Lithium cyanide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Lithium cyanide[1][2][3]
Lithium-cyanide-unit-cell-3D-SF.png
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.017.554
UN number 1935
Properties
LiCN
Molar mass 32.959 g/mol
Appearance White Powder
Density 1.073 g/cm3 (18 °C)
Melting point 160 °C (320 °F; 433 K) Dark colored
Boiling point N/A
Soluble
N/A
Structure
-
Fourfold
Hazards
Safety data sheet 742899
T+, Very Toxic N, Dangerous for the environment
R-phrases (outdated) 26/27/28-32-50/53
S-phrases (outdated) 7-28-29-45-60-61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 4: Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury. E.g., VX gasReactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calciumSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
4
1
Flash point 57 °C (135 °F; 330 K)
N/A
Related compounds
Related compounds
Sodium cyanide, Potassium cyanide, Hydrogen cyanide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Lithium cyanide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiCN. It is a white, hygroscopic, water-soluble powder that finds only niche uses.

Preparation[edit]

LiCN arises from the interaction of lithium hydroxide andhydrogen cyanide. A laboratory-scale preparation uses acetone cyanohydrin as a surrogate for HCN: [4]

(CH3)2C(OH)CN + LiH → (CH3)2CO + LiCN + H2

Reactions[edit]

The compound decomposes to cyanamide and carbon when heated to a temperature close to but below 600°C. Acids react to give hydrogen cyanide.[5]

Lithium cyanide can be used as a reagent for cyanation.[6]

RX + LiCN → RCN

References[edit]

  1. ^ J. A. Lely,, J. M. Bijvoet (1942), "The Crystal Structure of Lithium Cyanide", Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 61, London: WILEY-VCH Verlag 
  2. ^ Haynes, W.M (2013), "Bernard Lewis", in Bruno, Thomas., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (93 ed.), Boca Raton, Florida: Fitzroy Dearborn 
  3. ^ Material Safety Data Sheet: Lithium Cyanide, 0.5M Solution in N,N-Dimethylformamide, Fisher Scientific, 16 June 1999 
  4. ^ Tom Livinghouse (1981). "Trimethylsilyl Cyanide: Cyanosilylation of p-Benzoquinone". Org. Synth. 60: 126. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.060.0126. 
  5. ^ L. Pesce (2010). "Cyanides". Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0325011416051903.a01.pub2. 
  6. ^ "Non-aqueous cyanation of halides using lithium cyanide". Elsevier. Retrieved 2012-10-17.