Palustrine wetlands include any inland wetland that lacks flowing water, contains ocean-derived salts in concentrations of less than 0.5 parts per thousand, is non-tidal. The word palustrine comes from marsh. Wetlands within this category include inland marshes and swamps as well as bogs, fens and floodplains. Palustrine wetlands are one of five categories of wetlands within the Cowardin classification system; the other categories are: Marine wetlands, exposed to the open ocean Estuarine wetlands enclosed by land and containing a mix of fresh and salt water Riverine wetlands, associated with flowing water Lacustrine wetlands, associated with a lake or other body of fresh water Fluvial – of or relating a river Oceanic – of or relating to an ocean
A wetland is a distinct ecosystem, inundated by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil. Wetlands play a number of functions, including water purification, water storage, processing of carbon and other nutrients, stabilization of shorelines, support of plants and animals. Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Whether any individual wetland performs these functions, the degree to which it performs them, depends on characteristics of that wetland and the lands and waters near it. Methods for assessing these functions, wetland ecological health, general wetland condition have been developed in many regions and have contributed to wetland conservation by raising public awareness of the functions and the ecosystem services some wetlands provide.
Wetlands occur on every continent. The main wetland types are swamp, marsh and fen. Many peatlands are wetlands; the water in wetlands is either brackish, or saltwater. Wetlands can be non-tidal; the largest wetlands include the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the Pantanal in South America, the Sundarbans in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth. Constructed wetlands are used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff, they may play a role in water-sensitive urban design. A patch of land that develops pools of water after a rain storm would not be considered a "wetland" though the land is wet. Wetlands have unique characteristics: they are distinguished from other water bodies or landforms based on their water level and on the types of plants that live within them. Wetlands are characterized as having a water table that stands at or near the land surface for a long enough period each year to support aquatic plants.
A more concise definition is a community composed of hydric soil and hydrophytes. Wetlands have been described as ecotones, providing a transition between dry land and water bodies. Mitsch and Gosselink write that wetlands exist "...at the interface between terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems, making them inherently different from each other, yet dependent on both."In environmental decision-making, there are subsets of definitions that are agreed upon to make regulatory and policy decisions. A wetland is "an ecosystem that arises when inundation by water produces soils dominated by anaerobic and aerobic processes, which, in turn, forces the biota rooted plants, to adapt to flooding." There are four main kinds of wetlands – marsh, swamp and fen. Some experts recognize wet meadows and aquatic ecosystems as additional wetland types; the largest wetlands in the world include the swamp forests of the Amazon and the peatlands of Siberia. Under the Ramsar international wetland conservation treaty, wetlands are defined as follows: Article 1.1: "...wetlands are areas of marsh, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water, static or flowing, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres."
Article 2.1: " may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands." Although the general definition given above applies around the world, each county and region tends to have its own definition for legal purposes. In the United States, wetlands are defined as "those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands include swamps, marshes and similar areas"; this definition has been used in the enforcement of the Clean Water Act. Some US states, such as Massachusetts and New York, have separate definitions that may differ from the federal government's. In the United States Code, the term wetland is defined "as land that has a predominance of hydric soils, is inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support a prevalence of hydrophytic vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions and under normal circumstances supports a prevalence of such vegetation."
Related to this legal definitions, the term "normal circumstances" are conditions expected to occur during the wet portion of the growing season under normal climatic conditions, in the absence of significant disturbance. It is not uncommon for a wetland to be dry for long portions of the growing season. Wetlands can be dry during the dry season and abnormally dry periods during the wet season, but under normal environmental conditions the soils in a wetland will be saturated to the surface or inundated such that the soils become anaerobic, those conditions will persist through the wet portion of the growing season; the most important factor producing wetlands is flooding. The duration of flooding or prolonged soil saturation by groundwater determines whether the resulting wetland has aquatic, marsh or swamp vegetation
Baralaba is a small town and rural locality in the Shire of Banana in central Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Baralaba had a population of 314 people; the Dawson River forms the western boundary of the locality. The town is located in the north-west corner of the locality beside the river; the Neville Hewitt weir on the river at the town creates a wide river for recreation. The town is located 33 kilometres west of the Leichhardt Highway; the local economy revolves around beef production. The town's name is derived from an Aboriginal word meaning "high mountain" referring to nearby Mount Ramsay. Baralaba Provisional School opened on 19 August 1918, it became a state school on 1 March 1922. In 1964, a secondary department was added. Baralaba Post Office opened by April 1924. In May 1941, an Honour Board commemorating those who served in World War II was unveiled at the Returned and Services League of Australia Memorial Hall in Stopford Street. Outside of the Memorial Hall is a white cross commemorating those who served in all wars and conflicts.
