In archaeology, a lithic flake is a "portion of rock removed from an objective piece by percussion or pressure," and may be referred to as a chip or spall, or collectively as debitage. The objective piece, or the rock being reduced by the removal of flakes, is known as a core. Once the proper tool stone has been selected, a percussor or pressure flaker is used to direct a sharp blow, or apply sufficient force to the surface of the stone on the edge of the piece; the energy of this blow propagates through the material producing a Hertzian cone of force which causes the rock to fracture in a controllable fashion. Since cores are struck on an edge with a suitable angle for flake propagation, the result is that only a portion of the Hertzian cone is created; the process continues as the flintknapper detaches the desired number of flakes from the core, marked with the negative scars of these removals. The surface area of the core which received the blows necessary for detaching the flakes is referred to as the striking platform.
Flakes may be produced by a variety of means. Force may be introduced by pressure. Additionally, flakes may be initiated in a Hertzian, wedging fashion; when a flake is detached from its core in a Hertzian fashion, the flake propagates in a conchoidal manner from the point of impact or pressure producing a partial Hertzian cone. The cone of force leaves a distinctive bulb of applied force on the flake and a corresponding flake scar on the core. A bending initiation results when a flake initiates not at the point where the force was applied, but rather further away from the edge of the core, resulting in a flake with no Hertzian cone or bulb of applied force and few if any of the characteristics ripples or undulations seen on the ventral surface of conchoidally produced flakes. Wedging initiation is the result of a strong hammer blow. At impact, concentric radii emanate from the point of percussion, but unlike conchoidal fracture, the force travels along what would be the center of the Hertzian cone.
The bipolar reduction technique is typified by its use of wedge initiation. Like bending initiation, no bulb of applied force results from wedging initiation, although in the bipolar technique, flakes may appear to have two points of percussion, on opposite ends, because the core has been fractured by a hammer and anvil technique; the core is placed on a hard surface or "anvil" and is struck above by a hammer, thus the fracture may propagate from both ends simultaneously. The end which received the blow or pressure is referred to as the proximal end of the flake; the side displaying the bulb of force but without flake scars is called the ventral surface, while the opposite side, displaying the flake scars of previous removals, or the cortical or original rock surface, is the dorsal surface. On most natural cobbles or nodules of source material, a weathered outer rind called a cortex covers the unweathered inner material. Flakes are differentiated by the amount of cortex present on their dorsal surfaces, because the amount of cortex indicates when in the sequence of reduction the flake came from.
Primary flakes are those whose dorsal surfaces are covered with cortex. Primary flakes and secondary flakes are associated with the initial stages of lithic reduction, while tertiary flakes are more to be associated with retouching and bifacial reduction activities. Prominent bulbs of force indicate that a hard hammer percussor was used to detach the flake. Hard hammer flakes are indicative of primary reduction strategies. More moderate and diffuse bulbs may indicate the use of a soft hammer percussor—such as bone, wood, or antler—which produces the bending flakes associated with bifacial thinning and trimming; the relative abundance of each type of flake can indicate what sort of lithic work was going on at a particular spot at a particular point in time. A blade is defined as a flake with parallel or subparallel margins, at least twice as long as it is wide. There are numerous specialized types of blade flakes. Channel flakes are characteristic flakes caused by the fluting of certain Paleo-Indian projectile points.
Prismatic blades are long, narrow specialized blades with parallel margins which may be removed from polyhedral blade cores, another common lithic feature of Paleo-Indian lithic culture. Prismatic blades are triangular in cross section with several facets or flake scars on the dorsal surface. Prismatic blades begin to appear in high frequencies during the transition between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic; this lithic technology replaces the Levallois reduction technology. The striking platform is the point on the proximal portion of the flake on which the detachment blow fell or pressure was placed; this may be prepared. Termination type is a characteristic indicating the manner in which the distal end of a flake detached from
James Printer known as Wowaus, was a Native American from the Nipmuc tribe who studied and worked as a printer in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was one of the most famous early Nipmuc writers. Printer was the first Native American printer's devil in America as well as one of John Eliot's most accomplished interpreters who assisted in the creation of the Eliot Indian Bible. Little is known of Printer's early years. Printer was born in the Indian Praying town of Hassanamesit near, Massachusetts, he was the son of Naoas. Naoas was a convert of John Eliot and a leading member of the Christian Native church in Hassanamesit. Printer attended Harvard's Indian College beginning in 1659, he worked as an apprentice to Samuel Green at his printing press. Through his apprenticeship he became an accomplished typesetter and he pursued a printing career for most of his life, he worked among the English for nearly his entire life. Printer was the first Native American printer's devil in America, he played an instrumental role in the printing of John Eliot's Indian Bible, the first bible printed in America, printed in the Massachusett language.
Printer helped to complete a thousand copies of the Indian Bible before the end of 1663. While other Native Americans helped Eliot in the creation of his Bible, Printer is said to have been Eliot's most accomplished interpreter who did more than any of the other interpreters to translate the Bible into the Massachusett dialect. Several scholars point out the bible was most composed by Native Americans and that Printer along with Cockenoe and Job Nesuton deserve at least equal credit for the production of Eliot's collection of publication in Native American languages. In addition to the Indian Bible, Printer helped to produce two books of Psalms, he typeset Puritan missionary works which publicized his and other Christian Native Americans' piety. Involved in the typesetting of the Cambridge editions of Mary Rowlandson's famous captivity narrative, A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, in which he appears as a minor character during Rowlandson's ransom negotiations.
