Torah has a range of meanings. It can most mean the first five books of the 24 books of the Tanakh, it is printed with the rabbinic commentaries, it can mean the continued narrative from the Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, it can mean the totality of Jewish teaching and practice, whether derived from biblical texts or rabbinic writings. Common to all these meanings, Torah consists of the origin of Jewish peoplehood: their call into being by God, their trials and tribulations, their covenant with their God, which involves following a way of life embodied in a set of moral and religious obligations and civil laws. In rabbinic literature the word Torah denotes both the Oral Torah; the Oral Torah consists of interpretations and amplifications which according to rabbinic tradition have been handed down from generation to generation and are now embodied in the Talmud and Midrash. According to rabbinic tradition, all of the teachings found in the Torah, both written and oral, were given by God through the prophet Moses, some at Mount Sinai and others at the Tabernacle, all the teachings were written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah that exists today.
According to the Midrash, the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, was used as the blueprint for Creation. The majority of Biblical scholars believe that the written books were a product of the Babylonian captivity, based on earlier written sources and oral traditions, that it was completed during the period of Achaemenid rule. Traditionally, the words of the Torah are written on a scroll by a scribe in Hebrew. A Torah portion is read publicly at least once every three days in the presence of a congregation. Reading the Torah publicly is one of the bases of Jewish communal life; the word "Torah" in Hebrew is derived from the root ירה, which in the hif'il conjugation means'to guide' or'to teach'. The meaning of the word is therefore "teaching", "doctrine", or "instruction"; the Alexandrian Jews who translated the Septuagint used the Greek word nomos, meaning norm, doctrine, "law". Greek and Latin Bibles began the custom of calling the Pentateuch The Law. Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, guidance, or system.
The term "Torah" is used in the general sense to include both Rabbinic Judaism's written law and Oral Law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more, the inaccurate rendering of "Torah" as "Law" may be an obstacle to understanding the ideal, summed up in the term talmud torah. The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been "The Torah of Moses"; this title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets. It appears in Joshua and Kings. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were "The Book of Moses" and "The Book of the Torah", which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, "The Book of the Torah of God". Christian scholars refer to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible as the'Pentateuch', a term first used in the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria.
The Torah starts from the beginning of God's creating the world, through the beginnings of the people of Israel, their descent into Egypt, the giving of the Torah at biblical Mount Sinai. It ends with the death of Moses, just before the people of Israel cross to the promised land of Canaan. Interspersed in the narrative are the specific teachings given explicitly or implicitly embedded in the narrative. In Hebrew, the five books of the Torah are identified by the incipits in each book, it is divisible into the Primeval history and the Ancestral history. The primeval history sets out the author's concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world, good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, saving only the righteous Noah to reestablish the relationship between man and God; the Ancestral history tells of the prehistory of Israel, God's chosen people
Jewish prayer are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism. These prayers with instructions and commentary, are found in the siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer book. However, the term tefillah as referenced in the Talmud refers to the Shemoneh Esreh. Prayer—as a "service of the heart"—is in principle a Torah-based commandment, it is mandatory for both Jewish men and women. You shall serve God with your whole heart. However, in general, Jewish men are obligated to conduct tefillah three times a day within specific time ranges, according to some posekim, women are only required to engage in tefillah once a day, others say at least twice a day. Traditionally, since the Second Temple period, three prayer services are recited daily: Morning prayer: Shacharit or Shaharit, from the Hebrew shachar or shahar "morning light", Afternoon prayer: Mincha or Minha, the afternoon prayers named for the flour offering that accompanied sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem, Additional prayer: Arvit or Maariv, from "nightfall".
