The Aucilla River rises in Brooks County, Georgia, USA, close to Thomasville, passes through the Big Bend region of Florida, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at Apalachee Bay. Some early maps have it called the Ocilla River; the river has a drainage basin of 747 square miles. Tributaries include the Little Wacissa Rivers. In Florida, the Aucilla River forms the eastern border of Jefferson County, separating it from Madison County on the northern part, from Taylor County to the south. During the first Spanish period in Florida the Aucilla River was the boundary between the Apalachee people and the Timucua-speaking Yustaga people; the name "Aucilla" refers to an old Timucua village. The Aucilla River flows across a karst landscape, disappearing underground and reappearing, first at Howell Sinks near Boston and approximately 30 times in the area known as the Aucilla River Sinks on the lower part of the river. Between the Florida-Georgia State line and U. S. Highway 90 the river flows through an area of springs and marshes without a main channel.
From U. S. 90 to Lamont the river flows in a steep-sided valley with whitewater rapids. The Aucilla River Sinks, where many segments of the river are underground, starts near Lamont and runs to where the Wacissa River joins the Aucilla; the final few miles of the Aucilla below the mouth of the Wacissa flows over a broad floodplain. Although the Wacissa River is the largest tributary of the Aucilla River, it breaks into a number of braided channels before reaching the Aucilla. In the first half of the 19th Century cotton growers of Jefferson and Madison Counties wanted to carry their cotton to sea ports on the coast, but the intermittent underground segments of the Aucilla River and the narrow and shallow braided channels of the lower Wacissa did not permit the passage of barges; the Wacissa and Aucilla Navigation Company was chartered in 1831 to dig a canal from the navigable portion of the Wacissa to below Nuttall Rise, where the Aucilla returns above ground for the last time before reaching the Gulf of Mexico.
Construction of the canal did not start until 1851. Slaves from local plantations were hired from their owners to dig the canal, cut through limestone. Work on the canal was halted in 1856, while parts of the canal were still too shallow for loaded barges. By that time, railroads had reached the plantation country, removing the urgency of the need for the canal. In the 21st Century a proposal to rename the Slave Canal proved to be unpopular, failed; the Aucilla River is a rich source of late Pleistocene and early Holocene animal bones and human artifacts. Close to 40 underwater archaeological sites have been identified in the river; the Florida Museum of Natural History's Aucilla River Prehistory Project studied several of the sites for 15 years, ending in 1998. The Page/Ladson site, examined again in 2012-2014 by a group sponsored by the Center for the Study of First Americans, is one of the best documented and earliest of pre-Clovis culture sites in North America; as of 2006, the Sloth Hole site was "believed to be one of the three oldest Clovis sites in the Americas."
More than half of the "academically known worked ivory in the New World" has been collected from Sloth Hole. The Aucilla River Prehistory Project extended its studies to include the ancient channel of the Aucilla River, submerged by the rise in sea level since the late Pleistocene Epoch. Two important sites have been found in the ancient channel of the Aucilla River that are now underwater in Apalachee Bay, the J&J Hunt and Ontolo sites. List of fossil sites South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region Media related to Aucilla River at Wikimedia Commons Balfour, R. C. 2002. In Search of the Aucilla. Colson Printing Company, Valdosta, GA. Balsillie, J. H. G. H. Means, J. S. Dunbar. 2006. The Ryan/Harley site: Sedimentology of an inundated Paleoindian site in north Florida. Geoarchaeology 21:363-391. Dunbar, J. S. 2006. Pleistocene-Holocene Climate Change: Chronostratigraphy and Geoclimate of the Southeast United States, Chapter 5. Pages 103-158 in S. D. Webb, ed. First Floridians and Last Mastodons: the Page-Ladson Site on the Aucilla River.
