Martin Henry Balsam was an American character actor. He is best known for a number of renowned film roles, including detective Milton Arbogast in Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho, Arnold Burns in A Thousand Clowns, Juror #1 in 12 Angry Men, Mr. Green in The Taking of Pelham One Two Three, as well as for his role as Murray Klein in the television sitcom Archie Bunker's Place. Martin Henry Balsam was born in the Bronx borough of New York City, to Russian Jewish parents and Albert Balsam, a manufacturer of women's sportswear, he attended DeWitt Clinton High School. He studied at the Dramatic Workshop of The New School in New York with the German director Erwin Piscator and served in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. Martin Balsam made his professional debut in August 1941 in a production of The Play's the Thing in Locust Valley. During World War II, he served as a sergeant radio operator in a B-24 in the China-Burma-India theater of operations. In early 1948, he was selected by Elia Kazan to be a member in the formed Actors Studio.
Balsam went on to perform in several episodes of the studio's dramatic television anthology series, broadcast between September 1948 and 1950. He appeared in many other television drama series, including Decoy with Beverly Garland, The Twilight Zone, as a psychologist in the pilot episode, Five Fingers, Target: The Corruptors!, The Eleventh Hour, Breaking Point, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, The Fugitive, Mr. Broadway, as a retired U. N. C. L. E. Agent in The Man from U. N. C. L. E. Episode, "The Odd Man Affair", guest-starred in the two-part Murder, She Wrote episode, "Death Stalks the Big Top", he appeared in the Route 66 episode, "Somehow It Gets To Be Tomorrow". Balsam appeared in such films as On the Waterfront, 12 Angry Men, Time Limit, Breakfast at Tiffany's, The Carpetbaggers, Seven Days in May, The Anderson Tapes, Catch-22, Tora! Tora! Tora!, Little Big Man, The Taking of Pelham One Two Three, All the President's Men, Murder on the Orient Express, The Delta Force, The Goodbye People. In 1960, he appeared in one of his best-remembered roles as Detective Arbogast in Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho.
Along with Gregory Peck and Robert Mitchum, Martin Balsam appeared in both the original Cape Fear, the 1991 Martin Scorsese remake. He won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role as Arnold Burns in A Thousand Clowns. In 1968, he won a Tony Award for his appearance in the 1967 Broadway production of You Know I Can't Hear You When the Water's Running. Balsam played Washington Post editor Howard Simons in All the President's Men, a film that became a popular Mystery Science Theater 3000 episode, the Joe Don Baker police drama Mitchell, he played Dr. Rudy Wells when the Martin Caidin novel Cyborg was adapted as a TV-movie pilot for The Six Million Dollar Man, though he did not reprise the role for the subsequent series, he appeared as a spokesman/hostage in the TV movie Raid on Entebbe and as a detective in the TVM Contract on Cherry Street. He appeared on an episode of Quincy ME. Balsam starred as Murray Klein on the All in the Family spin-off Archie Bunker's Place for two seasons and returned for a guest appearance in the show's fourth and final season.
He filled in for Charles Nelson Reilly on Match Game for one question when Reilly was late for a taping. Balsam performed the original voice of the HAL 9000 computer in 2001: A Space Odyssey. After his lines were recorded, director Stanley Kubrick decided "Marty just sounded a little bit too colloquially American," and hired Douglas Rain to perform the role for the released film. In 1951, Balsam married actress Pearl Somner, they divorced three years later. His second wife was actress Joyce Van Patten; this marriage produced one daughter, Talia Balsam. He married his third wife, Irene Miller, in 1963, they had two children and Zoe Balsam, divorced in 1987. On February 13, 1996, Balsam died of a sudden stroke in his hotel room while vacationing in Rome, Italy, he was 76 years old. He is interred in Emerson, New Jersey. National Board of Review – Best Supporting Actor – The Carpetbaggers Tony Awards – Best Actor in a Play – You Know I Can't Hear You When the Water's Running Golden Globe Awards – Best Supporting Actor – Summer Wishes, Winter Dreams BAFTA Awards – Best Supporting Actor – The Taking of Pelham One Two Three Best Supporting Actor – All the President's Men Primetime Emmy Awards – Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie – Raid on Entebbe Martin Balsam on IMDb Martin Balsam at the Internet Broadway Database Martin Balsam at Find a Grave Martin Balsam at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Martin Balsam at the TCM Movie Database Martin Balsam at AllMovie
Satire is a genre of literature, sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"—but parody, exaggeration, comparison and double entendre are all used in satirical speech and writing; this "militant" irony or sarcasm professes to approve of the things the satirist wishes to attack. Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, plays, television shows, media such as lyrics; the word satire comes from the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".
