Cessnock Correctional Centre
Cessnock Correctional Centre, an Australian minimum and maximum security prison for males, is located in Cessnock, New South Wales. The centre is operated by Corrective Services NSW an agency of the Department of Attorney General, the centre detains sentenced and unsentenced felons under New South Wales and/or Commonwealth legislation. Facilities were significantly updated during 2012, including the completion of Australias first purpose-built maximum security sex offenders unit, the centre serves as the reception prison for the Newcastle and Hunter Region. Nathan Baggaley – a former Olympic sprint canoer, jailed between 2009 and 2011 for dealing ecstasy, william MacDonald – Lenny McPherson – organised crime figure. Harry M. Miller – media agent and publicist, nigel Milsom – Archibald Prize-winning painter, armed robbery
A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer and cider. It is a relaxed, social drinking establishment and a prominent part of British, New Zealand, Canadian, in many places, especially in villages, a pub is the focal point of the community. In his 17th century diary Samuel Pepys described the pub as the heart of England, Pubs can be traced back to Roman taverns, through the Anglo-Saxon alehouse to the development of the tied house system in the 19th century. In 1393, King Richard II of England introduced legislation that pubs had to display a sign outdoors to make them easily visible for passing ale tasters who would assess the quality of ale sold, most pubs focus on offering beers and similar drinks. As well, pubs often sell wines and soft drinks, the owner, tenant or manager is known as the pub landlord or publican. The pub quiz was established in the UK in the 1970s and these alehouses quickly evolved into meeting houses for the folk to socially congregate and arrange mutual help within their communities.
Herein lies the origin of the public house, or Pub as it is colloquially called in England. They rapidly spread across the Kingdom, becoming so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village. A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, the Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. A survey in 1577 of drinking establishment in England and Wales for taxation purposes recorded 14,202 alehouses,1,631 inns, Inns are buildings where travellers can seek lodging and, usually and drink. They are typically located in the country or along a highway, in Europe, they possibly first sprang up when the Romans built a system of roads two millennia ago. Some inns in Europe are several centuries old, in addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation, if anything, the latter tend to provide alcohol, but less commonly accommodation.
Famous London inns include The George and The Tabard, there is however no longer a formal distinction between an inn and other kinds of establishment. In North America, the aspect of the word inn lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn. The Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery in London started as ordinary inns where barristers met to do business, traditional English ale was made solely from fermented malt. The practice of adding hops to produce beer was introduced from the Netherlands in the early 15th century, alehouses would each brew their own distinctive ale, but independent breweries began to appear in the late 17th century. By the end of the century almost all beer was brewed by commercial breweries, the 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments, primarily due to the introduction of gin
Marrangaroo, New South Wales
Marrangaroo is a small town in the Central West of New South Wales, Australia in the City of Lithgow. Marrangaroo is located a few kilometres or 5 minutes west of Lithgow and it is accessible from the Great Western Highway, and has no rail station and little bus services. Jones Bros Bus Company run buses between Lithgow and Bathurst, which limited stops at Marrangaroo on the Great Western Highway. A main feature of Marrangaroo was the Trout Farm which was opposite the Lithgow Correctional Centre, at the 2006 census, Marrangaroo had a population of 869. Marrangaroo Army Camp situated at the end of Reserve Road used to be an ammunition depot from 1941 to the late 1980s. It is now used for demolitions and various training by all three Australian Defence Force services, during the World War II it housed chemical warfare facilities, at the time, one of Australias best kept secrets. He was subsequently recalled from Cairns in 1944 to identify the site but was unsure as to whether, after Burn marked the site on an aerial map a ground search revealed they were still there.
The legacy of weapons remains with several hundred empty chemical munition containers being found buried at Marrangaroo Army Camp from May 2008 to February 2009. A remediation project to remove heavy metal started in November 2008 with a secondary task to remove any more buried chemical munitions. The revelation of Marrangaroos history sparked significant local media interest, the Department of Defence established a website for community consultation and feedback on the decontamination. A railway station opened at Marrangaroo on the Main Western line in 1878, also, it has been suggested as the western terminus for the proposed Bells Line Expressway
Goulburn Correctional Centre
The facility is operated by Corrective Services NSW, an agency of the Department of Attorney General and Justice, of the Government of New South Wales. The current structure incorporates a massive, hand-carved sandstone gate and façade that was opened in 1884 based on designs by the Colonial Architect, the High Risk Management Centre was opened in September 2001. This was the first such facility in Australia and makes the Centre the highest security prison in Australia, Goulburns first lock-up was built around 1830 and gallows were built as early as 1832 when floggings were common. The first Goulburn Gaol was proclaimed on 28 June 1847, attached to the local Courthouse, when the Controller of Prisons first reported to parliament in 1878 Goulburn Gaol had accommodation for 63 segregated and 127 associated prisoners, and held 66 prisoners, inclusive of one female. New premises were in the process of erection in 1881 as part of a scheme to bring the Colony from its position as regards to prison buildings.
