The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Egypt–United States relations
Egypt–United States relations refers to the current and historical relationship between Egypt and the United States. The U. S. had minimal dealings with Egypt when it was controlled by Britain. President Gamal Abdel Nasser antagonized the U. S. by his pro-Soviet policies and anti-Israeli rhetoric, but the U. S. helped keep him in power by forcing Britain and France to end their invasion in 1956. American policy has been to provide strong support to governments that supported U. S. and Israeli interests in the region presidents Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak. Relations between Egypt and the United States date back to the late 19th century. Modern relations were established in 1922 when the United States recognized Egypt's independence from a protectorate status of the United Kingdom. In 1956, the U. S. was alarmed at the closer ties between Egypt and the Soviet Union, prepared the OMEGA Memorandum as a stick to reduce the regional power of President Gamal Abdel Nasser. When Egypt recognized Communist China, the U.
S. ended talks about funding the Aswan Dam, a high prestige project much desired by Egypt. The dam was built by the Soviet Union; when Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, the Suez Crisis erupted with Britain and France threatening war to retake control of the canal and depose Nasser. Israel did invade the Suez in October 1956, Britain and France sent in troops to seize the canal. Using heavy diplomatic and economic pressure, the Eisenhower administration forced Britain and France to withdraw soon, leading to a warming of relations between the U. S. and Egypt. After the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Egyptian foreign policy began to shift as a result of the change in Egypt's leadership from the fiery Nasser to the much more moderate Anwar Sadat and the emerging peace process between Egypt and Israel. Sadat]realized that reaching a settlement of the Arab–Israeli conflict is a precondition for Egyptian development. To achieve this goal, Sadat ventured to enhance U. S.–Egyptian relations to foster a peace process with Israel.
After a seven-year hiatus, both countries reestablished normal diplomatic relations on February 28, 1974. Sadat asked Moscow for help, Washington responded by offering more favorable of armys financial aid and technology; the advantages included Egypt's expulsion of 20,000 Soviet advisors and the reopening of the Suez Canal, were seen by Nixon as "an investment in peace." Encouraged by Washington, Sadat opened negotiations with Israel, resulting most notably in the Camp David Accords brokered by President Jimmy Carter and made peace with Israel in a historic peace treaty in 1979. Sadat's domestic policy, called'Infitah,' was aimed at modernizing the economy and removing Nasser's heavy-handed controls. Sadat realized American aid was essential to that goal, it allowed him to disengage from the Israeli conflict, to pursue a regional peace policy. Following the peace treaty with Israel, between 1979 and 2003, Egypt acquired about $19 billion in military aid, making Egypt the second largest non-NATO recipient of U.
S. military aid after Israel. Egypt received about $30 billion in economic aid within the same time frame. In 2009, the U. S. provided a military assistance of US$1.3 billion, an economic assistance of US$250 million. In 1989 both Egypt and Israel became a Major non-NATO ally of the United States. Military cooperation between the U. S. and Egypt is the strongest aspect of their strategic partnership. General Anthony Zinni, the former Commandant of the U. S. Central Command, once said, "Egypt is the most important country in my area of responsibility because of the access it gives me to the region." Egypt was described during the Clinton Administration as the most prominent player in the Arab world and a key U. S. ally in the Middle East. U. S. military assistance to Egypt was considered part of the administration's strategy to maintaining continued availability of Persian Gulf energy resources and to secure the Suez Canal, which serves both as an important international oil route and a critical route for U.
S. warships transiting between the Mediterranean and either the the Persian Gulf. Egypt is the strongest military power on the African continent, according to Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies' annual Middle East Strategic Balance, the second largest in the Middle East, after Israel. Despite differences and periods of friction in relations between the two countries, the U. S.–Egyptian relations under Mubarak had evolved, moving beyond the Middle East peace process towards an independent bilateral friendship. It was in the U. S. interest that Egypt was able to present moderate voice in Arab councils and persuade other Arab states to join the peace process and to normalize their relations with the U. S; however Egyptian–American relations have become a little tense. This is due to a great extent to the Egyptian unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistan and Iraq in peace stabilization missions. Egypt backed the U. S. in its war against international terrorism after the September 11th attacks of 2001 but refused to send troops to Afghanistan during the war and after it.