The word satura as used by Quintilian, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin, he was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius. To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes: As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; the odd result is. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus. Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, in England, by the 16th century, it was written'satyre.'
The word satire derives from satura, its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time. Laughter is not an essential component of satire. Conversely, not all humour on such topics as politics, religion or art is "satirical" when it uses the satirical tools of irony and burlesque. Light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, make them think". Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study, they provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.
Satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power, by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse. For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions; the satiric impulse, its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations. Satire is a diverse genre, complex to classif
Animal trapping, or trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal. Animals may be trapped for a variety of purposes, including food, the fur trade, pest control, wildlife management. Neolithic hunters, including the members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture of Romania and Ukraine, used traps to capture their prey. An early mention in written form is a passage from the self-titled book by Taoist philosopher Zhuangzi describes Chinese methods used for trapping animals during the 4th century BC; the Zhuangzi reads, "The sleek-furred fox and the elegantly spotted leopard...can't seem to escape the disaster of nets and traps.” "Modern" steel jaw-traps were first described in western sources as early as the late 16th century. The first mention comes from Leonard Mascall's book on animal trapping, it reads, "a griping trappe made all of yrne, the lowest barre, the ring or hoope with two clickets." The mousetrap, with a strong spring device spring mounted on a wooden base, was first patented by William C. Hooker of Abingdon, Illinois, in 1894.
Native Americans trapped fur bearing animals with pits, dead falls, snares. Trapping was widespread in the early days of North American settlements, companies such as the Canadian fur brigade were established. In the 18th century blacksmiths manually built leghold traps, by the mid-19th century trap companies manufacturing traps and fur stretchers, became established; the monarchs and trading companies of Europe invested in voyages of exploration. The race was on to establish trading posts with the natives of North America, as trading posts could function as forts and legitimize territorial claims; the Hudson's Bay Company was one such business. They traded commodities such as rifles, knives, frying pans and blankets for furs from trappers and Native Americans. Trappers and mountain men were the first European men to cross the Great Plains to the Rocky Mountains in search of fur, they traded with Native Americans from whom they learned trapping skills. Beaver was one of the main animals of interest to the trappers as the fur wore well in coats and hats.
Beaver hats became popular in the early 19th century but the fashion changed. Towards the end of the century beaver became locally extinct in others; the decline in key species of fur-bearers, due to over-harvesting, the emergence of the first regulatory laws marked the end of the heyday of unregulated trapping. Many trappers turned to buffalo hunting, serving as scouts for the army or leading wagon trains to the American west; the trails that trappers used to get through the mountains were used by settlers heading west. Trapping is carried out for a variety of reasons, it was for food and other animal products. Trapping has since been expanded to encompass "pest control", wildlife management, the pet trade, zoological specimens. In the early days of the colonization settlement of North America, the trading of furs was common between the Dutch and Native Americans, the French and Native Americans or English and the local Native Americans. Many locations where trading took place were referred to as trading posts.