The building called and known by the name of the New Gaol at Goulburn on the current site was proclaimed as a Public Gaol, the gaol became a place of detention for male prisoners under sentence or transportation. The new gaol increased the capacity of the gaol to 182 separated and 546 associated prisoners, in the year ended 1884 there were a total of 295 prisoners in custody. In 1893 prison labour was used to build an additional 127 cells to Goulburn Gaol, six yards for youthful offenders. This extension enabled Goulburn gaol to operate on the principle of restricted association which was gradually being adopted throughout the Colony, the following year additional cells were erected for female prisoners. The 7th class prisoners were moved into the womens cells thus preventing contact between these young prisoners and serious offenders. Steam cooking facilities were installed and a 70-foot chimney was erected, the prison was renamed the Goulburn Reformatory in 1928, and became known as the Goulburn Training Centre in 1949.
In 1992 the centre was again renamed - Goulburn Correctional Centre, Goulburn was one of the principal gaols in NSW. Opened in 2001 at a cost of A$20 million, the Super Maximum facility is located within the confines of the Goulburn Correctional Centre. Initially called the High-Risk Management Unit, it was Australias first Supermax prison since the closure of the Katingal facility at the Long Bay Correctional Centre in 1978. The facility is the most secure prison within the NSW correctional system, and the inmates are subject to very strict daily regimes, a 2008 report by the New South Wales Ombudsman explained that there is “no doubt… that the HRMU does not provide a therapeutic environment for these inmates”. Criminal charges were laid against the inmate and his alleged co-conspirators, malcolm George Baker – serving six consecutive terms of life imprisonment plus 25 years without the possibility of parole for the Central Coast Massacre in 1992. Darryl Burrell – convicted of armed robbery, attempted murder and assault with a deadly weapon, sef Gonzales – sentenced to three consecutive terms of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole for the murders of his parents and Mary Loiva, and younger sister Clodine.
Bassam Hamzy – jailed for the 1998 shooting murder of Kris Toumazis outside a Sydney nightclub, founder of the Brothers for Life street gang
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
John Wayne Glover
Over a fourteen-month period in 1989/90, Glover killed six elderly women, for which he was dubbed in the press as the Granny Killer. Following arrest in 1990, he admitted to the murders and was sentenced to terms of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. He committed suicide by hanging himself in prison on 9 September 2005, originally from a working-class family in Wolverhampton, Glover was convicted of many petty crimes dating back to 1947 for stealing clothing and handbags. He was out of the British army when these crimes were discovered. Later, he emigrated to Australia in 1956 or 1957 with no qualifications where he first lived in Melbourne. Before John Glover began his killings in the late 1980s, he was a volunteer at the Senior Citizens Society and he was married with two daughters, and lived a contented lifestyle in Mosman. Glover worked as a representative for the FourN Twenty meat pie company. Glovers mother moved to Australia in 1976, she died of breast cancer in 1989, that year, Glover was diagnosed with breast cancer.
Glover separated from his wife, who took their daughters to New Zealand, shortly after emigrating from England to Australia, Glover was convicted on two counts of larceny in Victoria, and a stealing charge in New South Wales. In 1962, he was convicted on two counts of assaulting women in Melbourne, two counts of indecent assault, one of assault occasioning bodily harm, and another four counts of larceny. He was sentenced to a three-year good-behaviour bond, there is no proof of Glover killing before 1989, when he was 56. At this stage, he had married for 20 years with children. Glover admitted to the killings when confronted with the police evidence and he denied responsibility for other crimes in which he was a prime suspect, including the bashing murder of 78-year-old artist Florence Broadhurst in her Paddington studio in 1977. A number of years after his conviction, Glover admitted that he never worried about who his victims were and he said he wanted to stop killing, but couldnt. After each murder, he went about his normal life.
