The mountains encompass an area of 4,862 square miles. Its highest summit is Trapper Peak, at 10,157 feet, the Northern Bitterroot Range is the northernmost and shortest subrange of the Bitterroot Mountains. The Northern Bitterroots encompass 1,869 square miles and its two tallest peaks are the 7,930 foot Rhodes Peak and the 7,770 foot Quartz Benchmark, the Northern Bitterroots contain a smaller subrange, the Grave Creek Range. The Grave Creek Range is 262 square miles in area and its highest peak is the 7,270 foot Petty Mountain, the Central Bitterroot Range is the southernmost and tallest subrange of the Bitterroot Mountains. The Central Bitterroots encompass 2,993 square miles and its two tallest peaks are the 10,157 foot Trapper Peak and the 9,983 foot El Capitan, the Central Bitterroots contain a smaller subrange, the Como Peaks. The Como Peaks subrange is 79 square miles in area and its highest peak is the aforementioned El Capitan, Swanson examines the critical role of Guy M. Brandborg of the U. S.
Forest Service, who was supervisor of the Bitterroot National Forest from 1935 to 1955. By insisting on selection cutting, he tried to protect the watersheds, after he retired in 1955 Brandborg denounced the Forest Service for deviating from his model. He launched an attack, known as the Bitterroot controversy. Brandborg lobbied to secure passage of the National Forest Management Act of 1976, Bitterroot National Forest List of mountain ranges in Montana Swanson, Frederick H. The Bitterroot and Mr. Brandborg and the Struggle for Sustainable Forestry in the Northern Rockies
Big West Conference
The Big West Conference is an American collegiate athletic conference whose member institutions participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Associations Division I. The conference was formed in 1969 as the Pacific Coast Athletic Association. The conference stopped sponsoring football after the 2000 season. The Big West Conference was formed in June 1968 as the Pacific Coast Athletic Association, the 5 original charter members were Fresno State, San Jose State, UC Santa Barbara, San Diego State, and Long Beach State. Two other schools, Cal State Los Angeles and the University of the Pacific, were considered, the newly formed conference had a number of meetings to set up its governance, which was confirmed in October 1968 on the campus of UC Santa Barbara. Before the league started play, Cal State Los Angeles joined as a full member, the conference itself lists July 1,1969 as the recognized creation date with the 7 institutions. Since its inception as the Pacific Coast Athletic Association, the conference has seen many changes, Utah State was the first institution outside of California to join the conference in 1978.
This opened the floodgates for other schools to affiliate with the PCAA, notable schools include UNLV, Louisiana Tech. In 1983, the PCAA became the first western conference to introduce womens athletic programs and this proved vital for Hawaiʻi as their only participation in the conference was for their womens sports. From the departures of Idaho and Utah State in 2005 until the arrival of Hawaiʻi in 2012, all members were based in California, reducing the cost, when Hawaiʻi joined, it agreed to help defray a portion of travel costs to that state for the leagues California members. There have been no fewer than 25 full and associate members in the conferences history, effective July 1,1988, the Pacific Coast Athletic Association changed its name to the Big West Conference. With such schools as Utah State, UNLV, New Mexico State, and Hawaii now in the fold, Notes A – Cal Poly San Luis Obispo competed in womens volleyball as an affiliate member from 1984-85 to 1989-90. B – UC Santa Barbara joined the conference when it was founded in 1969, left to become an independent after the 1973–74 season, Notes C – Sacramento State mens soccer joined the Big West Conference in 2012–13 season and beach volleyball followed for the 2015–2016 season.
D – CSU Bakersfield beach volleyball joined the Big West Conference in the 2015–16 season, E – UC San Diego mens volleyball has announced it will join the Big West Conference in the 2017–18 season. Many of the members of the Big West are now members of the Western Athletic Conference or the Mountain West Conference. Of the former members, Cal State Los Angeles is the team that reverted to Division II level. School names and nicknames reflect those used by the institutions when they were Big West members, one school has changed its name and one its nickname. Notes Full members Full members Assoc. members Assoc. member Notes San Diego State played football as an independent for the 1976 and 1977 seasons prior to leaving the Big West Conference in 1978, UC Santa Barbara was an independent from 1974–75 to 1975–76
It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football and it is in college football where a players performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as a free agent. Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained extremely popular throughout the U. S, in many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. This allows them to more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries, colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as football, by the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges, the first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9,1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock, a football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College, a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional mob football played in England.