Further additional prayers: Musaf are recited by Orthodox and Conservative congregations on Shabbat, major Jewish holidays, Rosh Chodesh. A fifth prayer service, Ne'ila, is recited only on the Day of Atonement; the Talmud Bavli gives two reasons why there are three basic prayers de-rabbanan since the early Second Temple period on: to recall the daily sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem, and/or because each of the Patriarchs instituted one prayer: Abraham the morning, Isaac the afternoon and Jacob the evening prayer. The Talmud yerushalmi states that the Anshei Knesset HaGedola learned and understood the beneficial concept of regular daily prayer from personal habits of the forefathers as hinted in the Tanach, instituted the three daily prayers. A distinction is made between individual prayer and communal prayer, which requires a quorum known as a minyan, with communal prayer being preferable as it permits the inclusion of prayers that otherwise would be omitted. Maimonides relates that until the Babylonian exile, all Jews had composed their own prayers, but thereafter the sages of the Great Assembly in the early Second Temple period composed the main portions of the siddur.
Modern scholarship dating from the Wissenschaft des Judentums movement of 19th-century Germany, as well as textual analysis influenced by the 20th-century discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, suggests that dating from this period there existed "liturgical formulations of a communal nature designated for particular occasions and conducted in a centre independent of Jerusalem and the Temple, making use of terminology and theological concepts that were to become dominant in Jewish and, in some cases, Christian prayer." The language of the prayers, while from the Second Temple period employs Biblical idiom. Jewish prayerbooks emerged during the early Middle Ages during the period of the Geonim of Babylonia Over the last two thousand years traditional variations have emerged among the traditional liturgical customs of different Jewish communities, such as Ashkenazic, Yemenite, Eretz Yisrael and others, or rather recent liturgical inventions such as Hassidic and various Reform minhagim; however the differences are minor compared with the commonalities.
Halachically, Jews can switch from one nusach tefillah to an other at any time on a daily basis, are not bound to follow the nusach of their forefathers. Most of the Jewish liturgy is chanted with traditional melodies or trope. Synagogues may designate or employ a professional or lay hazzan for the purpose of leading the congregation in prayer on Shabbat or holidays. According to the Talmud Bavli, tefillah is a Biblical command: "'You shall serve God with your whole heart.' What service is performed with the heart? This is tefillah." Prayer is therefore referred to as Avodah sheba-Lev. It is mandatory for both Jewish men and women. Mentioning tefillah, the Talmud always refers to the Amidah, called Shemoneh Esreh; the noted rabbi Maimonides categorizes tefillah as a Biblical command of Written law, as the Babylon Talmud says. However, corresponding with the Jerusalem Talmud, the RaMBaM did hold that the number of tefillot and their times are not a Biblical command of Written law and that the forefathers did not institute such a Takkanah, rather it was a rabbinical command de-rabbanan based on a takkanah of the Anshei Knesset HaGedola.
The Oral law, according to the Talmud Bavli gives two reasons why there are three basic prayers: According to Rabbi Jose b. Hanina, each of the Patriarchs instituted one prayer: Abraham the morning, Isaac the afternoon and Jacob the evening prayers; this view is supported with Biblical quotes indicating that the Patriarchs prayed at the times mentioned. However according to this view, the exact times of when the services are held, moreover the entire concept of a mussaf service, are still based on the sacr
A synagogue, is a Jewish or Samaritan house of worship. Synagogues have a large place for prayer and may have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices; some have a separate room for Torah study, called the בית מדרש beth midrash "house of study". Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, Tanakh reading and assembly. Halakha holds. Worship can be carried out alone or with fewer than ten people assembled together. However, halakha considers certain prayers as communal prayers and therefore they may be recited only by a minyan. In terms of its specific ritual and liturgical functions, the synagogue does not replace the long-since destroyed Temple in Jerusalem. Israelis use the Hebrew term beyt knesset "house of assembly". Ashkenazi Jews have traditionally used the Yiddish term shul in everyday speech. Sephardi Jews and Romaniote Jews use the term kal. Spanish Jews call the synagogue Portuguese Jews call it an esnoga. Persian Jews and some Karaite Jews use the term kenesa, derived from Aramaic, some Mizrahi Jews use kenis.
