduced new difficulties in enforcing copyright, inspired additional challenges to the philosophical basis of copyright law. Businesses with great economic dependence upon copyright, such as those in the music business, have advocated the extension and expansion of copyright and sought additional legal and technological enforcement.
Copyright licenses can be granted by those deputized by the original claimant, private companies may request this as a condition of doing business with them. Services of internet platform providers like YouTube, GitHub, DropBox, WhatsApp or Twitter only can be used when users grant the platform provider beforehand the right to co-use all uploaded content, including all material exchanged per email, chat or cloud-storage; these copyrights only apply for the firm that operates such a platform, no matter in what jurisdiction the platform-services are being offered. Private companies in general do not recognize exceptions or give users more rights than the right to use the platform according certain rules. Copyright came about with wider literacy; as a legal concept, its origins in Britain were from a reaction to printers' monopolies at the beginning of the 18th century. The English Parliament was concerned about the unregulated copying of books and passed the Licensing of the Press Act 1662, which established a register of licensed books and required a copy to be deposited with the Stationers' Company continuing the licensing of material that had long been in effect.
Copyright laws allow products of creative human activities, such as literary and artistic production, to be preferentially exploited and thus incentivized. Different cultural attitudes, social organizations, economic models and legal frameworks are seen to account for why copyright emerged in Europe and not, for example, in Asia. In the Middle Ages in Europe, there was a lack of any concept of literary property due to the general relations of production, the specific organization of literary production and the role of culture in society; the latter refers to the tendency of oral societies, such as that of Europe in the medieval period, to view knowledge as the product and expression of the collective, rather than to see it as individual property. However, with copyright laws, intellectual production comes to be seen as a product of an individual, with attendant rights; the most significant point is that patent and copyright laws support the expansion of the range of creative human activities that can be commodified.
This parallels the ways in which capitalism led to the commodification of many aspects of social life that earlier had no monetary or economic value per se. Copyright has grown from a legal concept regulating copying rights in the publishing of books and maps to one with a significant effect on nearly every modern industry, covering such items as sound recordings, photographs and architectural works. Seen as the first real copyright law, the 1709 British Statute of Anne gave the publishers rights for a fixed period, after which the copyright expired; the act alluded to individual rights of the artist. It began, "Whereas Printers and other Persons, have of late taken the Liberty of Printing... Books, other Writings, without the Consent of the Authors... to their great Detriment, too to the Ruin of them and their Families:". A right to benefit financially from the work is articulated, court rulings and legislation have recognized a right to control the work, such as ensuring that the integrity of it is preserved.
H. P. Lovecraft
Howard Phillips Lovecraft was an American writer who achieved posthumous fame through his influential works of horror fiction. He was unknown during his lifetime and published only in pulp magazines before he died in poverty, but he is now regarded as one of the most significant 20th-century authors of horror and weird fiction. Lovecraft was born in Rhode Island, where he spent most of his life. Among his most celebrated tales are The Rats in the Walls, The Call of Cthulhu, At the Mountains of Madness, The Shadow over Innsmouth, The Shadow Out of Time, all canonical to the Cthulhu Mythos. Lovecraft was never able to support himself from earnings as an author and editor, he saw commercial success elude him in his latter period, he subsisted in progressively strained circumstances in his last years. Lovecraft was born in his family home on August 1890, in Providence, Rhode Island, he was the only child of Sarah Susan Phillips Lovecraft. Though his employment is hard to discern, Lovecraft's future wife, Sonia Greene, stated that Winfield was employed by Gorham Manufacturing Company as a traveling salesman.
Susie's family was of substantial means at the time of their marriage, her father, Whipple Van Buren Phillips, being involved in many significant business ventures. In April 1893, after a psychotic episode in a Chicago hotel, Winfield was committed to Butler Hospital in Providence. Though it is not clear who reported Winfield's prior behavior to the hospital, medical records indicate that he had been "doing and saying strange things at times" for a year before his commitment. Winfield spent five years in Butler before dying in 1898, his death certificate listed the cause of death as general paresis, a term synonymous with late-stage syphilis. Susie never exhibited symptoms of the disease, leading to questions regarding the intimacy of their relationship. In 1969, Sonia Greene ventured that Susie was a "touch-me-not" wife and that Winfield, being a traveling salesmen, "took his sexual pleasures wherever he could find them." How Greene came to this opinion is unknown, as she never met Lovecraft's parents, though Lovecraft himself termed his mother a "touch-me-not" in a 1937 letter noting that, after his early childhood, she avoided all physical contact with him.