Egypt opposed U. S. military intervention of March 2003 in Iraq through their membership in the African Union and the Arab League, continued to oppose U. S. occupation of the country after the war and further refused to comply with U. S. requests to send troops to the country under a UN umbrella. The issue of participation in the post-war construction efforts in Iraq has been controversial in Egypt and in the Arab world as a whole. Opponents say that the war was illegal and it is
Republic of the Congo–United States relations
Republic of the Congo–United States relations are the international relations between the Republic of the Congo and the United States of America. The Republic of the Congo was recognized by the United States on the day of its independence, 15 August 1960. Diplomatic relations between the United States and Congo were broken during the most radical Congolese-Marxist period, 1965-77; the U. S. Embassy reopened in 1977 with the restoration of relations, which remained distant until the end of the socialist era; the late 1980s were marked by a progressive warming of Congolese relations with Western countries, including the United States. Congolese President Denis Sassou-Nguesso made a state visit to Washington in 1990, where he was received by President George H. W. Bush. Emmanuel Damongo-Dadet served as the first Congolese Ambassador to the United States during the early 1960s. With the advent of democracy in 1991, Congo's relations with the United States improved and were cooperative; the United States has supported Congolese democratization efforts, contributing aid to the country's electoral process.
The Congolese Government demonstrated an active interest in deepening and broadening its relations with the United States. Transition Prime Minister Andre Milongo made an official visit to Washington in 1992, where President Bush received him at the White House. Then-presidential candidate Pascal Lissouba travelled to Washington in 1992, meeting with officials, including Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Herman J. Cohen. After his election in August 1992, President Lissouba expressed interest in expanding U. S.-Congo links, seeking increased U. S. development aid, university exchanges, greater U. S. investment in Congo. With the outbreak of the 1996 war, the U. S. Embassy was evacuated; the Embassy was closed, its personnel became resident in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2001, Embassy-suspended operations were lifted, Embassy personnel were allowed to travel to Brazzaville for periods of extended temporary duty from the U. S. Embassy in Kinshasa; as a result, U. S.-Congo bilateral relations were reinvigorated.
In 2003 and 2004, this practice continued, a site for construction of a new Embassy was acquired in July 2004. Diplomatic activities and programs were carried out in a temporary bank location until January 2009, when a new functioning Embassy was opened. Relations between the United States and the government of President Denis Sassou-Nguesso are positive and cooperative; the U. S. Embassy accredited to Congo is in Republic of the Congo; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Republic of the Congo - U. S. relations
Foreign relations of the United States
The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations. This includes all U. N. member states except for Bhutan, North Korea, Syria. Additionally, the U. S. has diplomatic relations with the Holy See and Kosovo. The United States federal statutes relating to foreign relations can be found in Title 22 of the United States Code. American relations with Eastern Europe are influenced by the legacy of the Cold War. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, former Communist-bloc states in Europe have transitioned to democracy and capitalism. Many have joined the European Union and NATO, strengthening economic ties with the broader Western world and gaining the military protection of the United States via the North Atlantic Treaty; the United States has many important allies in the Greater Middle East region. These allies are Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Kuwait and Qatar. Israel and Egypt are leading recipients of United States foreign aid, receiving $2.775 billion and 1.75 billion in 2010.
Turkey is an ally of the United States through its membership in NATO, while all of the other countries except Saudi Arabia and Qatar are major non-NATO allies. The United States toppled the government of Saddam Hussein during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Turkey is host to 90 B61 nuclear bombs at Incirlik Air Base. Other allies include Qatar, where 3,500 U. S. troops are based, Bahrain, where the United States Navy maintains NSA Bahrain, home of NAVCENT and the Fifth Fleet. Many countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations are important partners for United States in both economic and geostrategic aspects. ASEAN's geostrategic importance stems from many factors, including: the strategic location of member countries, the large shares of global trade that pass through regional waters, the alliances and partnerships which the United States shares with ASEAN member states. In July 2009, the United States signed ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, which establishes guiding principles intended to build confidence among its signatories with the aim of maintaining regional peace and stability.
Trade flows are robust and increasing between the ASEAN region. Belarus Libya Sudan Syria Yemen Andorra Antigua and Barbuda Bhutan Comoros Dominica Grenada Guinea-Bissau Iran Kiribati Liechtenstein Maldives Monaco Nauru North Korea Palestine Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino São Tomé and Príncipe Seychelles Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland South Ossetia Transnistria Arctic policy of the United States Criticism of United States foreign policy Foreign policy of the United States List of diplomatic missions in the United States List of diplomatic missions of the United States Major non-NATO ally United States involvement in regime change United States foreign aid Watching America Guide to Countries, Office of the Historian, U. S. Department of State This article i
Lithuanian Americans refers to American citizens and residents who are Lithuanian and were born in Lithuania, or are of Lithuanian descent. New Philadelphia, Pennsylvania has the largest percentage of Lithuanian Americans in the United States. Lithuanian Americans form by far the largest group within the Lithuanian diaspora, it is believed that Lithuanian emigration to the United States began in the 17th century when Alexander Curtius arrived in New Amsterdam in 1659 and became the first Latin School teacher-administrator. After the fall of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, most of Lithuania was incorporated into the Russian Empire; the beginnings of industrialization and commercial agriculture based on Stolypin's reforms, as well as the abolition of serfdom in 1861, freed the peasants and turned them into migrant-laborers. The pressures of industrialization, Lithuanian press ban, general discontent, suppression of religious freedom and poverty drove numerous Lithuanians to emigrate from the Russian Empire to the United States continuing until the outbreak of the First World War.