Some Reform, Reconstructionist, Conservative Jews use the word "temple". The Greek word synagogue is used in English to cover the preceding possibilities. Although synagogues existed a long time before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, communal worship in the time while the Temple still stood centered around the korbanot brought by the kohanim in the Temple in Jerusalem; the all-day Yom Kippur service, in fact, was an event in which the congregation both observed the movements of the kohen gadol as he offered the day's sacrifices and prayed for his success. During the Babylonian captivity the men of the Great Assembly formalized and standardized the language of the Jewish prayers. Prior to that people prayed as they saw fit, with each individual praying in his or her own way, there were no standard prayers that were recited. Johanan ben Zakai, one of the leaders at the end of the Second Temple era, promulgated the idea of creating individual houses of worship in whatever locale Jews found themselves.
This contributed to the continuity of the Jewish people by maintaining a unique identity and a portable way of worship despite the destruction of the Temple, according to many historians. Synagogues in the sense of purpose-built spaces for worship, or rooms constructed for some other purpose but reserved for formal, communal prayer, existed long before the destruction of the Second Temple; the earliest archaeological evidence for the existence of early synagogues comes from Egypt, where stone synagogue dedication inscriptions dating from the 3rd century BCE prove that synagogues existed by that date. More than a dozen Jewish Second Temple era synagogues have been identified by archaeologists in Israel and other countries belonging to the Hellenistic world. Any Jew or group of Jews can build a synagogue. Synagogues have been constructed by ancient Jewish kings, by wealthy patrons, as part of a wide range of human institutions including secular educational institutions and hotels, by the entire community of Jews living in a particular place, or by sub-groups of Jews arrayed according to occupation, style of religious observance, or by the followers of a particular rabbi.
It has been theorized that the synagogue became a place of worship in the region upon the destruction of the Second Temple during the First Jewish–Roman War. The popularization of prayer over sacrifice during the years prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE had prepared the Jews for life in the diaspora, where prayer would serve as the focus of Jewish worship. Despite the possibility of synagogue-like spaces prior to the First Jewish–Roman War, the synagogue emerged as a stronghold for Jewish worship upon the destruction of the Temple. For Jews living in the wake of the Revolt, the synagogue functioned as a "portable system of worship". Within the synagogue, Jews worshipped by way of prayer rather than sacrifices, which had served as the main form of worship within the Second Temple; the Samaritan house of worship is called a synagogue. During the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, during the Hellenistic period, the Greek word used in the Diaspora by Samaritans and Jews was the same: proseucheµ.
The oldest Samaritan synagogue discovered so far is from Delos in the Aegean Islands, with an inscription dated between 250 and 175 BCE, while most Samaritan synagogues excavated in the wider Land of Israel and ancient Samaria in particular, were built during the 4th-7th centuries, at the end of the Roman and throughout the Byzantine period. The elements which distinguish Samaritan synagogues from contemporary Jewish ones are: Alphabet: the use of the Samaritan script Orthography; when the Samaritan script is used, there are some Hebrew words which would
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
History of the Jews in Belarus
The Jews in Belarus were the third largest ethnic group in the country in the first half of the 20th century. Before World War II, Jews were the third among the ethnic groups in Belarus and comprised more than 40% of the population in cities and towns; the population of cities such as Minsk, Mahiliou, Babrujsk and Homiel was more than 50% Jewish. In 1939 there were 13.6 % of the total population. Some 246,000 Jews of 375,000—66% of the Jewish population—were killed in Belarus during the Holocaust. According to the 2009 national census, there were 12,926 self-identifying Jews in Belarus; the Jewish Agency estimates the community of Jews in Belarus at 20,000. However, the number of Belarusians with Jewish descent is assumed to be higher. Throughout several centuries the lands of modern Belarus and the Republic of Lithuania were both parts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Therefore, the history of Belarusian Jews is related to the history of Jews in Lithuania; as early as the 8th century Jews lived in parts of the lands of modern Belarus.
Beginning with that period they conducted the trade between Ruthenia and the Baltic with Danzig and other cities on the Vistula and Elbe. The origin of Belarusian Jews has been the subject of much speculation, it is believed. The older and smaller of the two entered the territory that would become the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the east; these early immigrants spoke Judeo-Slavic dialects which distinguished them from the Jewish immigrants who entered the region from the Germanic lands. While the origin of these eastern Jews is not certain, historical evidence places Jewish refugees from Babylonia, the Byzantine Empire and other Jewish refugees and settlers in the lands between the Baltic and Black Seas that would become part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the and much larger stream of immigration originated in the 12th century and received an impetus from the persecution of the German Jews by the Crusaders. The traditional language of the vast majority of Lithuanian Jews, Yiddish, is based upon the Medieval German and Hebrew spoken by the western Germanic Jewish immigrants.