This is contrary to Susie's treatment of a young Lovecraft soon after his father's breakdown. According to the accounts of family friends, Susie doted over the young Lovecraft to a fault, pampering him and never letting him out of her sight. Throughout his life, Lovecraft maintained that his father fell into a paralytic state, due to insomnia and being overworked, remained that way until his death, it is unknown if Lovecraft was kept ignorant of his father's illness or if his remarks were intentionally misleading. After his father's hospitalization, Lovecraft resided in the family home with his mother, his maternal aunts Lillian and Annie, his maternal grandparents Whipple and Robie. Lovecraft recollected that after his father's illness his mother was "permanently stricken with grief." Whipple became a father figure to Lovecraft in this time, Lovecraft noting that his grandfather became the "centre of my entire universe." Whipple, who traveled on business, maintained correspondence by letter with the young Lovecraft who, by the age of three, was proficient at reading and writing.
When home Whipple would share weird tales of his own invention and show Lovecraft objects of art he had acquired in his European travels. Lovecraft credits Whipple with being instrumental in overcoming his fear of the dark when Whipple forced Lovecraft, at five years old, to walk through several darkened rooms in the family home, it was in this period that Lovecraft was introduced to some of his earliest literary influences such as The Rime of the Ancient Mariner illustrated by Doré, One Thousand and One Nights, a gift from his mother, Thomas Bulfinch's Age of Fable and Ovid's Metamorphoses. While there is no indication that Lovecraft was close to his grandmother Robie, her death in 1896 had a profound effect. By his own account, it sent his family into "a gloom from which it never recovered." His mother and aunts' wearing of black mourning dresses "terrified" him, it is at this time that Lovecraft five and half years old, started having nightmares that would inform his writing. He began to have recurring nightmares of beings he termed "night-gaunts".
Thirty years night gaunts would appear in Lovecraft's writing. Lovecraft's earliest known literary works began at age seven with poems restyling the Odyssey and other mythological stories. Lovecraft has said that as a child he was enamored with the Roman pantheon of gods, accepting them as genuine expressions of divinity and foregoing his Christian upbringing, he recalls, at five years old, being told Santa Claus did not exist and retorting by asking why "God is not a myth." At the age of eight he took a keen interest in the sciences astronomy and chemistry. He examined the anatomy books available to him in the family library, learning the specifics of human reproduction that had yet to be explained to him, found that it "virtually killed my interest in the subject." In 1902, according to Lovecraft's own correspondence, astronomy became a guiding influence on his world view. He began producing the periodical Rhode Island Journal of Astronomy, of which 69
Edward Marsh (polymath)
Sir Edward Howard Marsh was a British polymath, arts patron and civil servant. He was the sponsor of the Georgian school of poets and a friend to many poets, including Rupert Brooke and Siegfried Sassoon. In his career as a civil servant he worked as Private Secretary to a succession of the United Kingdom's most powerful ministers Winston Churchill, he was a influential figure within Britain's homosexual community. Marsh's father was Howard Marsh, a surgeon and Master of Downing College, Cambridge, his mother, born Jane Perceval, was a granddaughter of prime minister Spencer Perceval, a daughter of Spencer Perceval, MP, one of the twelve "apostles" recognized by the movement associated with Edward Irving and known as the Catholic Apostolic Church. Jane, a nurse, was one of the founders of the Alexandra Hospital for Children with Hip Disease. Marsh was educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, where he studied classics under Arthur Woollgar Verrall. At Cambridge, he became associated with R.