Springer Press, The Netherlands. Dunbar, J. S. C. A. Hemmings, P. K. Vojnovski, S. D. Webb, W. Stanton. 2005. The Ryan/Harley Site 8Je1004: A Suwannee Point Site In The Wacissa River, North Florida. Pages 81–96 in R. Bonnichsen, B. T. Lepper, D. J. Stanford, M. R. Waters, eds. Paleoamerican origins: beyond Clovis. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, TX. Dunbar, J. S. S. D. Webb, M. K. Faught. 1988. Page/Ladson: An Underwater Paleo-Indian Site in Northwestern Florida. Florida Anthropologist 41:442-452. Fisher, D. C. and D. L. Fox. 2006. Five Years in the Life of an Aucilla River Mastodon. Pages 343-377 in S. D. Webb, ed. First Floridians and Last Mastodons: the Page-Ladson Site on the Aucilla River. Springer, the Netherlands. Hoppe, K. A. and P. Koch. 2006. The Biogeochemistry of the Aucilla River Fauna, Chapter 13. Pages 379-401 in S. D. Webb, ed. First Floridians and Last Mastodons: the Page-Ladson Site on the Aucilla River. Springer Press, The Netherlands.
Hoppe, K. A. and P. L. Koch. 2007. Reconstructing the migration patterns of late Pleistocene mammals from northern Florida, USA. Quaternary Research 68:347-352. Newsom, L. A. and M. Mihlbachler. 2006. Mastodons Diet Foraging Patterns Based on Analysis of Dung Deposits, Chapter 10. Pages 263-331 in S. D. Webb, ed. First Floridians and Last Mastodons: the Page-Ladson Site on the Aucilla River. Springer Press, The Netherlands. Newsom, L. A. 2006. Paleoenvironmental A
The Econlockhatchee River is an 87.7-kilometer-long north-flowing blackwater tributary of the St. Johns River, the longest river in the U. S. state of Florida. The Econ River flows through Osceola and Seminole counties in Central Florida, just east of the Orlando Metropolitan Area, it is a designated Outstanding Florida Waters. The origin of the river's name is not known definitively. In 1839 the spelling was recorded as “Econ-like Hatchee”, it is theorized that this represents a Muscogee name meaning “earth-mound stream”, with “econ-like” coming from ēkvnv, ‘earth, land’, like, ‘sitting’, plus hvcce, ‘stream’. The river flows north from its source, Lake Conlin, through the Econlockhatchee River Swamp south of State Road 528. Near the City of Oviedo, the tributary Little Econlockhatchee River joins, the river turns east as it flows through the Little Big Econ State Forest; the Econlockhatchee joins the St. Johns River near Puzzle Lake; the river's floodplain is forested for its entire length. The upper course of the river is called the Econlockhatchee River Swamp.
Located southeast of Orlando, the swamp is 21 kilometres long, from Lake Conlin to State Road 528. South of State Road 532, the swamp is known as Cat Island Swamp, named after an island near County Road 500A; the river is at its widest here, bordered by Lake Preston to the west. Seven miles downstream, the river's elevation is 19 metres; the Disston Canal joins Lake Mary Lake Hart to the swamp. Turkey Creek Bay is an arm of the swamp. North of Wewahootee Road, the Econlockhatchee River leaves the swamp and remains a free-flowing river for the rest of its journey to the St. Johns River. List of Florida rivers Hal Scott Preserve Oviedo, Florida Wedgefield, Florida known as "Rocket City" Econlockhatchee River Paddling Trail maps and information from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Little Manatee River State Park
Little Manatee River State Park is a 2,433-acre Florida State Park located 5 miles south of Sun City, off U. S. Route 301 along the Little Manatee River. Activities include kayaking, canoeing and horseback riding, as well as camping, walking and wildlife viewing. Among the wildlife of the park are Florida scrub jays, white-tailed deer, raccoons, nine-banded armadillos, American alligators and North American river otters. Amenities include a 6.5-mile hiking trail, 12 miles of hiking and equestrian trails and four equestrian campsites, a full-facility campground, a primitive campsite along the trail and a youth/group campground. There is a picnic area along the river with tables and pavilions; the park is open from 8:00 am till sundown year-round. Media related to Little Manatee River State Park at Wikimedia Commons Little Manatee River State Park at Florida State Parks Little Manatee River State Park at Absolutely Florida Little Manatee River State Park at Wildernet
The Chattahoochee River forms the southern half of the Alabama and Georgia border, as well as a portion of the Florida - Georgia border. It is a tributary of the Apalachicola River, a short river formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers and emptying from Florida into Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico; the Chattahoochee River is about 430 miles long. The Chattahoochee and Apalachicola rivers together make up the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River Basin; the Chattahoochee makes up the largest part of the ACF's drainage basin. The source of the Chattahoochee River is located in Jacks Gap at the southeastern foot of Jacks Knob, in the southeastern corner of Union County, in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, a subrange of the Appalachian Mountains; the headwaters of the river flow south from ridges. The Appalachian Trail crosses the river's uppermost headwaters; the Chattahoochee's source and upper course lies within Chattahoochee National Forest. From its source in the Blue Ridge Mountains, the Chattahoochee River flows southwesterly to Atlanta and through its suburbs.
