International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work. It constitutes a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field, peer review methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is used to determine an academic papers suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification. In academia, peer review is common in decisions related to faculty advancement, a prototype professional peer-review process was recommended in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishāq ibn ʻAlī al-Ruhāwī. He stated that a physician had to make duplicate notes of a patients condition on every visit.
Professional peer review is common in the field of health care, since peer review activity is commonly segmented by clinical discipline, there is physician peer review, nursing peer review, dentistry peer review, etc. Many other professional fields have some level of peer review process, law, engineering and even forest fire management. Peer review is used in education to achieve certain learning objectives and this may take a variety of forms, including closely mimicking the scholarly peer review processes used in science and medicine. The peer review helps the publisher decide whether the work should be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, peer review requires a community of experts in a given field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review. Peer review is generally considered necessary to academic quality and is used in most major scientific journals, the European Union has been using peer review in the Open Method of Co-ordination of policies in the fields of active labour market policy since 1999.
In 2004, a program of peer reviews started in social inclusion and these usually meet over two days and include visits to local sites where the policy can be seen in operation. The meeting is preceded by the compilation of a report on which participating peer countries submit comments. The results are published on the web, the State of California is the only U. S. state to mandate scientific peer review. This requirement is incorporated into the California Health and Safety Code Section 57004, the terminology has poor standardization and specificity, particularly as a database search term
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means change in form. The original rock is subjected to heat and pressure, causing profound physical and/or chemical change, the protolith may be a sedimentary, an igneous, or even an existing type of metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rocks make up a part of the Earths crust. They are classified by texture and by chemical and mineral assemblage and they may be formed simply by being deep beneath the Earths surface, subjected to high temperatures and the great pressure of the rock layers above it. They can form from tectonic processes such as continental collisions, which cause horizontal pressure and they are formed when rock is heated up by the intrusion of hot molten rock called magma from the Earths interior. The study of rocks provides information about the temperatures and pressures that occur at great depths within the Earths crust. Some examples of rocks are gneiss, marble, schist.
Metamorphic minerals are those that only at the high temperatures and pressures associated with the process of metamorphism. These minerals, known as index minerals, include sillimanite, staurolite and some garnet. Other minerals, such as olivines, amphiboles, micas and quartz, may be found in metamorphic rocks and these minerals formed during the crystallization of igneous rocks. They are stable at temperatures and pressures and may remain chemically unchanged during the metamorphic process. However, all minerals are only within certain limits. The change in the size of the rock during the process of metamorphism is called recrystallization. Both high temperatures and pressures contribute to recrystallization, high temperatures allow the atoms and ions in solid crystals to migrate, thus reorganizing the crystals, while high pressures cause solution of the crystals within the rock at their point of contact. The layering within metamorphic rocks is called foliation, and it occurs when a rock is being shortened along one axis during recrystallization.
This causes the platy or elongated crystals of minerals, such as mica and chlorite and this results in a banded, or foliated rock, with the bands showing the colors of the minerals that formed them. Textures are separated into foliated and non-foliated categories, foliated rock is a product of differential stress that deforms the rock in one plane, sometimes creating a plane of cleavage. For example, slate is a metamorphic rock, originating from shale
Elsevier is one of the worlds major providers of scientific and medical information, and a technology company originally established in 1880. It is now a part of the RELX Group, known until 2015 as Reed Elsevier, Elsevier publishes approximately 400,000 articles annually in 2,500 journals. Its archives contain over 13 million documents and 30,000 e-books, total yearly downloads amount to 900 million. Elseviers high profit margins and its practices have subjected it to criticism by researchers. Elsevier was founded in 1880 and took the name from the Dutch publishing house Elzevir which has no connection with the present company, the Elzevir family operated as booksellers and publishers in the Netherlands, the founder, Lodewijk Elzevir, lived in Leiden and established the business in 1580. The expansion of Elsevier in the field after 1945 was funded with the profits of the newsweekly Elsevier. The weekly was an instant success and earned lots of money, in 1947, Elsevier began publishing its first English-language journal, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta.
In 2013, Elsevier acquired Mendeley, a UK company making software for managing and sharing research papers, previously an open platform for sharing of research, was greatly criticized for the acquisition, which users saw as acceding to the paywall approach to research literature. Mendeleys previously open sharing system now allows exchange of paywalled resources only within private groups, the New Yorker described Elseviers reasons for buying Mendeley as two-fold, to acquire its user data, and to destroy or coöpt an open-science icon that threatens its business model. In December 2013, Elsevier announced a collaboration with University College, Elseviers investment is substantial and thought to be more than £10 million. In the primary research market during 2015, researchers submitted over 1. 3m research papers to Elsevier-based publications. Over 17,000 editors managed the peer review and selection of these papers, in 2013, the five editorial groups Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Taylor & Francis and SAGE Publications published more than half of all academic papers in the peer-reviewed literature.
At that time, Elsevier accounted for 16% of the market in science, technology. Elsevier breaks down its revenue sources by format and by geographic region, approximately 41% of revenue by geography in 2014 derived from North America, 27% from Europe and the remaining 32% from the rest of the world. Approximately 76% of revenue by format came from Electronic, 23% came from Print, Elsevier employs more than 7,200 people in over 70 offices across 24 countries. The company publishes 2,500 journals and 30,000 e-books and it is headed by Chief Executive Officer Ron Mobed. In 2015, Elsevier accounted for 35% of the revenues of RELX group, in operating profits, it represented 42%. Adjusted operating profits rose by 2% from 2014 to 2015, following the integration of its Science & Technology and Health Sciences divisions in 2012, Elsevier has operated under a traditional business structure with a single CEO
Igneous rock, or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava, the magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planets mantle or crust. Typically, the melting is caused by one or more of three processes, an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition, solidification into rock occurs either below the surface as intrusive rocks or on the surface as extrusive rocks. Igneous rock may form with crystallization to form granular, crystalline rocks and metamorphic rocks make up 90–95% of the top 16 km of the Earths crust by volume. Igneous rocks form about 15% of the Earths current land surface, most of the Earths oceanic crust is made of igneous rock. In terms of modes of occurrence, igneous rocks can be either intrusive or extrusive, the mineral grains in such rocks can generally be identified with the naked eye.
