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Little Britain

Little Britain is a British sketch comedy, first appearing as a radio series between 2000 and 2002 and as a television series between 2003 and 2020. It was performed by comic duo David Walliams and Matt Lucas. Financed by the BBC, the radio series was first broadcast on BBC Radio 4, with the initial two television series premiering on BBC 3 and the fourth and final series on BBC 1; the programme consists of a series of sketches involving exaggerated parodies of British people from various walks of life. Each sketch was introduced by a voice-over narration suggesting that the programme was a guide – aimed at non-British people – to British society. Despite the narrator's description of "great British institutions", the comedy arises from the British audience's self-deprecating understanding of either themselves or of people known to them. Recurring characters included Andy Pipkin, who falsely presented himself as being wheelchair bound to gain the attention of his carer, Lou Todd; the programme's title is an amalgamation of the terms Little Great Britain.

The programme's title is in part an elaboration of the term Little England: a reference to narrow-mindedness and complacent insularity – as exhibited, to humorous effect, by many of the subjects of the sketches. The programme was a huge ratings success, receiving 9.5 million viewers following its move to BBC One in 2005. It spurred a live show which toured internationally between 2005 and 2007, various specials for the Comic Relief charity marathons, the HBO-produced Little Britain USA spin-off in 2008. Walliams and Lucas followed Little Britain with another sketch show, Come Fly With Me. Criticisms focused on the impact that the show had on the large numbers of children who watched it, despite the programme being aired post-watershed and on the heavy use of toilet humour in the third series. Concerns were raised regarding the perceived derogatory manner in which Little Britain depicted members of various marginalised or underprivileged communities. In 2017, Lucas stated. A 2020 comeback has been announced.

The script will be written by Sacha Baron Cohen and the inspiration for Baron Cohen's work is the love between Walliams and Lucas. Little Britain appeared as a radio show, produced by Edward Flinn, which ran on BBC Radio 4 from 2000 until 2002. Radio 4 began a rerun of all nine episodes in February 2004. Unusually, this overlapped with a rerun, beginning in mid-March, of the first five programmes on the digital radio channel BBC 7. In June–July 2004 BBC 7 broadcast the remaining four, it was announced in October 2019 that the series would return for a one-off radio special, titled Little Brexit, on BBC Radio 4 on 31 October 2019. Like several other BBC comedies, Little Britain made the transition from radio to television. All the episodes for the series were filmed at Pinewood Studios. Much of the TV material was adapted from the radio version, but with more emphasis on recurring characters and catchphrases. Series One, 2003The first TV series was one of the new programmes in the launch line-up for digital channel BBC Three, the replacement for BBC Choice, which launched in February 2003.

As a result of its success, the first series was repeated on the more available BBC Two. Although reactions were mixed, many critics were enthusiastic, the programme was commissioned for another run. Part of the series was filmed in Kent at Herne Bay - Emily Howard the Lady, the Lou and Andy sketches. Series Two, 2004The second series, featuring several new characters, began on BBC Three on 19 October 2004, its continued popularity meant the repeats moved to BBC One, starting on 3 December 2004. The episodes were edited for their BBC One run, to cut out any material that might have been too offensive for the more mainstream BBC One audience. Series Three, 2005A third series began on 17 November 2005, for the first time on BBC One and not BBC Three, ended six weeks later. After its transmission, it was unclear whether there would be another, as many sketches were given dramatic twists and "wrapped up" —. Lucas and Walliams were in talks for a fourth series with the BBC. Furthermore, they admitted in an interview they preferred to "kill off" certain characters in order to make way for new ones.

Little, Little Britain, 2005In 2005, to raise money for Comic Relief and Lucas made a special edition of the show, dubbed Little, Little Britain. The episode included a variety of sketches with celebrities including George Michael, Robbie Williams and Sir Elton John; this was released on a limited edition DVD and was released in the United States as Little, Little Britain on the region 1 version of the Little Britain: Season 2 DVD. Little Britain Abroad, 2006In 2006, a two-part Christmas special was released, in which characters from the programme were depicted as visiting other countries; as a success of the television series and Walliams created a travelling stage show based upon their series. Comic Relief Does Little Britain Live, 2007A special live version, featuring appearances from celebrities such as Russell Brand and Dennis Waterman was filmed in 2006 and appeared on 2007's Comic Relief show. In 2007, Matt Lucas and David Walliams announced that there would be no more of the British Little Britain, but they taped an American continuation of the programme entitled Little Britain USA, which featured both retu