Much trading occurred along the Hudson River area in the early 1600s. In some locations in the US and in many parts of southern and western Europe, trapping generates much controversy as it is seen as a contributing factor to declining populations in some species. One such example is the Canadian Lynx. In the 1970s and 1980s, the threat to lynx from trapping reached a new height when the price for hides rose to as much as $600 each. By the early 1990s, the Canada lynx was a clear candidate for Endangered Species Act protection. In response to the lynx’s plight, more than a dozen environmental groups petitioned FWS in 1991 to list lynx in the lower 48 states. Fish and Wildlife Services (FW regional offices and field biologists supported the petition, but FWS officials in the Washington, D. C. headquarters turned it down. In March 2000, the FWS listed the lynx as threatened in the lower 48. In recent years, the prices of fur pelts have declined so low, that some trappers are considering not to trap as the cost of trapping exceeds the return on the furs sold at the end of the season.
Beaver castors are used in many perfumes as a sticky substance. Trappers are paid by the government of Ontario to harvest the castor sacs of beavers and are paid from 10–40 dollars per dry pound when sold to the Northern Ontario Fur Trappers Association. In the early 1900s, muskrat glands were used in making perfume or women just crush the glands and rub them on their body. Trapping is used for pest control of beaver, raccoon, bobcat, Virginia opossum, squirrel, rat and mole in order to limit damage to households, food supplies, farming and property. Traps are used as a method of pest control as an alternative to pesticides. Spring traps which holds the animal are used — mousetraps for mice, or the larger rat traps for larger rodents like rats and squirrel. Specific traps are designed for inverterbrates such as spiders; some mousetraps can double as an insect or universal trap, like the glue traps which catch any small animal that walks upon them. Though it is common to state that trapping is an effective means of pest control, a counter-example is found in the work of Dr. Jon Way, a biologist in Massachusetts.
Dr Way reported that the death or disappearance of a territorial male coyote can lead to double litters, postulates a possible resultant increase in coyote density. Coexistence programs that take this scientific research into account are being pursued by groups such as the Association for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animal
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Wild Bill Hickok
James Butler Hickok, better known as "Wild Bill" Hickok, was a folk hero of the American Old West known for his work across the frontier as a drover, wagon master, spy, lawman, gambler and actor. He earned a great deal of notoriety in his own time, much of it bolstered by the many outlandish and fabricated tales that he told about his life; some contemporaneous reports of his exploits are known to be fictitious, but they remain the basis of much of his fame and reputation, along with his own stories. Hickok was born and raised on a farm in northern Illinois at a time when lawlessness and vigilante activity were rampant because of the influence of the "Banditti of the Prairie". Hickok was drawn to this ruffian lifestyle and headed west at age 18 as a fugitive from justice, working as a stagecoach driver and as a lawman in the frontier territories of Kansas and Nebraska, he fought and spied for the Union Army during the American Civil War and gained publicity after the war as a scout, marksman and professional gambler.
Over the course of his life, he was involved in several notable shoot-outs. In 1876, Hickok was shot from behind and killed while playing poker in a saloon in Deadwood, Dakota Territory by Jack McCall, an unsuccessful gambler; the hand of cards which he held at the time of his death has become known as the dead man's hand: two pairs and eights. Hickok remains a popular figure in frontier history. Many historic sites and monuments commemorate his life, he has been depicted numerous times in literature and television, he is chiefly portrayed as a protagonist, though historical accounts of his actions are controversial and most of his career was exaggerated by both himself and various mythmakers. While Hickok claimed to have killed numerous named and unnamed gunmen in his lifetime, according to Joseph G. Rosa, Hickok's biographer and the foremost authority on Wild Bill, Hickok killed only six or seven men in gunfights. James Butler Hickok was born May 27, 1837, in Homer, Illinois, to William Alonzo Hickok, a farmer and abolitionist, his wife Polly Butler.
His father was said to have used the family house, now demolished, as a station on the Underground Railroad. Hickok was the fourth of six children. William Hickok died in 1852, when James was 15. Hickok was a good shot from a young age and was recognized locally as an outstanding marksman with a pistol. Photographs of Hickok appear to depict dark hair, but all contemporaneous descriptions affirm that it was red. In 1855, at age 18, James Hickok fled Illinois following a fight with Charles Hudson, during which both fell into a canal. Hickok moved to Leavenworth in the Kansas Territory, where he joined "General" Jim Lane's Free State Army, a vigilante group active in the new territory. While a Jayhawker, he met 12-year-old William Cody, who despite his youth served as a scout just two years for the U. S. Army during the Utah War. While in Nebraska, James Hickok was derisively referred to as "Duck Bill" for his long nose and protruding lips, he grew a moustache following the McCanles incident and in 1861 began calling himself Wild Bill.
