Alcohol by volume
Alcohol by volume is a standard measure of how much alcohol is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage. It is defined as the number of millilitres of pure ethanol present in 100 mL of solution at 20 °C; the number of millilitres of pure ethanol is the mass of the ethanol divided by its density at 20 °C, 0.78924 g/mL. The ABV standard is used worldwide; the International Organization of Legal Metrology has tables of density of water–ethanol mixtures at different concentrations and temperatures. In some countries, e.g. France, alcohol by volume is referred to as degrees Gay-Lussac, although there is a slight difference since the Gay-Lussac convention uses the International Standard Atmosphere value for temperature, 15 °C. Mixing two solutions of alcohol of different strengths causes a change in volume. Mixing pure water with a solution less than 24% by mass causes a slight increase in total volume, whereas the mixing of two solutions above 24% causes a decrease in volume; the phenomenon of volume changes due to mixing dissimilar solutions is called "partial molar volume".
Water and ethanol are both polar solvents. When water is added to ethanol, the smaller water molecules are attracted to the ethanol's hydroxyl group, each molecule alters the polarity field of the other; the attraction allows closer spacing between molecules than is found in non-polar mixtures. Thus, ABV is not the same. Volume fraction, used in chemistry, is defined as the volume of a particular component divided by the sum of all components in the mixture when they are measured separately. To make a 50% v/v ethanol solution, for example, you would measure 50 mL of ethanol and separately measure 50 mL of water mix the two together; the resulting volume of solution will not measure 100 mL due to the change of volume on mixing. Details about typical amounts of alcohol contained in various beverages can be found in the articles about them. Another way of specifying the amount of alcohol is alcohol proof, which in the United States is twice the alcohol-by-volume number; this may lead to confusion over similar products bought in varying regions that have different names on country specific labels.
For example, Stroh rum, 80% ABV is advertised and labeled as Stroh 80 when sold in Europe, but is named Stroh 160 when sold in the United States. In the United Kingdom proof is 1.75 times the number. For example, 40% abv is 80 proof in the US and 70 proof in the UK. However, since 1980, alcohol proof in the UK has been replaced by ABV as a measure of alcohol content. In the United States, a few states regulate and tax alcoholic beverages according to alcohol by weight, expressed as a percentage of total mass; some brewers print the ABW on beer containers on low-point versions of popular domestic beer brands. One can use the following equation to convert between ABV and ABW: A B V × 0.78924 = A B W × density of beverage at 20 C in g/mL At low ABV, the alcohol percentage by weight is about 4/5 of the ABV. However, because of the miscibility of alcohol and water, the conversion factor is not constant but rather depends upon the concentration of alcohol. 100% ABW is equivalent to 100% ABV. During the production of wine and beer, yeast is added to a sugary solution.
During fermentation, the yeasts produce alcohol. The density of sugar in water is greater than the density of alcohol in water. A hydrometer is used to measure the change in specific gravity of the solution before and after fermentation; the volume of alcohol in the solution can be estimated. There are a number of empirical formulae which brewers and winemakers use to estimate the alcohol content of the liquor made; the simplest method for wine has been described by English author C. J. J. Berry: A B V = / 7.36 The calculation for beer is: A B V = 133.62 × However, many brewers use the following formula which uses a different constant: A B V = 131.25 It is derived in this manner: A B V = ρ
Egill Skallagrímsson Brewery
Olgerdin is an Icelandic brewery and beverage company based in Reykjavík. Established on 17 April 1913, the oldest beer-producing factory in Iceland. Annually, it produces 45 million liters of beverages; the company was established on 17 April 1913 by Tómas Tómasson, who began production of a beverage, malt extract. Today it's the oldest beer-producing factory in Iceland. At first, the operations of Ölgerðin Egill Skallagrímsson were based in two bedrooms in the basement of the Þórshamar house at Templarasund in Reykjavik, which Tómas had leased. Today, this house is owned by the Icelandic parliament. A year the company moved to the Thomsen house at Tryggvagata, with this, the operating area grew significantly; the scope of operations was not large at first. The brewing boiler was only 65 litres, bottles were closed by pushing the cap onto the bottle with a flat palm and binding it with wire. During the first production year, Ölgerðin sold around 38 thousand litres malt extract and white beer; the light beer Egils Pilsner came to market in the same year, as the ban on alcohol was implemented in 1915, after which it was illegal to produce alcoholic beer with more than 2.25% alcohol content.