Two coal mines once operated in the Baralaba region. Both closed, but mining operations recommenced at one mine in 2005; the mobile library service commenced in 2004. Baralaba State School is a government co-educational primary and partial secondary school located at 1 Power Street. In 2012, the school had an enrolment of 98 students with 14 teachers; as Baralaba State School only provides secondary education to Year 10, the nearest secondary schools offering Years 11 and 12 are located in Moura and Biloela. Baralaba Golf Club is located on Alberta Road. Banana Shire Council operate a fortnightly mobile library service to Baralaba; every March, there is a campdrafting competition at Baralaba. The annual Baralaba agricultural show is held in May; the Saratoga Fishing Competition is held each September. Baralaba has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Morgan Street and The Esplanade: Dawson Valley Colliery In the 2011 census, Baralaba had a population of 479 people; this was in increase from the 2006 census, when Baralaba had a population of 290.
Media related to Baralaba, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Baralaba Banana Shire Council Town map of Baralba, 1980
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Rockhampton is a city in the Rockhampton Shire of Queensland’s Central Coast Queensland, Australia. The estimated urban population of Rockhampton in June 2015 was 80,665, making it the fourth-largest city in the state outside of the cities of South East Queensland. and the 22nd-largest city in Australia. Rockhampton is one of the oldest cities in Northern Australia. In 1853, Charles and William Archer discovered the Fitzroy River, which they named in honour of Sir Charles FitzRoy; the Archer brothers took up a run near Gracemere in 1855, more settlers arrived soon after, enticed by the fertile valleys. The town of Rockhampton was proclaimed in 1858, surveyed by Arthur F Wood and Francis Clarke, the chosen street design resembled the Hoddle Grid in Melbourne and consisted of a grid of wide boulevards and laneways, uncommon in Queensland. Within the year, gold was found at Canoona, led to the first North Australian gold rush; this led to an influx of migrants who transformed Rockhampton into the second-largest port in the state.
Subsequent gold rushes at Mount Morgan Mine, at the time one of the most productive gold mines in the world, laid the foundations for much of the city's Victorian architecture. Today, Rockhampton is an industrial and agricultural centre of the north, is the regional centre of Central Queensland. Rockhampton is a large tourist destination known for its history and culture supporting such institutions as the Rockhampton Art Gallery, one of the most extensive regional galleries in Australia, the Central Queensland University with campuses across five states, the Rockhampton Heritage Village, Dreamtime Cultural Centre, it is famous as the hometown of Rod Laver - one of the best tennis players in history. The city is served by the Rockhampton Airport and acts as a gateway to local tourist locations such as the Capricorn Caves and Mount Archer National Park, as well as regional tourist areas like Yeppoon and the Capricorn Coast alongside the island chains offshore that include Great Keppel Island.
A giant waterslide was built in Rockhampton for an attraction. The Capricorn district is the traditional home of the Darumbal Aboriginal people; the European history of the area began in 1853, when the area that would become Rockhampton was visited by the Archer brothers Charles and William, who were seeking grazing lands. They were acting on information from earlier expeditions by Ludwig Leichhardt and Thomas Mitchell, who had explored the area in 1844 and 1846 and noted suitable land for grazing then. In January 1854, the New South Wales Government proclaimed two new districts: Port Curtis and Leichhardt, the Archer brothers returned in August 1855 to set up their pastoral run at Gracemere; the Fitzroy River provided a convenient waterway for shipping of supplies and produce, the Archer brothers constructed a wool shed just downstream of a bar of rocks which prevented further upstream navigation from the coast. These rocks were incorporated with the traditional English term for a village, the name "Rockhampton" was first coined by Charles Archer and the local Commissioner from Crown Lands, William Wiseman.
In 1856, the Elliott brothers arrived at Gracemere and soon after, took up landholdings at Canoona, north of present-day Yaamba. There, Philip Elliott and his party came under attack from the Darumbals of the Taroomball tribe. Elliott was wounded by a spear and one of his men was killed. However, Elliott had brought with his party a contingent of Native Police who turned near-certain loss into victory, it was the first of many battles. Permanent British settlement at the Rockhampton township began in July 1856, when Richard Palmer travelled from Gladstone with an escort of Native Police under sub-Lieutenant Walter Powell to set up a store. Powell constructed the Native Police barracks; this was the first habitable British building established at Rockhampton and it was located on the south bank of the Fitzroy River at the end of Albert Street. With abundant grazing lands and waters from the Fitzroy River and its many tributaries and lagoons, the region continued to expand rapidly. In 1858, the town of Rockhampton was proclaimed.