He was known before 1861 by Jayhawkers as "Shanghai Bill" because of his height and slim build. Hickok used his late brother's name, William Hickok, from 1858 and the name William Haycock during the Civil War. Most newspapers referred to him as William Haycock until 1869, he was arrested while using the name Haycock in 1865. He afterward resumed using James Hickok. Military records after 1865 list him as Hickok but note that he was known as Haycock. In an 1867 article about his shoot-out with Davis Tutt, his surname was misspelled as Hitchcock. In 1857, Hickok claimed a 160-acre tract in Kansas. On March 22, 1858, he was elected one of the first four constables of Monticello Township. In 1859, he joined the Russell and Waddell freight company, the parent company of the Pony Express. In 1860, he was badly injured by a bear while driving a freight team from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. According to Hickok's account, he found the road blocked by its two cubs. Dismounting, he approached the bear and fired a shot into its head, but the bullet ricocheted off its skull, infuriating it.
The bear attacked. Hickok managed wounding the bear's paw; the bear grabbed his arm in its mouth, but Hickok was able to grab his knife and slash its throat, killing it. Hickok was injured, with a crushed chest and arm, he was bedridden for four months before being sent to Rock Creek Station in the Nebraska Territory to work as a stable hand while he recovered. The freight company had built the stagecoach stop along the Oregon Trail near Fairbury, Nebraska, on land purchased from David McCanles. On July 12, 1861, David McCanles went to the Rock Creek Station office to demand an overdue property payment from Horace Wellman, the station manager. McCanles threatened Wellman, either Hickok or Wellman killed him. Hickok and another employee, J. W. Brink, were found to have acted in self-defense. McCanles may have been the first man Hickok killed. Hickok subsequently visited McCanles' widow, apologized for the killing, offered her $35 in restitution, all the money he had with him at the time. After the Civil War
United States Cavalry
The United States Cavalry, or U. S. Cavalry, was the designation of the mounted force of the United States Army from the late 18th to the early 20th centuries; the Cavalry branch became the Armor branch with tanks in 1950, but the term "Cavalry" such as "armored cavalry" remains in use in the U. S. Army for mounted reconnaissance and target acquisition units based on their parent Combat Arms Regimental System regiment. Cavalry is used in the name of the 1st Cavalry Division for heraldic/lineage/historical purposes; some combined arms battalions are designated as armor formations, while others are designated as infantry organizations. These "branch" designations are again, heraldic/lineage/historical titles derived from the CARS regiments to which the battalions are assigned. Named and designated as United States Dragoons, the forces were patterned after cavalry units employed during the American Revolutionary War by the opposing well-supplied mounted dragoons units of the King's Army used with great effectiveness in the Southern Theater of the Carolinas in the latter part of the war.
The traditions of the U. S. Cavalry originated with the horse-mounted force which played an important role in extending United States governance into the Western United States after the American Civil War, with the need to cover vast ranges of territory between scattered isolated forts and outposts of the minimal resources given to the stretched thin U. S. Army. Significant numbers of horse mounted units participated in foreign conflicts in the Spanish–American War of 1898, in the Western Front battlefields of Europe in World War I, although numbers and roles declined. Preceding World War II, the U. S. Cavalry began transitioning to a mounted force. During the Second World War, the Army's cavalry units operated as horse-mounted, mechanized, or dismounted forces; the last horse-mounted cavalry charge by a U. S. Cavalry unit took place on the Bataan Peninsula, in the Philippines in early 1942; the 26th Cavalry Regiment of the allied Philippine Scouts executed the charge against Imperial Japanese Army forces near the village of Morong on 16 January 1942.