C. Trevelyan, Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, Maurice Baring, he was a Cambridge Apostle. In 1896 he was appointed Assistant Private Secretary to the Colonial Secretary; when Chamberlain resigned in 1903, Marsh became Private Secretary to his successor, Alfred Lyttelton. When Winston Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1905 during Henry Campbell-Bannerman's first Government, Marsh became Churchill's Private Secretary, beginning an association and friendship that would last until Marsh's death. Marsh would be Churchill's Private Secretary for the next ten years, until Churchill left the Government in 1915; as Randolph Churchill put it, from December 1905, "Marsh was to accompany Churchill to every Government department he occupied: to the Board of Trade, the Home Office, the Admiralty, the Duchy of Lancaster, the Ministry of Munitions, the War Office, back to his original Colonial Office and the Treasury." These moves were somewhat irregular as Marsh remained, until 1937 a clerk at the Colonial Office, but many exceptions were made at a cost to Marsh's official advancement.
When Churchill left government for the first time in 1915, Marsh became Assistant Private Secretary to Prime Minister H. H. Asquith, in which position he served until the fall of Asquith's government in December 1916; when Churchill returned to government as Minister of Munitions in 1916, Marsh joined him there as Private Secretary and worked in that position, through successive departments, until the fall of David Lloyd George's Coalition Government in 1922. When Churchill became Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1924, Marsh joined him there as Private Secretary and remained at the Treasury until the fall of Stanley Baldwin's second government in 1929, when Marsh was returned to work at the Colonial Office, he served as Private Secretary to every Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1929 until his retirement in 1937. Marsh was knighted upon his retirement. A classical scholar and translator, Marsh edited five anthologies of Georgian Poetry between 1912 and 1922, he became Rupert Brooke's literary executor, editing his Collected Poems in 1918.
In life he published verse translations of La Fontaine and Horace, a translation of Eugène Fromentin's novel Dominique. The sales of the first three Georgian Poetry anthologies were impressive, ranging between 15,000 and 19,000 copies apiece. Marsh and the critic J. C. Squire were the group's most important patrons, it was in Marsh's London rooms that Siegfried Sassoon and Rupert Brooke met for the only time, in June 1914. In 1931, he won a literary contest with a new stanza for Paradise Lost, which repairs the omission of how "Adam and Eve Brush Their Teeth". In 1939, he produced his memoirs, titled A Number of People. An edited collection of letters and Small Beer, appeared in 1964, recording two decades of correspondence with his friend and biographer, Christopher Hassall. Marsh advised Somerset Maugham about his writing between 1935 and 1953 with hundreds of pages of criticism; this is recorded in Ted Morgan's biography of Maugham Marsh was a consistent collector and supporter of the works of the avant-garde artists Mark Gertler, Duncan Grant, David Bomberg and Paul Nash, all of whom were associated with the Bloomsbury Group.
In addition to his work editing Churchill's writing, Marsh introduced Siegfried Sassoon to Churchill as a means of aiding the former's career. He was a close friend of Ivor Novello. Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: The Challenge of War 1914–1916. 1971 C&T Publications, Ltd. Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: The Stricken World 1916–1922. 1975 C&T Publications, Ltd. etc. Churchill, Randolph S. and Martin Gilbert. 1966. Winston S. Churchill. London: Heinemann. Gilbert, Martin. 1992. Churchill: A Life. 1st Owl book ed. New York: Holt. Hassall, Christopher. 1959. A Biography of Edward Marsh. First American edition. New York: Harcourt, Brace. Hassall, Denis Mathews, Winston Churchill. 1953. Eddie Marsh: Sketches for a Composite Literary Portrait of Sir Edward Marsh. London: Lund Humphries. La Fontaine, Jean de, Edward Howard Marsh, Stephen Gooden. 1931. The Fables of Jean de La Fontaine. London: New York: Heinemann. Marsh, Edward Howard. 1939. A Number of People: A Book of Reminiscences. New York, London: Harper & brothers.
Marsh, Edward Howard, Christopher Hassall. 1965. Ambrosia and Small Beer: The Record of a Correspondence between Edward Marsh and Christopher Hassall. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. Schroder and Joan Hassall. 1970. Catalogue of Books and Manuscripts by Rupert Brooke, Edward Marsh & Chri