Printer worked as a typesetter for sixteen years before the outbreak of King Philip's War. Printer's major contribution to American literature came during King Philip's War while he worked as a scribe for King Philip known as Metacomet. During the war, Printer left Cambridge for Hassanamesit. At the outbreak of King Philip's War, Printer was falsely accused of participating in a raid on Lancaster, Massachusetts, he narrowly escaped death. Following his escape, the town of Hassanamesit was attacked by Metacomet's men who gave the inhabitants the choice to either come with them or stay and have their corn stores burned. Printer along with the other inhabitants chose to go with Metacomet's men. During his willing captivity, it is believed, Printer along with other Native American Christian captives came to sympathize with Metacomet's men. During the war, Printer was despised by the English for being a traitor. Printer is known for two letters; these letters were written from the Native Americans to the English.
The first of the two notable letters was found tacked to a bridge post outside of the town of Medfield, Massachusetts in 1675. While the note was unsigned, several scholars attribute the note to James Printer; the note states that the English have provoked the Native American's to war and that the Native Americans have nothing to lose in the fight but their lives while English may lose their property and possessions. This letter is notable due to its shrewdness to recognize that the loss of the colonists' private property would make them vulnerable. In addition the fact that the message was written in English was evidence that it could only have come from a Native American with extensive Christian education which showed the Englishmen's attempts to assimilate Native Americans was not wholly successful. Many have been puzzled by Printer's devaluation of Native American lives in the letter, but some scholars read it as an ironic appropriation of colonial logic, while others argue, utilizes the English view of Native American lives as worth less than their own possessions.
It has been suggested that it highlights the Puritan view that Native Americans were agents of God sent to deprive New Englanders of material property to remind them of their commitment to God. The second letter is known to have been written by Printer during King Philip's War; this letter concerns the ransom for Mary Rowlandson and other colonists held captive by King Philip's men. This letter was part of the negotiation for the release of her fellow captives; the letter can be read as an attempt by Printer to mend fences with the English. The letter is an extraordinary example of early Native American writing which shows Printers writing skills, he worked as the typesetter for Mary Rowlandson's narrative of her captivity The Sovereignty and Goodness of God published in 1682. After the war Printer was granted amnesty, but like the other Christian Native Americans he had to demonstrate his loyalty to the colonists; this demonstration involved bringing the heads or scalps of anti-English Native Americans with him on his return.
After King Philip's War, Printer returned to work as a printer in Cambridge. He returned to Hassanamesit and taught there, he is described as working as a teacher for five Indian families in 1698. Following the war Printer advocated for Nipmuck land holdings, his son Ami signed the deed in 1727 which sold the last of the tribal lands at Hassanamesit
Clarence M. Kelley was an American law enforcement officer who served as the second Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Clarence Kelley was born in Kansas City, Missouri in 1911, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Kansas in 1936 as a member of Sigma Nu fraternity. He continued his education to earn an LL. B. from the University of Kansas City, Missouri, in 1940. He was admitted to the Missouri Bar the same year and joined the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a Special Agent on October 7, 1940, he served in field offices in West Virginia. Kelley served in the United States Navy from July 22, 1944, to April 9, 1946, having been granted military leave from the FBI. Returning from military service Kelley was assigned to the Kansas City office, where his performance earned him a promotion to field supervisor, he served at FBI Headquarters in Washington, D. C. in 1951. From July 1953 to July 1957, he served as Assistant Special Agent in Charge at the Houston and San Francisco offices.
He was transferred to the Training and Inspection Division at FBI Headquarters, becoming an Inspector. In December 1957, he was promoted to Special Agent in Charge of the Birmingham office and was reassigned to the Memphis office in November 1960, where he served as Special Agent in Charge until his retirement from the FBI on October 24, 1961. Before retiring from the FBI Kelley was the Chief of Police in Missouri. During that time, he was a officer of several civic associations, he is acknowledged and respected as an innovator who created the first helicopter division and installed the first computer systems in the Kansas City Police Department. In 1970 Kelley received the J. Edgar Hoover Gold Medal for Outstanding Job Service, presented by the Veterans of Foreign Wars; the following year he was named to the Presidential Advisory Committee, served on both the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals and on the FBI National Academy Review Committee from 1972–1973.
On June 7, 1973, President Richard M. Nixon nominated Kelley to be Director of the FBI; the United States Senate confirmed the nomination June 27 and he was sworn in on July 9. Kelley was the first Director of the FBI to be appointed through the nomination and confirmation process. During his time as Director, Kelley is known for eliminating the embezzlement practices, prevalent in the administrative division under J. Edgar Hoover's directorship through his cooperation with a Justice Department investigation. Kelley reopened relations with other intelligence agencies, such as the CIA which had nearly been shut down by Hoover in his last years as director. Kelley helped the FBI transition from its 40 plus years of being dominated by a single director, J. Edgar Hoover, by improving the public image of the FBI as an organization in change albeit without making the change forceful enough to FBI agents, loyal to Hoover. Kelley announced his intention to retire in 1977, prompting an exhaustive year-long search for a successor.
President Jimmy Carter decided on William H. Webster, nominated in January 1978. Kelley retired from the FBI February 15, 1978 and was temporarily succeeded by James B. Adams, who served as Acting Director until Webster's confirmation 8 days later. Kelley founded Clarence M. Kelley and Associates, Inc. a security and investigation firm, in 1982. CMKA is now Security Consulting Firms. CMKA http://www.cmka.com/ provides a broad spectrum of investigative and security related services nationally and abroad. Kelley died in 1997 in his sleep from natural causes in his Kansas City home, his remains were buried at Mount Washington Cemetery in Independence, Missouri. He was buried next to his wife. Kelley, Clarence M.. Kelley: The Story of an FBI Director. Kansas City: Andrews, McMeel & Parker. ISBN 0-8362-7935-2. Kelley's memoirs. Gentry, Curt. J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-393-32128-9. FBI biography CMKA Homepage