Brewmasters from Germany and Denmark were hired to oversee the beer production. The company produces soft drinks. Tómas Tómasson went to Copenhagen in 1915 to learn brewing at the Bryggeriet Stjernen and in Germany, where he spent the next two years. Returning home in 1917, he bought his first building on Njálsgata on the crossroads between Njálsgata and Grettisgata, renamed "Ölgerðartorfan"; the company was located there for much of the 20th century. In the years 1924–1928, both a brewery and a yeast cellar were in use there, he built up a comprehensive brewery and bottling facility. In 1926, Ölgerðin sold a million bottles in one year. In the same year, Danish King Christian X made an official visit to Iceland. Subsequently, Ölgerðin was given the right to call themselves the "royal brewery"; the production of Egils Pilsner began in 1916. The company was the first to receive an exemption for the production of alcoholic beer in Iceland during the war, when it produced the Polar Ale for the British occupation forces.
From 1951, Ölgerðin produced the Polar Beer for the US military base in Keflavik and Export Beer, which the general population called Egils strong. After the beer ban was lifted in 1989, the brewery’s main product was Egils Gull; the production of soda drinks began in 1930, Ölgerðin bought the soda drink factories Síríus and Kaldá. Ölgerðin was made into a corporation two years and was merged with Ölgerðin Þór hf., operating for two years. Þór had built a brewery at Rauðarárstígur. In 1955, Egils Appelsín was introduced. Sigurður Sveinsson, an employee of Ölgerðin created a recipe, appreciated by locals and has since surpassed all other such drinks. After Tómas died in 1978, in his nineties, his sons, Jóhannes and Tómas Agnar ran Ölgerðin Egill Skallagrímsson for a quarter of a century. In 2000, they decided to sell the family’s share, an agreement was reached at the end of the year with Íslandsbanki-FBA and the investment company Gilding. There was a change in ownership in April 2002. A subsidiary of Danól ehf. bought Ölgerðin.
The operations of Lind and Ölgerðin were merged in the beginning of that year, with this merger, the product availability of Ölgerðin increased substantially. In 2007, Októ Einarsson and Andri Þór Guðmundsson acquired Ölgerðin with Kaupthing bank, which sold its shares to several bank executives.Ölgerðin Egill Skallagrímsson produces 45 million litres of beverages every year, of which 10 million litres are brewed in the brewing boiler. Egils Gull earned the "World’s Best Standard Lager" at the World Beer Awards 2011 and Bríó won the best German-style Pilsner at the 2012 World Beer Cup. Beer in Iceland Prohibition in Iceland Dudley, Karla. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20141023065310/http://tapsmagazine.com/in-this-issue/iceland/. Olgerdin Egill Skallagrímsson RateBeer
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland. It is located on the southern shore of Faxa Bay, its latitude is 64°08' N, making it the world's northernmost capital of a sovereign state. With a population of around 128,793, it is the heart of Iceland's cultural and governmental activity, is a popular tourist destination. Reykjavík is believed to be the location of the first permanent settlement in Iceland, according to Ingólfr Arnarson, was established in AD 874; until the 19th century, there was no urban development in the city location. The city was founded in 1786 as an official trading town and grew over the following decades, as it transformed into a regional and national centre of commerce and governmental activities, it is among the cleanest and safest cities in the world. The first permanent settlement in Iceland by Norsemen is believed to have been established at Reykjavík by Ingólfr Arnarson around AD 870. Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have decided the location of his settlement using a traditional Norse method.