The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football, Princeton University students played a game called ballown as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as Bloody Monday began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes, in 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a figure called Football Fightum. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called Old division football, the rules of which were first published in 1871, all of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities
2000 NCAA Division I-A football season
Stoops erased a three-game losing streak against rival Texas by a score of 63–14, one of the worst defeats in Texas football history. Despite the lopsided victory, this marked a return of the Red River Shootout to a rivalry game with national title implications. Virginia Tech was out of the BCS bowls, despite being ranked higher than one of the at-large teams. The South Carolina Gamecocks broke a 21-game losing streak, stretching back into 1998, two new bowl games began in the 2000 season, the Silicon Valley Bowl, which had a contractual tie-in with the WAC, and the Galleryfurniture. com Bowl. Crack-back blocks are now prohibited from any player in motion in any direction. Offensive teams in the process of substituting or simulated substituting are prohibited from rushing to the line of scrimmage to snap the ball to give the defense a disadvantage, the penalty for a first offense is five yards, additional violations are considered unsportsmanlike conduct. Defensive players lined up one yard of the line of scrimmage are prevented from rushing up to the line with the obvious intent of causing an offensive player to false start.
Passers within five yards of the sideline from the position of the ball are allowed to throw the ball so it lands beyond the neutral zone without penalty. Two teams upgraded from Division I-AA, thus increasing the number of Division I-A schools from 114 to 116, nevada left the Big West Conference to become the ninth member of the Western Athletic Conference. Winner, Chris Weinke, Florida State 2
U.S. Route 12 in Idaho
US Route 12 is a federal highway in north central Idaho. US12 enters Idaho at the Washington state line in Lewiston, Nez Perce County and it heads east through Lewiston, turning north to cross the Clearwater River and intersect SH-128. It continues east to overlap US95 along a limited access section, the overlapped highways run east along the north bank of the Clearwater for 7.3 miles, leaving Lewiston and entering the Nez Perce Indian Reservation before separating. US12 continues east along the bank of the Clearwater through North Lapwai, past the Ant and Yellowjacket rock formation. It continues east to intersect SH-3 and cross the Clearwater again, entering Clearwater County, US12 continues east along the south bank of the Clearwater through Orofino. In Lewis County, US12 continues southeast along the bank of the Clearwater, intersecting SH-11 at Greer. It continues southeast into Kamiah, where it intersects SH-162 and it crosses the Clearwater again and leaves Kamiah. It enters Idaho County, and continues south along the bank of the Clearwater.
In the park, it passes a historical marker for two sites located about two miles away, commemorating the Lewis and Clark Long Camp of 1806 and the Asa Smith mission of 1839 to 1841. It continues south along the bank of the Clearwater. It continues east along the bank of the Clearwater, leaving the Nez Perce reservation. US12 continues to Lowell, where it turns northeast along the bank of the Lochsa River through the Bitterroot Mountains. US12 was created in 1925 as part of the system of United States highways. In 1962, the highway was extended west to Lewiston, ending at the former US410, in 1967, it was extended to its current western terminus in Aberdeen, with the Idaho section taking its current route. The Lewis and Clark Highway, from Lewiston eastward to Lolo Pass, was designated State Route 9 in 1916, by the fall of 1955,27 miles remained unfinished, and upon its completion in 1962, it was redesignated US12. On two-lane portions of the road, the equipment, weighing as much as 300 tons and as much as 30 feet high and 24 feet wide, the route is preferable to other routes due to the lack of underpasses and the great distances involved.