The peculiar conditions that prevailed in Belarus compelled the first Jewish settlers to adopt a different mode of life from that followed by their western ethnic brethren. At that time there were no cities in the western sense of the word in Belarus, no Magdeburg Rights or close guilds at that time; some of the cities which became the important centers of Jewish life in Belarus were at first mere villages. Hrodna, one of the oldest, was first mentioned in the chronicles of 1128. Navahrudak was founded somewhat by Yaroslav I the Wise. With the campaign of Hiedzimin and his subjection of Kiev and Volhynia the Jewish inhabitants of these territories were induced to spread throughout the northern provinces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the probable importance of the southern Jews in the development of Belarus and Lithuania is indicated by their numerical prominence in Volhynia in the 13th century. According to an annalist who describes the funeral of the grand duke Vladimir Vasilkovich in the city of Vladimir, "the Jews wept at his funeral as at the fall of Jerusalem, or when being led into the Babylonian captivity."
This sympathy and the record thereof would seem to indicate that long before the event in question the Jews had enjoyed considerable prosperity and influence, this gave them a certain standing under the new régime. They took an active part in the development of the new cities under the tolerant rule of duke Hiedzimin. Little is known of the fortunes of the Belarusian Jews during the troublous times that followed the death of Hiedzimin and the accession of his grandson Vitaut. To the latter, the Jews owed a charter of privileges, momentous in the subsequent history of the Jews of Belarus and Lithuania; the documents granting privileges first to the Jews of Brest and to those of Hrodna, Lutsk and other large towns are the earliest documents to recognize the Jews of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as possessing a distinct organization. The gathering together of the scattered Jewish settlers in sufficient numbers and with enough power to form such an organization and to obtain privileges from their Lithuanian rulers implies the lapse of considerable time.
The Jews who dwelt in smaller towns and villages were not in need of such privileges at this time, the mode of life, as Abraham Harkavy suggests, "the comparative poverty, the ignorance of Jewish learning among the Lithuanian Jews retarded their intercommunal organization." But powerful forces hastened this organization toward the close of the 14th century. The chief of these was the cooperation of the Jews of Poland with their brethren in the GDL. After the death of Casimir III, the condition of the Polish Jews changed for the worse; the influence of the Roman Catholic clergy at the Polish court grew. On this account it seems more than that influential Polish Jews cooperated with the leading Belarusian and Lithuanian communities in securing a special charter from Vitaut; the preamble of the charter reads All deeds of men, when they are not m
Yemenite Jews or Yemeni Jews or Teimanim are those Jews who live, or once lived, in Yemen. The term may refer to the descendants of the Yemenite Jewish community. Between June 1949 and September 1950, the overwhelming majority of Yemen's Jewish population was transported to Israel in Operation Magic Carpet. After several waves of persecution throughout Yemen, most Yemenite Jews now live in Israel, while smaller communities live in the United States and elsewhere. Only a handful remain in Yemen; the few remaining Jews experience intense, at times violent, anti-Semitism on a daily basis. Yemenite Jews have a unique religious tradition that marks them out as separate from Ashkenazi and other Jewish groups, they have been described as "the most Jewish of all Jews" and the same with Yemeni Arabs who are described as pure Arabs. Yemenite Jews are described as belonging to "Mizrahi Jews", though they differ from the general trend of Mizrahi groups in Israel, which have undergone a process of total or partial assimilation to Sephardic culture and Sephardic liturgy.