The U. S. Cavalry branch was absorbed into the Armor branch as part of the Army Reorganization Act of 1950; the Vietnam War saw the introduction of helicopters and operations as a helicopter-borne force with the designation of Air Cavalry, while mechanized cavalry received the designation of Armored Cavalry. Today, cavalry designations and traditions continue with regiments of both armor and aviation units that perform the cavalry mission; the 1st Cavalry Division is the only active division in the United States Army with a cavalry designation. The division maintains a detachment of horse-mounted cavalry for ceremonial purposes. Washington saw the intimidating effect of the small force of British 17th Light Dragoons, which panicked his militia infantry at White Plains. Appreciating the ability of the 5th Regiment of Connecticut Light Horse Militia, under Major Elisha Sheldon, to gather intelligence during the subsequent retreat of Continental forces into New Jersey, he asked the Continental Congress for a light cavalry force in the Continental army.
In late 1776, Congress authorized Washington to establish a mounted force of 3,000 men. On 12 December 1776, Congress converted Elisha Sheldon's militia regiment into the Regiment of Light Dragoons. In March 1777, Washington established the Corps of Continental Light Dragoons consisting of four regiments of 280 men, each organised in six troops. Many problems faced the light dragoon regiments, including the inability of recruiting to bring the units to authorized strength, shortage of suitable cavalry weapons and horses, lack of uniformity among troopers in dress and discipline. Congress appointed the Hungarian revolutionary and professional soldier Michael Kovats and the Polish Casimir Pulaski to train them as an offensive strike force during winter quarters of 1777–78 at Trenton, New Jersey. Pulaski's efforts led to friction with the American officers, resulting in his resignation, but Congress authorized Pulaski to form his own independent corps in 1778. Pulaski's Legion consisted of dragoons, riflemen and infantry.
Another independent corps of dragoons joined Pulaski's in the Continental Line during 1778 when a former captain in Bland's Horse, "Light Horse Harry" Lee, formed Lee's Corps of Partisan Light Dragoons, which specialized in raiding British supply lines. Colonel Charles Armand Tuffin, marquis de la Rouërie, a French nobleman, raised a third corps of infantry in Boston, called the Free and Independent Chasseurs, which added a troop of dragoons, becoming Armand's Legion. Although a reorganization in 1778 authorized expansion of the four regiments to 415 men each, forage difficulties, expiration of enlistments and other problems made this impossible, no regiment carried more than 200 men on its rolks, they averaged 120 to 180 men between 1778 and 1780. In 1779, Washington ordered the 2nd and 4th Continental Light Dragoons equipped temporarily as infantry, deployed the 1st and 3rd Continental Light Dragoons and Pulaski's Legion to the South to join local militia cavalry and to oppose the new British strategy for controlling that area.
Battle engagements in South Carolina seriously attrited the 1st and 3rd Regiments in the spring of 1780, who amalgamated into a single unit. Following the capture of Charleston, South Carolina on 12 May 1780, the remnants tried to regroup and reconstitute in Virginia and North Carolina. In August, 1780, Armand's Legion was w
Battle of Washita River
The Battle of Washita River occurred on November 27, 1868 when Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer’s 7th U. S. Cavalry attacked Black Kettle’s Southern Cheyenne camp on the Washita River, they were the most isolated band of a major winter encampment along the river of numerous Native American tribal bands, totaling thousands of people. But Custer's forces attacked their village because scouts had followed the trail of a party that had raided white settlers and passed through it. Black Kettle and his people were seeking peace. Custer's soldiers killed women and children in addition to warriors, although they took many captive to serve as hostages and human shields; the number of Cheyenne killed in the attack has been disputed since the first reports. After the Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho signed the Medicine Lodge Treaty, they were — according to the final treaty text as affirmed by Congress — required to move south from present-day Kansas and Colorado to a new reservation in Indian Territory; the actual oral accord of the treaty negotiations, had guaranteed the Cheyennes their traditional hunting lands as long as there was sufficient buffalo to justify the chase, a crucial treaty stipulation, tacitly dropped in the subsequent ratification process.
