List of literary movements

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This is a list of modern literary movements: that is, movements after the Renaissance, these terms, helpful for curricula or anthologies, evolved over time to group certain writers who are often loosely related. Some of these movements (such as Dada and Beat) were defined by the members themselves, while other terms (the metaphysical poets, ) emerged decades or centuries after the periods in question. Ordering is approximate, as there is considerable overlap.

Amatory fiction[edit]

Cavalier Poets[edit]

Metaphysical poets[edit]

The Augustans[edit]

Romanticism[edit]

Gothic novel[edit]

Lake Poets[edit]

American Romanticism[edit]

  • Distinct from European Romanticism, the American form emerged somewhat later, was based more in fiction than in poetry, and incorporated a (sometimes almost suffocating) awareness of history, particularly the darkest aspects of American history.

Pre-Raphaelitism[edit]

Transcendentalism[edit]

Dark romanticism[edit]

Realism[edit]

Naturalism[edit]

Symbolism[edit]

Stream of consciousness[edit]

  • Early-20th-century fiction consisting of literary representations of quotidian thought, without authorial presence.

Modernism[edit]

The Lost Generation[edit]

Dada[edit]

  • Touted by its proponents as anti-art, dada focused on going against artistic norms and conventions.

First World War Poets[edit]

Stridentism[edit]

Los Contemporáneos[edit]

Imagism[edit]

Harlem Renaissance[edit]

Surrealism[edit]

  • Originally a French movement, influenced by Surrealist painting, that uses surprising images and transitions to play off of formal expectations and depict the unconscious rather than conscious mind.

Southern Agrarians[edit]

Oulipo[edit]

  • Mid-20th-century poetry and prose based on seemingly arbitrary rules for the sake of added challenge.

Postmodernism[edit]

Black Mountain Poets[edit]

Beat poets[edit]

Hungryalist Poets[edit]

Confessional poetry[edit]

New York School[edit]

Magical Realism[edit]

Postcolonialism[edit]

Prakalpana Movement[edit]

  • This ongoing movement launched in 1969 based in Calcutta, by the Prakalpana group of Indian writers in Bengali literature, who created new forms of Prakalpana fiction, Sarbangin poetry and the philosophy of Chetanavyasism, later spreads worldwide.

Spiralism[edit]

  • A literary movement founded in the late 1960s by René Philoctète, Jean-Claude Fignolé, and Frankétienne. Spiralism defines life at the level of relations (colors, odors, sounds, signs, words) and historical connections.

Spoken Word[edit]

New Formalism[edit]

Performance Poetry[edit]

  • This is the lasting viral component of Spoken Word and one of the most popular forms of poetry in the 21st century. It is a new oral poetry originating in the 1980s in Austin, Texas, using the speaking voice and other theatrical elements. Practitioners write for the speaking voice instead of writing poetry for the silent printed page, the major figure is American Hedwig Gorski who began broadcasting live radio poetry with East of Eden Band during the early 1980s. Gorski, considered a post-Beat, created the term Performance Poetry to define and distinguish what she and the band did from performance art. Instead of books, poets use audio recordings and digital media along with television spawning Slam Poetry and Def Poets on television and Broadway.