Intrusive rocks can be classified according to the shape and size of the intrusive body, typical intrusive formations are batholiths, laccoliths and dikes. When the magma solidifies within the earths crust, it cools slowly forming coarse textured rocks, such as granite, the central cores of major mountain ranges consist of intrusive igneous rocks, usually granite. When exposed by erosion, these cores may occupy huge areas of the Earths surface, intrusive igneous rocks that form at depth within the crust are termed plutonic rocks and are usually coarse-grained. Intrusive igneous rocks that form near the surface are termed subvolcanic or hypabyssal rocks, hypabyssal rocks are less common than plutonic or volcanic rocks and often form dikes, laccoliths, lopoliths, or phacoliths. Extrusive igneous rocks, known as rocks, are formed at the crusts surface as a result of the partial melting of rocks within the mantle. Extrusive igneous rocks cool and solidify quicker than intrusive igneous rocks and they are formed by the cooling of molten magma on the earths surface.
The magma, which is brought to the surface through fissures or volcanic eruptions, hence such rocks are smooth and fine-grained. Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock and forms lava flows, lava sheets. Some kinds of basalt solidify to form long polygonal columns, the Giants Causeway in Antrim, Northern Ireland is an example. The molten rock, with or without suspended crystals and gas bubbles, is called magma and it rises because it is less dense than the rock from which it was created. When magma reaches the surface from beneath water or air, it is called lava, eruptions of volcanoes into air are termed subaerial, whereas those occurring underneath the ocean are termed submarine. Black smokers and mid-ocean ridge basalt are examples of volcanic activity
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and they are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, the term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields, this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals. Upon receipt of an article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by scholars of the editors choosing who typically remain anonymous. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review. The editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, even accepted articles are often subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print.
The peer review can take several weeks to several months. Review articles, called reviews of progress, are checks on the published in journals. Some journals are devoted entirely to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, such reviews often cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms, some are devoted to specific topics, some to general surveys. Some journals are enumerative, listing all significant articles in a subject, others are selective. Yet others are evaluative, judging the state of progress in the subject field, some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research articles, review articles tend to be solicited submissions and they are typically relied upon by students beginning a study in a given field, or for current awareness of those already in the field. Reviews of scholarly books are checks upon the books published by scholars, unlike articles.
Journals typically have a book review editor determining which new books to review. If an outside scholar accepts the book review editors request for a book review, publishers send books to book review editors in the hope that their books will be reviewed. The length and depth of research book reviews varies much from journal to journal, as does the extent of textbook, an academic journals prestige is established over time, and can reflect many factors, some but not all of which are expressible quantitatively. In each academic discipline there are dominant journals that receive the largest number of submissions, not only the largest journals are of excellent quality
Petrology is the branch of geology that studies the origin, composition and structure of rocks. In the petroleum industry, lithology, or more specifically mud logging, is the representation of geological formations being drilled through. As the cuttings are circulated out of the borehole they are sampled and tested chemically when needed, Petrology utilizes the fields of mineralogy, optical mineralogy, and chemical analysis to describe the composition and texture of rocks. Igneous rocks include volcanic and plutonic rocks, sedimentary petrology focuses on the composition and texture of sedimentary rocks. Experiments are particularly useful for investigating rocks of the lower crust and they are one of the prime sources of information about completely inaccessible rocks such as those in the Earths lower mantle and in the mantles of the other terrestrial planets and the Moon. The work of experimental petrologists has laid a foundation on which modern understanding of igneous, important publications in petrology Ore Soil Best, Myron G.
Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. ISBN 1-4051-0588-7 Blatt, Tracy, Robert J. Owens, Petrology, sedimentary, ISBN 978-0-7167-3743-8 Dietrich, Richard Vincent, Brian J. Gems and Gravels, knowing and using rocks and minerals. ISBN 978-0-521-10722-8 Fei, Bertka, Constance M. Mysen, mantle Petrology, field observations and high-pressure experimentation. ISBN 0-941809-05-6 Philpotts, Ague, Principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can refer generally to the study of the features of any terrestrial planet. Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth by providing the evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life. Geology plays a role in engineering and is a major academic discipline. The majority of data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These typically fall into one of two categories and unconsolidated material, the majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three types of rock, igneous and metamorphic. The rock cycle is an important concept in geology which illustrates the relationships between three types of rock, and magma. When a rock crystallizes from melt, it is an igneous rock, the sedimentary rock can be subsequently turned into a metamorphic rock due to heat and pressure and is weathered, eroded and lithified, ultimately becoming a sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary rock may be re-eroded and redeposited, and metamorphic rock may undergo additional metamorphism, all three types of rocks may be re-melted, when this happens, a new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once again crystallize. Geologists study unlithified material which typically comes from more recent deposits and these materials are superficial deposits which lie above the bedrock. Because of this, the study of material is often known as Quaternary geology. This includes the study of sediment and soils, including studies in geomorphology and this theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading, and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity. This coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the mantle is called plate tectonics. The development of plate tectonics provided a basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features could be explained as plate boundaries, mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, were explained as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart.
Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes were explained as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts under another, transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes. Plate tectonics provided a mechanism for Alfred Wegeners theory of continental drift and they provided a driving force for crustal deformation, and a new setting for the observations of structural geology