The alternative is transport across the Great Plains from Texas or New Orleans On U. S.12 and that and other alterations to the highway such as turnouts would be paid for by the companies. The trucks would transport only at night, moving short distances between places where they would pull off and let traffic pass, a permit granted by the Idaho Transportation Department to ConocoPhillips in August 2010 is the subject of litigation initiated by householders along the route
2012 Western Athletic Conference football season
The 2012 Western Athletic Conference football season was the 51st and final college football season for the Western Athletic Conference. Seven teams competed in the 2012 season, Louisiana Tech, New Mexico State, San Jose State, Texas State, Utah State, Utah State went undefeated against its conference opponents to become the final WAC conference champion. It was chosen to represent the WAC in one of its two bowl berths, conference runner-up San Jose State was chosen to fill the other bowl berth. Due to a wave of departures that hit the WAC hard over the previous three seasons, the 2012 WAC football season marked the conferences final season sponsoring football. Before the season began, San Jose State and Utah State announced they would be leaving to join several other former WAC schools in the Mountain West Conference. Louisiana Tech and UTSA joined several other schools in moving to Conference USA after the season, Texas State moved to the Sun Belt Conference. Idaho and New Mexico State joined Notre Dame, Navy, ^A Louisiana Techs home game against Texas A&M was played at the 49, 427-seat Independence Stadium in Shreveport
Moscow is a city in northern Idaho along the state border with Washington, with a population of 23,800 at the 2010 census. It is the city in the Moscow, Idaho Micropolitan Statistical Area. The city contains over 60% of the population, and while the university is Moscows dominant employer. Along with the rest of northern Idaho, Moscow is in the Pacific Time Zone, major highways serving the city are US-95 and Highway 8, both of which are routed through central Moscow. Limited commercial air service is four miles west at the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport, Main Street runs north-south through Moscow along the 117th meridian west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 6.85 square miles. Moscow lies on the edge of the Palouse region of north central Idaho in the Columbia River Plateau. East of the city is a valley within the mountains of the Palouse Range to the northeast, the less prominent Paradise Ridge at 3,702 feet and Tomer Butte at 3,474 feet are southeast of the city.
There is a variety of flora and fauna within the vicinity of Moscow, an amphibian, the Rough-skinned Newt, has a disjunctive population at Moscow, this species is found typically along the Pacific coast of the USA. The city sits at the boundary between the Palouse grasslands and wheat fields, and the forests of the Rocky Mountains to the east. Miners and farmers began arriving in the northern Idaho area after the Civil War, the first permanent settlers came to the Moscow area 146 years ago in 1871. The abundance of camas bulbs, a favorite fodder of pigs brought by the farmers, when the first US post office opened in 1872, the town was called Paradise Valley, but the name was changed to Moscow in 1875. The precise origin of the name Moscow has been disputed, there is no conclusive proof that it has any connection to the Russian city, though various accounts suggest it was purposely evocative of the Russian city or named by Russian immigrants. Another account claims that the name derives from a Native American tribe named Masco and it was reported by early settlers that five men in the area met to choose a proper name for the town, but could not come to agreement on a name.
The postmaster Samuel Neff completed the papers for the town. Interestingly, Neff was born in Moscow and moved to Moscow, the business district was established by 1875 and the town was a center of commerce for the region. By 1890, the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Companys rail line, copy of a letter from Northern Pacific Railway agent in Moscow, likely R. W. Morris, to C. E. Arney, the Northern Pacifics Western Immigration and Indian Agent in Spokane, Washington. Arney wrote all station agents in Idaho on May 12,1922, requesting the origin of the names of their stations for the NPs travel publication Wonderland, edited by Olin D. Wheeler
Beer stein, or simply stein, is an English neologism for either traditional beer mugs made out of stoneware, or specifically ornamental beer mugs that are usually sold as souvenirs or collectibles. In German, the word stein means stone and is not used to refer to a beverage container. Such Steins may be out of stoneware, porcelain, or even silver, wood or crystal glass. Steins usually come in sizes of a half litre or a full litre, like decorative tankards, they are often decorated in a nostalgic manner, but with allusions to Germany or Bavaria. It is believed by some that the lid was implemented during the age of the Black Plague, stein is an abbreviation of German Steinzeug stoneware, the common material for beer mugs before the introduction of glass. The word alone is not used within Germany, rather Krug or Steinkrug are used, the word stein could have originated from the German word Steinzeugkrug, meaning stoneware jug or tankard. By common usage, stein refers to a container with a handle.
