SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Literary theory

Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature. However, literary scholarship since the 19th century includes—in addition to, or instead of literary theory in the strict sense—considerations of intellectual history, moral philosophy, social prophecy, other interdisciplinary themes which are of relevance to the way humans interpret meaning. In the humanities in modern academia, the latter style of scholarship is an outgrowth of critical theory and is called "theory"; as a consequence, the word "theory" has become an umbrella term for a variety of scholarly approaches to reading texts. Many of these approaches are informed of sociology; the practice of literary theory became a profession in the 20th century, but it has historical roots that run as far back as ancient Greece, ancient India, ancient Rome and medieval Iraq. The aesthetic theories of philosophers from ancient philosophy through the 18th and 19th centuries are important influences on current literary study.

The theory and criticism of literature are tied to the history of literature. However, the modern sense of "literary theory" only dates to the 1950s when the structuralist linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure began to influence English language literary criticism; the New Critics and various European-influenced formalists had described some of their more abstract efforts as "theoretical" as well. But it was not until the broad impact of structuralism began to be felt in the English-speaking academic world that "literary theory" was thought of as a unified domain. In the academic world of the United Kingdom and the United States, literary theory was at its most popular from the late 1960s through the 1980s. During this span of time, literary theory was perceived as academically cutting-edge, most university literature departments sought to teach and study theory and incorporate it into their curricula; because of its meteoric rise in popularity and the difficult language of its key texts, theory was often criticized as faddish or trendy obscurantism.

Some scholars, both theoretical and anti-theoretical, refer to the 1970s and 1980s debates on the academic merits of theory as "the theory wars". By the early 1990s, the popularity of "theory" as a subject of interest by itself was declining even as the texts of literary theory were incorporated into the study of all literature. By 2010, the controversy over the use of theory in literary studies had quieted down, discussions on the topic within literary and cultural studies tend now to be milder and less lively. However, some scholars like Mark Bauerlein continue to argue that less capable theorists have abandoned proven methods of epistemology, resulting in persistent lapses in learning and evaluation; some scholars do draw on theory in their work, while others only mention it in passing or not at all. One of the fundamental questions of literary theory is "what is literature?" – although many contemporary theorists and literary scholars believe either that "literature" cannot be defined or that it can refer to any use of language.

Specific theories are distinguished not only by their methods and conclusions, but by how they create meaning in a "text". However, some theorists acknowledge that these texts do not have a singular, fixed meaning, deemed "correct". Since theorists of literature draw on a heterogeneous tradition of Continental philosophy and the philosophy of language, any classification of their approaches is only an approximation. There are many types of literary theory. Among those listed below, many scholars combine methods from more than one of these approaches. Broad schools of theory that have been important include historical and biographical criticism, New Criticism, Russian formalism, structuralism, post-structuralism, Marxism and French feminism, post-colonialism, new historicism, reader-response criticism, psychoanalytic criticism; the different interpretive and epistemological perspectives of different schools of theory arise from, so give support to, different moral and political commitments. For instance, the work of the New Critics contained an implicit moral dimension, sometimes a religious one: a New Critic might read a poem by T. S. Eliot or Gerard Manley Hopkins for its degree of honesty in expressing the torment and contradiction of a serious search for belief in the modern world.

Meanwhile, a Marxist critic might find such judgments ideological rather than critical. Or a post-structuralist critic might avoid the issue by understanding the religious meaning of a poem as an allegory of me

Wilkinson (musician)

Mark Wilkinson, better known by his stage name Wilkinson, is an English record producer, DJ and remixer from Hammersmith, England. He has released music on RAM Records and Hospital Records, as well as Virgin EMI, his 2013 single "Afterglow" with uncredited vocals by Becky Hill reached number 8 in the UK Singles Chart on 20 October 2013. His debut album Lazers Not Included was released on 28 October 2013. On 13 December 2010 Wilkinson released; the tracks were first premiered through Andy C's drum and bass compilation album Nightlife 5. On 12 June 2011, he released the single "Every Time / Overdose", which became the 99th single release of RAM Records. "Every Time" features vocals from Marcus Gregg and it became Wilkinson's first song to spawn a music video. On 4 December 2011, he released "Tonight / Pistol Whip". "Tonight" was re-released in 2013 as the iTunes Single of the Week to promote the release of his debut studio album Lazers Not Included. On 19 August 2012, he released the single "Automatic / Hands Up!".