While the Shami sub-group of Yemenite Jews did adopt a Sephardic-influenced rite, this was in no small part due to it being forced upon them, did not reflect a demographic or cultural shift. Some Jewish families have preserved traditions relating to their tribal affiliation, based on partial genealogical records passed down generation after generation. In Yemen, for example, some Jews trace their lineage to Judah, others to Benjamin, while yet others to Levi and Reuben. Of particular interest is one distinguished Jewish family of Yemen who traced their lineage to Bani, one of the sons of Peretz, the son of Judah. There are numerous accounts and traditions concerning the arrival of Jews in various regions in Southern Arabia. One tradition suggests that King Solomon sent Jewish merchant marines to Yemen to prospect for gold and silver with which to adorn his Temple in Jerusalem. In 1881, the French vice consulate in Yemen wrote to the leaders of the Alliance in France, that he read in a book by the Arab historian Abu-Alfada that the Jews of Yemen settled in the area in 1451 BCE.
Another legend says that Yemeni tribes converted to Judaism after the Queen of Sheba's visit to King Solomon. The Sanaite Jews have a tradition that their ancestors settled in Yemen forty-two years before the destruction of the First Temple, it is said that under the prophet Jeremiah some 75,000 Jews, including priests and Levites, traveled to Yemen. Another legend states that when Ezra commanded the Jews to return to Jerusalem they disobeyed, whereupon he pronounced a ban upon them. According to this legend, as a punishment for this hasty action, Ezra was denied burial in Israel; as a result of this local tradition, which can not be validated it is said that no Jew of Yemen gives the name of Ezra to a child, although all other Biblical appellatives are used. The Yemenite Jews claim; this seems to have come true in the eyes of some Yemenites, as Yemen is poor. However, some Yemenite sages in Israel today emphatically reject this story as myth, if not outright blasphemy. Archaeological records referring to Judaism in Yemen started to appear during the rule of the Himyarite Kingdom, established in Yemen in 110 BCE.
Various inscription in Musnad script in the second century CE refer to constructions of synagogues approved by Himyarite Kings. According to local legends, the kingdom's aristocracy converted to Judaism in the 6th century CE; the Christian missionary, who came to Yemen in the mid-fourth century, complained that he had found great numbers of Jews. By 380 CE, Himyarites religious practices had undergone fundamental changes; the inscriptions were no longer addressed to El Maqah or'Athtar, but to a single deity called Rahman. Debate among scholars continues as to whether the Himyarite monotheism was influenced by Judaism or Christianity. Jews became numerous and powerful in the southern part of Arabia, a rich and fertile land of incense and spices and a way station on the routes to Africa and East Asia; the Yemeni tribes did not oppose Jewish presence in their country. By 516, tribal unrest broke out, several tribal elites fought for power. One of those elites was Joseph Dhu Nuwas or "Yûsuf'As'ar Yaṯ'ar" as mentioned in ancient south Arabian inscriptions.
The actual story of Joseph is murky. Greek and Ethiopian accounts, portray him as a Jewish zealot; some scholars suggest. Nestorian accounts claim that his mother was a Jew taken captive from Nisibis and bought by a king in Yemen, whose ancestors had converted to Judaism. Syriac and Byzantine sources maintain that Yûsuf ’As’ar sought to convert other Yemeni Christians, but they refused to renounce Christianity; the actual picture, remains unclear. Some scholars believe. In 2009 a BBC broadcast defended a claim that Yûsuf ’As’ar offered villagers the choice between conversion to Judaism or death and massacred 20,000 Christians; the program's producers stated that, "The production team spoke to many historians over 18 months, among them Nigel Groom, our consultant, Professor Abdul Rahman Al-Ansary." Inscriptions attributed to Yûsuf ’As’ar himself show the great pride he expressed after killing more than 22,000 Christians in Ẓafār and Najran. According to Jamme, Sabaean inscriptions reveal that the combined war booty from campaigns waged against the Abyssinians in Ẓafār, the fighters in ’Ašʻarān, Rakbān, Farasān, Muḥwān (Moch
Bereavement in Judaism
Bereavement in Judaism is a combination of minhag and mitzvah derived from Judaism's classical Torah and rabbinic texts. The details of observance and practice vary according to each Jewish community. In Judaism, the principal mourners are the first-degree relatives: parent, child and spouse. There are some customs. Halachot concerning mourning do not apply to those under thirteen years of age, nor do they apply when the deceased is aged 30 days or less. Upon receiving the news of the passing, the following blessing is recited: Transliteration: Barukh atah Adonai Eloheinu melekh ha'olam, dayan ha-emet. Translation: "Blessed are You, our God, King of the universe, the Judge of Truth."There is a custom of rending one's clothes at the moment one hears news of a passing. Another prevalent custom is to tear at the funeral. Petira – passing Shomayr – watcher. Shmira means watching. Chevra kadisha – burial society. Chevra kadisha Kria – tearing. Timing varies by custom. At times deferred to funeral chapel or at the cemetery.