Bierstein in German means beerstone – i. e. beer scale – a hard residue of calcium oxalate, protein, in the latter half of the 19th century, stein makers found different advantages within the different materials. The advantage in using stoneware to make steins was that molds could be used to mass-produce elaborately carved steins. In using glass, not only could one produce multiple glass mugs, porcelains advantage was that a stein fabricator could use molds to make character steins, steins that had a particular shape modeled after an item or a person. Throughout the 1900s, collecting antique and replicated beer steins became very popular not only among individual people. Production of beer steins has become large in America. The most traditional area of beer production is the Kannenbäckerland in the Westerwald region in Germany. This unique German potters region has been creating beer steins for centuries and is famous among the collectors as the original German beer stein producer, on the 21st of September 2014, Oliver Strumpfel broke the record for most beer steins carried over 40 metres without spilling managing 25 steins.
Beer steins were made primarily with pewter in many areas across Europe, but many steins were known to be made of glass, Steins have been known to have been made out of wood and crystal. Ordinary German beer mugs have been out of glass for hygienic reasons since the introduction of glass mugs to the 1892 Oktoberfest. Modern beer mugs, except again decorative or luxury versions, do not have a lid, beer mugs are typical for beer gardens and especially the Oktoberfest, where they are popular for their robustness. In other settings,0.33 and 0.5 litre beer glasses are popular, the lids on beer mugs serve as a sanitary measure especially to keep insects out of the beer
Pacific Coast Conference
The Pacific Coast Conference was a college athletic conference in the United States which existed from 1915 to 1959. The name Pacific Coast Conference is now used by a San Diego area community college established in 1982. Established on December 2,1915, its four members were the University of California, the University of Washington, the University of Oregon. Among other complaints, he disdained the quality of education in the Oregon schools, pauley felt that University of California campuses deserved to play against colleges with comparably high academic standards. The PCC had a commissioner, an elaborate constitution, a formal code of conduct. Following the submission of his report, Atherton was promptly hired as commissioner in 1940, the conference was wracked by scandal in 1951. Charges were made and confirmed that University of Oregon football coach Jim Aiken had violated the code for financial aid. After Aiken was compelled to resign, Oregon urged the PCC to look at similar abuses by UCLA football coach Red Sanders, the conference spent five years attempting to reform itself.
In 1956, the scandal became public, the scandal first broke in Washington, when in January 1956, several discontented players staged a mutiny against their coach, John Cherberg. After the coach was fired, the PCC followed up on charges of a slush fund, the PCC found evidence of the prohibited activities of the Greater Washington Advertising Fund run by Roscoe C. Torchy Torrance, and in May imposed sanctions, in March, allegations of prohibited payments made by two booster clubs associated with UCLA, the Bruin Bench and the Young Mens Club of Westwood, were published in Los Angeles newspapers. UCLA refused for ten weeks to allow PCC officials to proceed in their investigation and this same alumnus blew the whistle on Cals phony work program for athletes known as the San Francisco Gridiron Club, with an extension in the Los Angeles area known as the South Seas Fund. The first major reaction came from the University of California system, for Sproul the PCC dispute was not just about athletics, at stake was the ideal of a unified University of California that enjoyed statewide support.
This ideal collided with aspirations of UCLA alumni who believed that Sprouls vision would always favor the Berkeley campus at the expense of the younger UCLA campus. Oregon State College president August Leroy Strand wrote, The reasons for California and UCLA dropping out are as different as night, the significance of the whole affair was the union of Berkeley and UCLA. Admissions and scholarship had nothing to do with the withdrawals, the PCC was falling apart, leading to the decision to dissolve after the 1958-59 season. Soon after the PCC was dissolved, five of its nine members created the Athletic Association of Western Universities for the 1959 season, after initially being blocked from admission, three of the four remaining schools would eventually join, but members were not required to play other members. Tensions were high between UCLA and Stanford, as Stanford had voted for UCLAs expulsion from the PCC, Idaho was not involved in the scandals but had become noncompetitive in the PCC
Pullman is the largest city in Whitman County, located in southeastern Washington state within the Palouse region of the Pacific Northwest. The population was 29,799 at the 2010 census, estimated to have reached 31,682 in 2014, originally incorporated as Three Forks, the city was renamed after industrialist George Pullman. Pullman is noted as a fertile agricultural area known for its many miles of rolling hills. It is best known as the home to Washington State University, Pullman is located eight miles from Moscow, home to the University of Idaho, and is served by the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport. In 2011 Bloomberg Businessweek selected Pullman as the Best Place to Raise Kids in Washington, factors included affordability, safety, a family-friendly lifestyle, the quality of Pullman High School, the presence of Washington State University, and the natural beauty of the area. Within the year, Dan McKenzie and William Ellsworth arrived to stake claims for adjoining land and they named the first post office located here as Three Forks.