This forced them to give up their traditional territory for one with little arable land and away from buffalo, their main source of meat and a center of their culture. Months of fragile peace survived raids between warring Kaw Indians and Southern Cheyennes, but in summer 1868, war parties of Southern Cheyenne and allied Arapaho, Comanche, Northern Cheyenne, Brulé, Pawnee warriors attacked white settlements in western Kansas, southeast Colorado, northwest Texas. Among these raids were those along the Solomon and Saline rivers in Kansas, which began August 10, 1868; the warriors killed at least 15 white settlers, wounded others, were reported to have raped some women, as well as taking others captive to be adopted into their tribes. In 1897, Kansas Rep. Horace L. Moore remarked at a meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society that "The total of losses from September 12, 1868, to February 9, 1869, exclusive of casualties incident to military operations, was 158 men murdered, sixteen wounded and forty-one scalped.
Three scouts were killed, fourteen women outraged, one man was captured, four women and twenty-four children were carried off. Nearly all of these losses occurred in what we called western Kansas, although the Saline and Republican do not seem so far west now". On August 19, 1868, Colonel Edward W. Wynkoop, Indian Agent for the Cheyenne and Arapaho at Fort Larned, interviewed Little Rock, a chief in Black Kettle's Cheyenne village. Little Rock told what he had learned about the raids along the Solomon rivers. According to Little Rock's account, a war party of about 200 Cheyenne from a camp above the forks of Walnut Creek departed camp intending to go out against the Pawnee. Instead, they raided white settlements along the Solomon rivers; some of the warriors returned to Black Kettle's camp. Little Rock learned from them. Little Rock identified the warriors most responsible for the raids and agreed to try to have them delivered to white authorities. By early November 1868, Black Kettle's camp joined other Southern Cheyenne and other tribal bands at the Washita River, which they called Lodgepole River, after local pine trees.
Black Kettle's village was the westernmost of a series of winter camps, of Cheyenne, Kiowa and Kiowa-Apache bands, that ran ten to 15 miles along the Washita River. Black Kettle's village was several miles west of the rest of the camps and consisted of around 50 Cheyenne lodges, plus one or two lodges of visiting Arapaho and two of visiting Lakota, for a total of about 250 inhabitants. Little Rock, the only council chief who had remained with Black Kettle since the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864, lived with his family in the village, it included the families of Big Man, Wolf Looking Back, Cranky Man, Scabby Man, Half Leg, Bear Tongue, Roll Down. Downriver from Black Kettle's camp, the Washita River looped northward in a large oxbow. At its northern portion was the Arapaho camp of Little Raven, Big Mouth, Yellow Bear, Spotted Wolf, a total of about 180 lodges. At the bottom of the loop was a large Southern Cheyenne camp under Medicine Arrows. Followers of Little Robe, Sand Hill, Stone Calf, Old Little Wolf, Black White Man made up one large village, nearby was a smaller Cheyenne village consisting of the followers of Old Whirlwind.
These two Cheyenne villages, together comprising about 129 lodges, were situated along the oxbow southeast of Little Raven's Arapaho camp and west of a small Kiowa camp headed by Kicking Bird. The Kiowa leaders Satanta, Lone Wolf, Black Eagle had moved their villages to the Fort Cobb area. Downriver were other camps of Kiowa-Apache. Overall, a total of about 6,000 Indians were in winter camp along the upper Washita River. In mid-November, a party headed by Black Kettle and Little Robe of the Cheyenne, Big Mouth and Spotted Wolf of the Arapaho, arrived at Fort Cobb to visit the post trader, William "Dutch Bill" Griffenstein. Griffenstein's wife Cheyenne Jennie, a Cheyenne of Black Kettle's camp, had died around October 10. Griffenstein had sent runners to inform her parents of her death also sending a message to urge Black Kettle to come to talk with Colonel William B. Hazen about making peace; the four chiefs met with Hazen on November 20, with Captain Henry Alvord of the Tenth Cavalry documenting the conversations.