The emigration continued despite the Tsarist attempts to control the border and prevent such a drastic loss of population. Since Lithuania as a country did not exist at the time, the people who arrived to the U. S. were recorded as either Russian. Only after 1918, when Lithuania established its independence, the immigrants to the U. S. started being recorded as Lithuanians. This first wave of Lithuanian immigrants to the United States ceased when the U. S. Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act in 1921, followed by the Immigration Act of 1924; the Immigration Act of 1924 was aimed at restricting the Eastern and Southern Europeans who had begun to enter the country in large numbers beginning in the 1890s. A second wave of Lithuanians emigrated to the United States as a result of the events surrounding World War II – the Soviet occupation of Lithuania in 1940 and the Nazi occupation that followed in 1941. After the war's end and the subsequent reoccupation of Lithuania by the Soviet Union, these Displaced Persons were allowed to immigrate to the United States and to apply for American citizenship thanks to a special act of Congress which bypassed the quota system, still in place until 1967.
Immigration of Lithuanians into the U. S. resumed after Lithuania regained its independence after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990. This wave of immigration has tapered off with tougher U. S. immigration requirements and the entry of Lithuania into the EU have made countries such as Ireland and the United Kingdom a more accessible option for potential Lithuanian emigrants. Lithuanian Days in Pennsylvania is the longest-running ethnic festival in the United States. At the end of the 19th century Lithuanians differed from most immigrant groups in the United States in several ways, they moved to the U. S. not only to escape poverty, but to avoid bitter religious and national persecution, compulsory military service in the Russian army. They did not plan to remain permanently and become "Americanized." Instead their intent was to live in the U. S. temporarily to earn money, invest in property, wait for the right opportunity to return to Lithuania. Official estimates were that 30% of the emigrants from the Russian provinces of Poland-Lithuania returned home.
When adjusted to include only non-Jews the number is closer to 50-60%. Lithuanian immigrants who moved to the United States from Imperial Russia lived in a social environment akin to early European feudal society, where classless Jews performed the essential middle roles of artisans and moneylenders. American employers considered Lithuanian immigrants, like the Poles, as better suited for arduous manual labor in coal-mines and steel mills in the primary stages of steel manufacture. Lithuanian migrants were recruited for work in the coal mines of Pennsylvania and the heavy industries of the Northeastern United States as well the Great Lakes cities of Chicago, Detroit, Buffalo and Cleveland; the emigration after World War II was different from the previous wave. The people who went to the U. S. were escaping in order to avoid the Soviet deportations to forced labour camps that were directed at certain social groups. Many of these people constituted political and intellectual elite of the pre-war Lithuania and therefore were more qualified to find better jobs in the US.
Although some people took factory jobs in Detroit or Chicago, many Lithuanians pursued careers in engineering, medicine, or education. Some clergy in predominantly Catholic Lithuania felt oppressed by Communism and moved to America. Many famous people in the United States are or have been aware of their Lithuanian ancestry, including famous movie director Robert Zemeckis actors Ruta Lee, Blackie Dammett, John C. Reilly, Charles Bronson, Brendon Small, Jason Sudeikis and Robert Downey Jr. rock stars Anthony Kiedis, Brandon Flowers, Thalia Zedek, model Jurgita Valts, notorious criminal Alvin Karpis, radio host Tom Leykis, scientist Marija Gimbutas, Bishop Louis Vezelis, OFM. Current Senate Majority Whip Dick Durbin is half-Lithuanian. Noted Catholic Archbishop Paul Marcinkus, who held a post at the Vatican for a while, was an American whose father was Lithuanian. Famous skateboarder Natas Kaupas, one of the innovators of street skating in the late 1980s and early 1990s, is of Lithuanian heritage.
Others, such as William Shatner
Eswatini–United States relations
Eswatini–United States relations are bilateral relations between Eswatini and the United States. The United States seeks to maintain and strengthen the bilateral relations that have existed since the kingdom became independent in 1968. U. S. policy improved industrial relations. The United States assists Eswatini with a number of HIV/AIDS initiatives and programs implemented through the U. S. Agency for International Development, Centers for Disease Control, the Peace Corps, African Development Foundation, the Department of Labor, the Department of Defense. In addition, the U. S. supports small enterprise development, military training and human resources development, agricultural development, trade capacity building. The U. S. is the largest bilateral donor to the Global Fund, Swaziland's principal HIV/AIDS funding source. The U. S. Government sends about 4 Swazi professionals to the United States each year, from both the public and private sectors for master's degrees, about 5 others for three- to four-week International Visitor programs.