The town was surveyed at this time and the first sales of building allotments were held that year. In 1859, gold was discovered at Canoona. Miners rushed to the new field, using the site of Rockhampton on the Fitzroy River as the nearest navigable port; the Canoona field proved to be disappointing and thousands of would-be gold seekers were left stranded at Rockhampton. Although many returned south, others stayed. By 1861, the town boasted a regular newspaper, court house and School of Arts. Direct shipments of imported goods and migrants from the United Kingdom began to be received during the 1860s. During the 1860s and 1870s Rockhampton developed as the main port for the developing Central Queensland hinterland. In the 1880s and 1890s, sea ports were established on the coast, adjacent to the mouth of the Fitzroy River. Broadmount was on Port Alma on the south. Railways were subsequently constructed to carry goods to the wharves at these locations, the railway to Broadmount opening on 1 January 1898 and the line to Port Alma opened on 16 October 1911.
Maintenance on the Broadmount line ceased in August 1929. The following month, the wharf caught fire and the line was closed in July 1930; the line to Port Alma closed on 15 October 1986. The significant gold deposit at Mount Morgan to the southwest was discovered in the 1880s, a
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Blackwater is both a town and a locality in the Central Highlands Region, Australia, 190 km west of Rockhampton. It is a town in a significant coal mining area in Central Queensland; the name of the township was inspired by the dark colour of local waterholes. Six major open cut coal mines and one underground dot the landscape surrounding the town and provide its main employment opportunities; the town is situated close to the Blackdown Tableland National Park which lies to the southeast and Blackwater coal mine located south of the town. Emerald is 74 kilometres to the west. Blackwater was established on Kanolu territory, is named after the Blackwater Creek, first observed to flow with black water, believed to be caused by the local coal deposits. Coal deposits were discovered there by Ludwig Leichhardt on his expedition from Moreton Bay to Port Essington in 1845. Leichhardt saw "beds of coal indistinguishable from those on the Hunter at Newcastle". Blackwater Post Office opened on 19 July 1877.
Blackwater State School opened on 21 November 1877. It wasn't until over a century after Leichhardt first discovered the beds of coal at Blackwater that the town saw major coal mining development. With the opening up of several coal mines near the town in the 1960s, Blackwater's population increased as people searching for work flocked to find employment in the town's booming mining industry. There were 77 people living in Blackwater; this increased to 2,000 when the 1971 census was recorded. Blackwater State High School opened on 30 January 1973. By the mid-late 1970s, the population of Blackwater was more than 10,000 people. At that time the town had 3 Rugby League clubs: South Blackwater, Blackwater Devils and Blackwater Centrals. Blackwater North State School opened on 30 January 1979; the town's population peaked in the early 1990s with 6,760 people living in Blackwater in 1991. Since the population of the town has waned. In the 2011 census, there were still over 5,000 people living in the Blackwater community.
100,000 workers were employed in coal mining at Blackwater over its 50 year history. The town has provided considerable economic development for Australia more generally; the Central Highlands Regional Council Library Services operates a Library in Blackwater at the Community Centre on Wey Street. Frank Tutungi Memorial Lions Park is on the corner of the Capricorn Mackenzie Street, it is named after one of the Blackwater Lions Charter Members, Frank Tutungi was one of the original members of the Blackwater Lions Club and was the first from Blackwater to become a District Governor. The park displays the flgs of the 37 nationalities who worked in the town; the Blackwater branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall at 1 Ardurad Road. Blackwater State School is a government primary school for girls at Wey Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 183 students with 14 teachers and 18 non-teaching staff. Blackwater North State School is a government primary school for girls at William Street.
In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 397 students with 27 teachers and 19 non-teaching staff. It includes a special education program. Blackwater State High School is a government secondary school for girls at Elm Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 316 students with 24 non-teaching staff, it includes a special education program. Olympic track cyclist Anna Meares was born in Blackwater in 1983. In 2012, Anna Meares had a street named after her in the town when Meares Street was constructed as part of a new subdivision in the centre of Blackwater. Australian television personality and comedian Josh Thomas was born in Blackwater in 1987 but moved with his family to Brisbane soon after. Australian rugby league players PJ Marsh and David Taylor both grew up in Blackwater and have represented various teams in the National Rugby League competition. Wayne Denning was born in Blackwater, he established the award-winning creative agency Carbon Creative. Blackwater Airport Blackwater railway system Coal in Australia University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Blackwater