Keriah Onayn – the day when the news is heard. Aninut Tahara – purification of the body Preparing the body — Taharah Levaya – The funeral service; the word means escort. Funeral service Hesped – Eulogy. Eulogies Kvura – burial. Burial Aveil – mourner. Aveilut – mourning: Mourning AvelutShiva – seven days, from the Hebrew word for seven. Begins day of burial. Shiva Shloshim – 30 days, starting from the day of burial. Shloshim – Thirty days Yud Bais Chodesh – means 12 months, for a parent. Yud Bais means 12. Yud Bet means 12. Chodesh means month. Shneim asar chodesh – Twelve monthsMatzevah – means monument. Matzevah Yahrtzeit – is Yiddish for anniversary of the date of passing. Annual remembrances Kaddish – said by a mourner Memorial through prayer L'Illui NishMat - Hebrew for Elevation of the soul, sometimes abbreviated LI"N; the chevra kadisha is a Jewish burial society consisting of volunteers and women, who prepare the deceased for proper Jewish burial. Their job is to ensure that the body of the deceased is shown proper respect, ritually cleansed, shrouded.
Many local chevra kadishas in urban areas are affiliated with local synagogues, they own their own burial plots in various local cemeteries. Some Jews pay an annual token membership fee to the chevra kadisha of their choice, so that when the time comes, the society will not only attend to the body of the deceased as befits Jewish law, but will ensure burial in a plot that it controls at an appropriate nearby Jewish cemetery. If no gravediggers are available it is additionally the function of the male society members to ensure that graves are dug. In Israel, members of chevra kadishas consider it an honor to not only prepare the body for burial but to dig the grave for a fellow Jew's body if the deceased was known to be a righteous person. Many burial societies hold one or two annual fast days the 7th day of Adar, Yartzeit of Moshe Rabbeinu. and organize regular study sessions to remain up to date with the relevant articles of Jewish law. In addition, most burial societies support families during the shiva by arranging prayer services, preparing meals, providing other services for the mourners.
There are three major stages to preparing the body for burial: washing, ritual purification, dressing. The term taharah is used to refer both to the overall process of burial preparation, to the specific step of ritual purification. Prayers and readings from Torah, including Psalms, Song of Songs, Isaiah and Zechariah are recited; the general sequence of steps for performing taharah is. The body is uncovered; the body is washed carefully. Any bleeding is stopped and all blood is buried along with the deceased; the body is cleaned of dirt, body fluids, solids, anything else that may be on the skin. All jewelry is removed; the beard is not shaved. The body is purified with water, either by immersion in a mikveh or by pouring a continuous stream of 9 kavim in a prescribed manner; the body is dried. The body is dressed in traditional burial clothing. A sash is wrapped around the clothing and tied in the form of the Hebrew letter shin, representing one of the names of God; the casket is prepared by removing other embellishments.
A winding sheet is laid into the casket. Outside the Land of Israel, if the deceased wore a prayer shawl during their life, one is laid in the casket for wrapping the body once it is placed therein. One of the corner fringes is removed from the shawl to signify that it will no longer be used for prayer and that the person is absolved from having to keep any of the mitzvot; the body is wrapped in the prayer shawl and sheet. Soil from Eretz Israel, if available, is placed over various parts of the body and sprinkled in the casket; the casket is closed. After the closing of the casket, the chevra asks forgiveness of the deceased for any inadvertent lack of honor shown to the deceased in the preparation of the body for burial. There is no open casket at the funeral. Som