In 2003, Peace Corps volunteers returned to Swaziland after a nine-year absence. The current Peace Corps/Swaziland program, Community Health Project, focuses on HIV/AIDS and provides assistance in the execution of two components of the HIV/AIDS national strategy—risk reduction and mitigation of the impact of the disease. Volunteers encourage youth to engage in appropriate behaviors that will reduce the spread of HIV. Principal U. S. officials include Ambassador Lisa J. Peterson, Deputy Chief of Mission Sarah Morrison, Peace Corps Country Director Nwando Diallo; the U. S. maintains an embassy in Eswatini. Foreign relations of Eswatini Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Swaziland - U. S. relations
Somalia–United States relations
Somalia–United States relations are bilateral relations between the Federal Republic of Somalia and the United States of America. Somalia has an embassy in Washington, D. C. while the United States is represented through its embassy in Nairobi, due to the security situation in Somalia. Somalia had historic relations with the United States under the Geledi Sultanate. In 1776, the Geledi Sultanate was the first independent state in Africa to recognise the United States, diplomatic relations were established in 1777 with the Geledi sharing naval intelligence with the American naval forces. In 1897, the Geledi Sultanate sent a high-profile delegation to New York under their foreign minister Khalid Aden Mohammed and signed the Indian Ocean Naval Treaty to combat Zanzibar slave trading. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Somalia's socialist government abandoned alliances with its former partner the Soviet Union due to fallout over the Ogaden War; because the Soviet Union had close relations with both the Somali government and Ethiopia's new communist Dergue regime, they were forced to choose one side to commit to.
The Soviet shift in support to Ethiopia motivated the Siad Barre government to seek allies elsewhere. It settled on the Soviet Unions' Cold War rival, the United States; the US had been courting the Somali government for some time on account of Somalia's strategic position at the mouth of the Bab el Mandeb gateway to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. Somalia's initial friendship with the Soviet Union and military support by the United States enabled it to build the largest army on the continent. After the collapse of the Barre government and the start of the Somali Civil War in the early 1990s, the United States embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed down. However, the American government never formally severed diplomatic ties with Somalia, leading the UN-sanctioned multinational Unified Task Force in southern Somalia. Following the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, the U. S. acknowledged and supported the internationally recognized TFG as the country's national governing body.
It engaged Somalia's regional administrations, such as Puntland and Somaliland, to ensure broad-based inclusion in the peace process. The Federal Government of Somalia was established on August 20, 2012, concurrent with the end of the TFG's interim mandate, it represents the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war. On September 10, 2012, the new Federal Parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as the incumbent President of Somalia; the election was welcomed by the U. S. authorities, who re-affirmed United States' continued support for Somalia's government, its territorial integrity and sovereignty. In January 2013, the U. S. announced that it was set to exchange diplomatic notes with the new central government of Somalia, re-establishing official ties with the country for the first time in 20 years. According to the Department of State, the decision was made in recognition of the significant progress that the Somali authorities had achieved on both the political and war fronts.
The move is expected to grant the Somali government access to new sources of development funds from American agencies as well as international bodies like the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, thereby facilitating the ongoing reconstruction process. At the behest of the Somali and American federal governments, among other international actors, the United Nations Security Council unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093 during its 6 March 2013 meeting to suspend the 21-year arms embargo on Somalia; the endorsement lifts the purchase ban on light weapons for a provisional period of one year, but retains certain restrictions on the procurement of heavy arms such as surface-to-air missiles and cannons. On April 9, 2013, the U. S. government approved the provision of defense articles and services by the American authorities to the Somali Federal Government. At the request of the Somali authorities and AMISOM, the U. S. military in late 2013 established a small team of advisers in Mogadishu to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces.
On 5 May 2015, President of Somalia Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, other senior Somali government officials met with US Secretary of State John Kerry in Mogadishu. The bilateral meeting was the first visit to Somalia by an incumbent US Secretary of State, it served as a symbol of the ameliorated political and security situation in the country. The officials focused on the benchmarks enshrined within Somalia's Vision 2016 political roadmap, as well as cooperation in the security sector. In January 2017 after President Donald Trump took office, Somali citizens were temporary banned from entering the United States by the executive order "Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States." This includes Somali refugees who are willing to resettle in the United States through the US refugee admissions program. After the election of Somali-American dual citizen Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed as the next Somali President, US Secretary Of State Rex Tillerson congratulated the president-elect and is looking forward to strengthen the relationship between Somalia and the United States and that the recent elections marks an important milestone in Somalia’s ongoing transition to peace and prosperity.
The United States has continued to be one of the main suppliers of armaments to the Somali National Army. In June 2009, the reconstituted SNA received 40 tonnes worth of arms and ammunition from the U. S. government to assist it in com