Although it received mixed feedback and less airplay, "Automatic" still managed to gain support from the likes of Annie Mac and MistaJam. On 2 December 2012, he released "Need to Know / Direction" featuring Iman as the lead single from his debut studio album. On 3 April 2013, he released "Take You Higher / Crunch" as the next single from the album. On 26 July 2013, he released "Heartbeat" featuring P Money and Arlissa as the third single from his debut studio album. On 13 October 2013, he released "Afterglow" as the fourth single from his debut studio album; the song peaked at number 8 on the UK Singles Chart, making it his first top 10 single in the UK. On 28 October 2013, he released; the album peaked at number 46 on number 2 on the UK Dance Chart. On 9 February 2014, he released "Too Close" featuring Detour City as the album's fifth single, which peaked at number 55 in the UK; the album's sixth single "Half Light" charted at number 25 in the UK, making it Wilkinson's second top 40 single. It was released on 1 June 2014.

Since the release of Lazers Not Included, Wilkinson has worked on music with Katy B, Wretch 32, Angel Haze and Knytro. On 14 July 2014, a new single entitled "Dirty Love" premiered on MistaJam's BBC Radio 1Xtra show; the song features vocals from Talay Riley, was released on 12 October 2014. The song featured on the "extended edition" of Lazers Not Included, released on 20 October 2014; this new edition of his debut album titled Lazers Not Included 2.0, was to be released on 18 August 2014 and was to feature six unheard songs. However, these plans were scrapped and the extended edition instead featured numerous remixes of and by Wilkinson alongside the new single. On 2 October 2014, he embarked on his Lazers Not Included tour with support from Etherwood, I See MONSTAS and Toyboy & Robin on selected dates; the tour finished in Cambridge. A new song with Shannon Saunders, entitled "Breathe", premiered in Bournemouth, his next single, a collaboration with TC entitled "Hit the Floor", was released to Beatport on 12 January 2015 and elsewhere on 26 January.

The song was pressed to a number of limited edition picture discs for Record Store Day 2015. On 6 March 2015, his next single entitled "Hopelessly Coping" premiered on Annie Mac's Radio 1 show, it was released on 17 May 2015 alongside remixes from Gorgon City, René LaVice and Hanami. The song entered the UK Singles Chart at number 49. On 24 August 2015, "Breathe" was released as a free download, accompanied by a music video; the song is available on digital retailers. "Flatline", the lead single from Wilkinson's forthcoming second studio album, features vocals from Wretch 32 and was released on 12 March 2016. This was followed by "What", featuring uncredited vocals from MC Ad-Apt and "Sweet Lies", featuring vocals from Karen Harding. Official website

Special Olympics Bharat

Special Olympics Bharat is an recognised programme of Special Olympics International which operates in India. It was founded in 1987 as Special Olympics India, changed its name to Special Olympics Bharat in 2001, it is recognized by the government of India as a National Sports Federation for the development of sports opportunity for the people with intellectual disabilities. The special Olympics Bharat programme has so far drawn a number of coaches to work with 850875 athletes across the country. Special Olympics Bharat is a National Sports Federation registered under the Indian Trust Act 1882 in 2001 and is accredited by Special Olympics International to conduct Special Olympics Programs in India, it is recognized by the Government of India as a National Sports Federation in the Priority Category, for development of Sports for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities, is a designated Nodal Agency for all disabilities on account of its national presence and experience in rural areas which account for nearly 75 per cent of the disabled population in India.

"Let me win. But if I cannot win, let me be brave in the attempt." A total of 885 Special Olympics Bharat athletes have participated in eight World Summer Games and five World Winter Games between 1987 and 2015. They have won 322 gold, 343 silver and 397 bronze medals in the world summer and world winter games bringing a combined count to 1062 Medals. 743 Athletes have participated at the Special Olympics World Summer Games since 1987 until 2015. Through participation across 8 World Summer Games they have won 286 Gold,304 Silver and 378 Bronze Medals to an overall tally of 968.214 Athletes and 53 Coaches participated at the Special Olympics World Summer games held in LA, USA from 25 July- 2 August 2015 across 14 sport disciplines. They were: Athletics, Bocce, Badminton, Table Tennis, Volley Ball, Football, Power lifting, Roller skating, Cycling & Unified Golf. With 7,000 athletes and 3,000 coaches representing 177 countries, along with 30,000 volunteers, the 2015 Special Olympics World Games was the single biggest event in Los Angeles since the 1984 Olympic Games.

The 2015 Special Olympics World Games, with the unparalleled spirit, teamwork and displays of courage and skill that are hallmarks of all Special Olympics events, featured 25 Olympic-style sports in venues throughout the Los Angeles region. 142 Athletes have participated at the Special Olympics World Winter Games since 1993 until 2013. Through participation across 5 Special Olympics World Winter Games they have won 36 Gold,39 Silver and 19 Bronze Medals to an overall tally of 94