On 11 January 1989, 84-year-old Margaret Todhunter was walking down Hale Road, after parking his car, he walked up to the victim. He punched Todhunter in the face, and stole the contents of her purse including $209, Glover went to the Mosman RSL club where he spent Mrs Todhunters money. Investigating police concluded the crime was a mugging and held little hope of finding the perpetrator, on 1 March 1989, as Glover left the Mosman RSL in Military Rd, he saw 82-year-old Gwendoline Mitchelhill walking down the street
Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for so-called protection, gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can be referred to as a mafia, mob, or crime syndicate, European sociologists define the mafia as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi law enforcement. There is a tendency to distinguish organized crime from other forms of crime, such as crime, financial crimes, political crimes, war crime, state crimes. This distinction is not always apparent and academics continue to debate the matter, for example, in failed states that can no longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance, organised crime and war sometimes complement each other. The term Oligarchy has been used to describe democratic countries whose political and economic institutions come under the control of a few families, in the United States, the Organized Crime Control Act defines organized crime as he unlawful activities of a highly organized, disciplined association.
Criminal activity as a process is referred to as racketeering. In the UK, police estimate that organized crime involves up to 38,000 people operating in 6,000 various groups, bureaucratic/corporate organized crime groups are defined by the general rigidity of their internal structures. An estimate on youth street gangs nationwide provided by Hannigan, et al. marked an increase of 35% between 2002 and 2010, the term “street gang” is commonly used interchangeably with “youth gang, ” referring to neighborhood or street-based youth groups that meet “gang” criteria. Some reasons youth join gangs include to feel accepted, attain status, a sense of unity brings together many of the youth gangs that lack the family aspect at home. Zones of transition are deteriorating neighborhoods with shifting populations, in such areas, conflict between groups, turf wars, and theft promote solidarity and cohesion. Participation in gang-related events during adolescence perpetuate a pattern of maltreatment on their own children years later, klein like Spergel studied the effects on members of social workers’ interventions.
More interventions actually lead to greater participation and solidarity and bonds between members. Downes and Rock on Parker’s analysis, strain theory applies, labeling theory, control theory and these may be defined by age or peer group influences, and the permanence or consistency of their criminal activity. These groups form their own identity or public representation which are recognizable by the community at large. Some studied street gangs involved in drug dealing - finding that their structure, members saw themselves as organized criminals, gangs were formal-rational organizations, Strong organizational structures, well defined roles and rules that guided members’ behavior. Also a specified and regular means of income, padilla agreed with the two above. However some have found these to be rather than well-defined and lacking persistent focus, there was relatively low cohesion, few shared goals
Punishment in Australia
The Australian prison system is a part of the Australian criminal justice system. As of 2014, 51% of Australian prisoners were convicted of a violent crime, prisons in Australia are operated for the detention of minimum and maximum security prisoners convicted in state and federal courts. There is no separate federal prison infrastructure, new South Wales, as the founding site for English settlement in Australia in 1788, has had prisons for as long as Australia has had European settlement. The first Australian colony was founded at Port Jackson on 26 January 1788, in Australia, life imprisonment is of indeterminate length. It was finally abolished through federal law in 1973 with the Death Penalty Abolition Act 1973 of the Commonwealth abolished the death penalty for federal offences, no executions were carried out under the bridge of the federal government and the passage of the Death Penalty Abolition Act 1973. Convicts saw the death penalty replaced with life imprisonment as their maximum punishment, the following prisons in Australia are managed by private corporations
Department of Justice (New South Wales)
The chief executive officer, called Secretary, of the department is Andrew Cappie-Wood. All ministers are responsible to the Parliament of New South Wales. The departments headquarters are located in the Justice Precinct Office, part of the Parramatta Justice Precinct in Parramatta, the departments more than 4,000 staff are located across New South Wales. The re-organisation of the system of Colonial New South Wales led to the creation of the Attorney-General. In 1901, the Department of Attorney General and the Department of Justice were amalgamated into the Department of the Attorney General, in 1911, two separate branches of the Department were established, called divisions which continued until the 1970s. Responsibility for police and corrective services were removed from the Department in the 1970s, some four years later, the two Departments were merged and the Justice portfolio re-established in 2009 through the creation of the Department of Justice and Attorney General. The headquarters of the department was at the Goodsell Building in Chifley Square, in 2008 the departments main business centres were relocated to newer offices in Parramatta.
Following the 2011 state election the department was merged with Corrective Services, on 23 April 2014 it was decided that the department would be renamed the Department of Police and Justice. Subsequent government initiatives lead to the department becoming the Department of Justice, the following agencies are administered by the department, Department of Justice website The New South Wales Victims Compensation Tribunal