Evisceration (autotomy)

Evisceration is a method of autotomy involving the ejection of internal organs used by animals as a defensive strategy. Sea cucumbers eject parts of the gut in order to scare and defend against potential predators such as crabs and fish; the organs are regenerated in a few days by cells in the interior of the sea cucumber. When stressed, the sea cucumber faces away from the attacker and contracts its body wall muscles sharply; this causes the wall of the anus to gape. The evisceration process in Eupentacta quinquesemita proceeds as follows: Three main structures weaken over a period of about 1–3 minutes, become soft and transparent, separate from their attachments; these are the basal part of the tentacles, the attachment points of the introvert retractor muscles to the longitudinal muscles, the junction of intestine and cloaca. The softening is a state-transformation of the collagen components in the tissue. Parts eviscerated include the gut, associated haemal vessels and introvert; the gut tears away from the mesenteries.

Most of the gonad stays behind. Only strands of gonad tangled in the gut are eviscerated; the paired respiratory trees and cloaca remain The introvert changes from being firm and opaque to being soft and translucent. The body-wall muscles contract and the increased pressure forces coelomic fluid and viscera into the introvert, it enlarges like a balloon and soon ruptures, expelling the viscera. This takes about 20 minutes, with final detachment of the tentacles and introvert sometimes taking as long as 12 hours; the anterior rupture seals, at first by muscular contraction and by healing as a plug of connective-tissue. During evisceration in some species, several hundred Cuvierian tubules may be expelled. Water from the respiratory tree is forced into these tubules causing a rapid expansion and they elongate by up to twenty times their original length, they become sticky when they encounter any object. The adhesive is unique among marine invertebrates and a firm grip is obtained in under ten seconds.

The mass of threads can immobilise potential predators such as small fish or crabs. The threads become detached from the sea cucumber; the tubules are regenerated, a process that takes about seventeen days in Holothuria leucospilota and five weeks in Holothuria forskali. The tubules contain a toxic saponin called holothurin, present in the body wall in some sea cucumber species; the giant California sea cucumber will eviscerate due to rough handling, temperature shock, or other stressful treatments. The event occurs through the anus and the eviscerated parts are the respiratory trees. Holothuria arenicola is described as a sea cucumber suitable for keeping in aquaria as it does not eviscerate, whereas the "Australian" sea apple eviscerates; some starfish evert their stomachs through their mouths to eat their prey. The starfish retracts its stomach back inside of its body. Video of evisceration

If Love Were All

"If Love Were All" is a song by Noël Coward, published in 1929 and written for the operetta Bitter Sweet. The song is considered autobiographical, has been described as "self-deprecating" as well as "one of the loneliest pop songs written". Ivy St. Helier introduced the song on stage and performed it in the 1933 film version of Bitter Sweet. In June 2009, an Off-Broadway play of the same name about Coward's relationship with Gertrude Lawrence premiered at Lucille Lortel Theatre in New York City. "If Love Were All" has been described as "self-deprecating" as well as "one of the loneliest pop songs written". Rod McKuen considers the song to be among the "truly great" songs about "entertaining from the entertainment point of view". Cover versions appear on Judy Garland's Judy at Carnegie Hall, as a B-side to Pet Shop Boys' "Yesterday, When I Was Mad" single and on the album Alternative, Rufus Wainwright's Rufus Does Judy at Carnegie Hall and Milwaukee at Last!!!, on Sarah Brightman's The Songs That Got Away.

In the latter part of her life, Garland included "If Love Were All" in her concert and television repertoire. Other notable recordings: Alma Cogan - for her album How About Love. Elaine Stritch Johnny Mathis - included in his UK album The Sweetheart Tree Julie Andrews - for the album Broadway's Fair Julie. Joyce Grenfell - included in the album The Words and Music of Noël Coward. Maria Friedman Shirley Bassey - for her album 12 of Those Songs. Cultural impact of Noël Coward List of 1920s jazz standards