The story about the pillars is dubious to many people. He settled near the hot springs to keep warm in the winter and would not have determined it by happenstance. Furthermore the probability of the pillars drifting to that location from where they were said to have been thrown from the boat seems improbable; that is what the Landnamabok says and says furthermore that Ingolf's pillars are still to be found in a house there in town. Steam from hot springs in the region is said to have inspired Reykjavík's name, which loosely translates to Smoke Cove. In the modern language, as in English, the word for'smoke' and the word for fog or steamy vapour are not confused but this is believed to have been the case in the old language; the original name was Reykjarvík with an additional "r" that had vanished around 1800. The Reykjavík area was farmland until the 18th century. In 1752, the King of Denmark, Frederik V, donated the estate of Reykjavík to the Innréttingar Corporation; the leader of this movement was Skúli Magnússon.
In the 1750s, several houses were built to house the wool industry, Reykjavík's most important employer for a few decades and the original reason for its existence. Other industries were undertaken by the Innréttingar, such as fisheries, sulphur mining and shipbuilding; the Danish Crown abolished monopoly trading in 1786 and granted six communities around the country an exclusive trading charter. Reykjavík was the only one to hold on to the charter permanently. 1786 is thus regarded as the date of the city's founding. Trading rights were limited to subjects of the Danish Crown, Danish traders continued to dominate trade in Iceland. Over the following decades, their business in Iceland expanded. After 1880, free trade was expanded to all nationalities, the influence of Icelandic merchants started to grow. Icelandic nationalist sentiment gained influence in the 19th century, the idea of Icelandic independence became widespread. Reykjavík, as Iceland's only city, was central to such ideas. Advocates of an independent Iceland realized that a strong Reykjavík was fundamental to that objective.
All the important events in the history of the independence struggle were important to Reykjavík as well. In 1845 Alþingi, the general assembly formed in 930 AD, was re-established in Reykjavík. At the time it functioned only as an advisory assembly; the location of Alþingi in Reykjavík established the city as the capital of Iceland. In 1874, Iceland was given a constitution; the next step was to move most of the executive power to Iceland: Home Rule was granted in 1904 when the office of Minister For Iceland was established in Reykjavík. The biggest step towards an independent Iceland was taken on 1 December 1918 when Iceland became a sovereign country under the Crown of Denmark, the Kingdom of Iceland. By the 1920s and 1930s most of the growing Icelandic fishing trawler fleet sailed from Reykjavík. On the morning of 10 May 1940, following the German occupation of Denmark and Norway on 9 April 1940, four British warships approached Reykjavík and anchored in the harbour. In a few hours, the allied occupation of Reykjavík was complete.
There was no armed resistance, taxi and truck drivers assisted the invasion force, which had no motor vehicles. The Icelandic government had received many requests from the British government to consent to the occupation, but it always declined on the basis of the Neutrality Policy. For the remaining years of World War II, British and American soldiers occupied camps in Reykjavík, the number of foreign soldiers in Reykjavík became about the same as the local population of the city; the Royal Regiment of Canada formed part of the garrison in Iceland during the early part of the war. The economic effects of the occupation were positive for Reykjavík: the unemployment of the Depression years va
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant; the commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC. Brewing was a cottage industry, with production taking place at home; the diversity of size in breweries is matched by the diversity of processes, degrees of automation, kinds of beer produced in breweries. A brewery is divided into distinct sections, with each section reserved for one part of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe and was brewed on a domestic scale. In some form, it can be traced back 5000 years to Mesopotamian writings describing daily rations of beer and bread to workers. Before the rise of production breweries, the production of beer took place at home and was the domain of women, as baking and brewing were seen as "women's work". Breweries, as production facilities reserved for making beer, did not emerge until monasteries and other Christian institutions started producing beer not only for their own consumption but to use as payment.
This industrialization of brewing shifted the responsibility of making beer to men. The oldest, still functional, brewery in the world is believed to be the German state-owned Weihenstephan brewery in the city of Freising, Bavaria, it can trace its history back to 1040 AD. The nearby Weltenburg Abbey brewery, can trace back its beer-brewing tradition to at least 1050 AD; the Žatec brewery in the Czech Republic claims it can prove that it paid a beer tax in 1004 AD. Early breweries were always built on multiple stories, with equipment on higher floors used earlier in the production process, so that gravity could assist with the transfer of product from one stage to the next; this layout is preserved in breweries today, but mechanical pumps allow more flexibility in brewery design. Early breweries used large copper vats in the brewhouse, fermentation and packaging took place in lined wooden containers; such breweries were common until the Industrial Revolution, when better materials became available, scientific advances led to a better understanding of the brewing process.