In the spring of 1881, Orville Stewart opened a general store, Pullman was incorporated 131 years ago in 1886 with a population of about 200 people. It was originally named Three Forks, after the three rivers that converge there, Missouri Flat Creek, Dry Fork, and the South Fork of the Palouse River. In 1884, Dan McKenzie and Charles Moore replatted the site, on March 28,1890, the Washington State Legislature established the states land grant college, but did not designate a location. Pullman leaders were determined to secure the new college and offered 160 acres of land for its campus, Idaho Territory had established its land grant college in 1889, the University of Idaho was to be located in neighboring Moscow. On April 18,1891, the site selection commission appointed by Washingtons governor chose Pullman, on January 13,1892, the institution opened with 59 students under the name Washington Agricultural College and School of Science. It was renamed the State College of Washington in 1905, more known as Washington State College.
In 1961, Pullman became a code city under the Mayor-Council form of government. The city has a mayor with an elected seven-member council and an appointed administrative officer. The WSU campus is located on College Hill, and part of the area is a district listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The historic character of College Hill is manifest in its many early-twentieth century craftsman-style bungalows, see Red Brick Roads of Pullman, Washington. Companies associated with an expanding high-tech industry are located at the end of the city. The lab company was founded by Edmund Schweitzer, a Ph. D. graduate of WSU, SEL and other firms are located within the 107-acre Pullman Industrial Park, run by the Port of Whitman County
NCAA Division I FBS independent schools
National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision independent schools are four-year institutions whose football programs are not part of an NCAA-affiliated conference. This means that FBS independents are not required to each other for competition like conference schools do. All Division I FBS independents are eligible for the College Football Playoff, or for the access bowls associated with the CFP. Notre Dame has a potential tie-in with the Orange Bowl, Army has an agreement with the Military Bowl, and Notre Dame, in addition to its CFP agreement, has other bowl agreements as part of its affiliation with the Atlantic Coast Conference. BYU had an agreement with the Armed Forces Bowl for 2011, the ranks increased by two in 2013 when the WAC dropped football and New Mexico State and Idaho did not have a conference for football. Massachuetts became FBS independent in 2016, in recent years, most independent FBS schools have joined a conference for two primary reasons, A guaranteed share of television and bowl revenues, and ease of scheduling.
The four remaining independent FBS schools have unique circumstances that allow for freedom from conference affiliation, one of the remaining independent programs is the service academy Army. Army has annual games guaranteed with Navy and with Air Force and it has a historic rivalry with Notre Dame, the Army game is semi-regular. Television rights for the longstanding Army–Navy Game, which is the last regular game in the NCAA. The academy uses its football program to do recruiting, without a conference schedule, navys arrival in The American brought the leagues football membership to 12 schools, allowing it to play a conference championship game. During the conference realignment that saw the university choose football independence in August 2010, both are prominent faith-based schools, Notre Dame is arguably the best-known Catholic university in the U. S. while BYU is the flagship university of the LDS Church. The 1984 teams national championship is the most recent by a university that is not a current member of the College Football Playoff coalition, BYU was getting less than $2 million a year through its contract with The MTN, the now-defunct TV network of the Mountain West Conference. BYU has its own channel, but had a very restrictive contract which did not allow BYU to broadcast its own football games.
The new contract with ESPN will pay BYU an estimated $800,000 to $1.2 million per home game, the University of Massachusetts football program historically played in the Football Championship Subdivision of NCAA Division I prior to 2011. The Minutemen began a two-year Football Bowl Subdivision transition period in 2011, in March 2014, the MAC and UMass announced an agreement for the Minutemen to leave the conference after the 2015 season due to declining an offer to become a full member of the conference. Massachusetts announced that it would look for a more suitable conference for the team. In September 2014, Notre Dame is now one of the most prominent programs in the country. Because of its national popularity built over decades, Notre Dame is the only independent program to be part of the Bowl Championship Series coalition. These factors help make Notre Dame one of the most financially valuable football programs in the country, Notre Dame had filled its annual schedule without needing conference games to do so