Today all brewery equipment is made of stainless steel. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. A handful of major breakthroughs have led to the modern brewery and its ability to produce the same beer consistently; the steam engine, vastly improved in 1775 by James Watt, brought automatic stirring mechanisms and pumps into the brewery. It gave brewers the ability to mix liquids more reliably while heating the mash, to prevent scorching, a quick way to transfer liquid from one container to another. All breweries now use electric-powered stirring mechanisms and pumps; the steam engine allowed the brewer to make greater quantities of beer, as human power was no longer a limiting factor in moving and stirring. Carl von Linde, along with others, is credited with developing the refrigeration machine in 1871. Refrigeration allowed beer to be produced year-round, always at the same temperature.
Yeast is sensitive to temperature, and, if a beer were produced during summer, the yeast would impart unpleasant flavours onto the beer. Most brewers would produce enough beer during winter to last through the summer, store it in underground cellars, or caves, to protect it from summer's heat; the discovery of microbes by Louis Pasteur was instrumental in the control of fermentation. The idea that yeast was a microorganism that worked on wort to produce beer led to the isolation of a single yeast cell by Emil Christian Hansen. Pure yeast cultures allow brewers to pick out yeasts for their fermentation characteristics, including flavor profiles and fermentation ability; some breweries in Belgium, still rely on "spontaneous" fermentation for their beers. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Breweries today are made predominantly of stainless steel, although vessels have a decorative copper cladding for a nostalgic look.
Stainless steel has many favourable characteristics that make it a well-suited material for brewing equipment. It imparts no flavour in beer, it reacts with few chemicals, which means any cleaning solution can be used on it and it is sturdy. Sturdiness is important, as most tanks in the brewery have positive pressure applied to them as a matter of course, it is not unusual that a vacuum will be formed incidentally during cleaning. Heating in the brewhouse is achieved through pressurized steam, although direct-fire systems are not unusual in small breweries. Cooling in other areas of the brewery is done by cooling jackets on tanks, which allow the brewer to control the temperature on each tank individually, although whole-room cooling is common. Today, modern brewing plants perform myriad analyses on their beers for quality control purposes. Shipments of ingredients are analyzed to correct for variations. Samples are pulled at every step and tested for content, unwanted microbial infections
Beer is one of the oldest and most consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most from malted barley, though wheat and rice are used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation; some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.
Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is commonly available on draught in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries; the strength of modern beer is around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume, although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above. Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games. Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared drinks; the earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation consists of 13,000 year old residues of a beer with the consistency of gruel, used by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual feasting, at the Raqefet Cave in the Carmel Mountains near Haifa in Israel. There is evidence; the earliest clear chemical evidence of beer produced from barley dates to about 3500–3100 BC, from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.
It is possible, but not proven, that it dates back further — to about 10,000 BC, when cereal was first farmed. Beer is recorded in the written history of ancient Iraq and ancient Egypt, archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilizations. 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk were paid by their employers in beer. During the building of the Great Pyramids in Giza, each worker got a daily ration of four to five litres of beer, which served as both nutrition and refreshment, crucial to the pyramids' construction; some of the earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer. The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, show that beer was produced in the city in 2500 BC. A fermented drink using rice and fruit was made in China around 7000 BC. Unlike sake, mold was not used to saccharify the rice. Any substance containing sugar can undergo alcoholic fermentation, it is that many cultures, on observing that a sweet liquid could be obtained from a source of starch, independently invented beer.
Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilizations. Xenophon noted. Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, it was brewed on a domestic scale; the product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers might contain fruits, numerous types of plants and other substances such as narcotic herbs. What they did not contain was hops, as, a addition, first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot and again in 1067 by abbess Hildegard of Bingen. In 1516, William IV, Duke of Bavaria, adopted the Reinheitsgebot the oldest food-quality regulation still in use in the 21st century, according to which the only allowed ingredients of beer are water and barley-malt. Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries.
During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results. In 1912, the use of brown bottles began to be used by Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the United States; this innovation has since been accepted worldwide and prevents harmful rays from destroying the quality and stability of beer. As of 2007, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ran
State Alcohol and Tobacco Company of Iceland
The State Alcohol and Tobacco Company of Iceland is a state owned company that has a monopoly on the sale of alcoholic beverages and tobacco in Iceland. It runs a chain of 46 stores named Vínbúðin and is Iceland's sole legal vendor of alcohol for off-premises consumption, though in practice, most bars and restaurants will not prevent you from leaving with purchased drinks. High licensing fees make this an expensive option however, alcohol is always at least twice as expensive outside the wine shop. Iceland has high taxes on alcohol; this was to curtail consumption. Tax rates in stores are proportionate to the alcohol content. Alcohol monopoly Prohibition in Iceland Beer in Iceland Vínbúðin's website
An alcohol monopoly is a government monopoly on manufacturing and/or retailing of some or all alcoholic beverages, such as beer and spirits. It can be used as an alternative for total prohibition of alcohol, they exist in all Nordic countries except mainland Denmark, in all provinces and territories in Canada except Alberta. In the United States, there are some alcoholic beverage control states, where alcohol wholesale is controlled by a state government operation and retail sales are offered by either state or private retailers. An alcohol monopoly formerly existed in Taiwan between 1947 and 2002, when the Taiwanese market was opened to overseas brands as part of its admission to the WTO in 2002; the alcohol monopoly was created in the Swedish town of Falun in 1850, to prevent overconsumption and reduce the profit motive for sales of alcohol. It went all over the country in 1905 when the Swedish parliament ordered all sales of vodka to be done via local alcohol monopolies. In 1895, Russia established a state monopoly on alcohol, which became a major source of revenue for the Russian government.
Following the prohibition of alcohol in Norway in 1919, the wine-producing nations demanded a reflexive policy regarding the goods exported from Norway, Vinmonopolet was established in 1922, as a response to a deal with France, which allowed Norwegians to buy as much table wine of any kind as they wanted. When prohibition was lifted on fortified wine in 1923 and spirits in 1926, Vinmonopolet assumed sales of these goods as well; the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation is the modern-day descendant of a government agency established during Japanese rule in 1901, responsible for all liquor and tobacco products in Taiwan as well as opium and camphor. In 1922, the agency began selling Takasago Beer through the Takasago Malted Beer Company, subsequently renamed as Taiwan Beer in 1946. After the end of World War II in 1945, the incoming Kuomintang preserved the monopoly system for alcohol and tobacco, assigned the production of beer to the Taiwan Provincial Monopoly Bureau, renamed as Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau the following year.
The Bureau exercised a monopoly on all alcohol and tobacco products sold in Taiwan until its admission into the WTO in 2002, after which it was succeeded by the state-owned Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation which competes with many overseas brands today. Systembolaget — Sweden Alko — Finland Vinmonopolet — Norway State Alcohol and Tobacco Company of Iceland — Iceland Rúsdrekkasøla Landsins – Faroe Islands Provincial Liquor Crown Companies — Canada Liquor Control Board of Ontario — Ontario Société des alcools du Québec — Quebec BC Liquor Distribution Branch — British Columbia Saskatchewan Liquor and Gaming Authority — Saskatchewan Manitoba Liquor & Lotteries Corporation — Manitoba Nova Scotia Liquor Corporation — Nova Scotia New Brunswick Liquor Corporation — New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Liquor Control Commission — Prince Edward Island Newfoundland and Labrador Liquor Corporation — Newfoundland and Labrador Yukon Liquor Corporation — Yukon Northwest Territories Liquor Commission — Northwest Territories Nunavut Liquor Commission — Nunavut National Alcohol Beverage Control Association — United States North Carolina Alcoholic Beverage Control Commission Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board — Pennsylvania Virginia Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control Tekel — Turkey Qatar Distribution Company - Qatar Alcoholic beverages in Sweden Temperance movement