It turns due-south to form the southern half of the Georgia/Alabama state line. Flowing through a series of reservoirs and artificial lakes, it flows by Columbus, the second-largest city in Georgia, the Fort Benning Army base. At Columbus, it crosses the Fall Line of the eastern United States. From Lake Oliver to Fort Benning, the Chattahoochee Riverwalk provides cycling and walking along 15 miles of the river's banks. Farther south, it merges with the Flint River and other tributaries at Lake Seminole near Bainbridge, to form the Apalachicola River that flows into the Florida Panhandle. Although the same river, this portion was given a different name by separated settlers in different regions during the colonial times; the name Chattahoochee is thought to come from a Muskogean word meaning "rocks-marked", from chato plus huchi. This refers to the many colorful granite outcroppings along the northeast-to-southwest segment of the river. Much of that segment of the river runs through the Brevard fault zone.
A local Georgia nickname for the Chattahoochee River is "The Hooch". The vicinity of the Chattahoochee River was inhabited in prehistoric times by indigenous peoples since at least 1000 BC; the Kolomoki Mounds, now protected in the Kolomoki Mounds Historic Park near present-day Blakely in Early County in southwest Georgia, were built from 350 AD to 650 AD and constitute the largest mound complex in the state. Among the historical Indigenous nations, the Chattahoochee served as a dividing line between the Muscogee and the Cherokee territories in the Southeast; the Chattahoochee River became the dividing point for the Creek Confederacy, which straddled the river and became known as the Upper Creek Red Sticks and the Lower Creek White Sticks. The United States accomplished the removal of Native Americans, to extinguish their claims and make way for European-American settlement, through a series of treaties, land lotteries, forced removals lasting from 1820 through 1832; the Muscogee were first removed from the southeastern side of the river, the Cherokee from the northwest.
The Chattahoochee River was of considerable strategic importance during the Atlanta Campaign by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman of the American Civil War. Between the tributaries of Proctor Creek and Nickajack Creek on the Cobb and Fulton county lines in metropolitan Atlanta, are nine remaining fortifications nicknamed "Shoupades" that were part of a defensive line occupied by the Confederate Army in early July 1864. Designed by Confederate Brigadier General Francis A. Shoup, the line became known as Johnston's River Line after Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. A month prior to the Battle of Atlanta, Shoup talked with Johnston on June 18, 1864 about building fortifications. Johnston agreed, Shoup supervised the building of 36 small elevated earth and wooden triangular fortifications, arranged in a sawtooth pattern to maximize the crossfire of defenders. Sherman tried to avoid the Shoupade defenses by crossing the river to the northeast.
The nine remaining Shoupades consist of the earthworks portion of the original earth and wooden structures. Two of the last battles of the war, West Point and Columbus took place at strategically important crossings of the Chattahoochee. Since the nineteenth century, early improvements and alterations to the river were for the purposes of navigation; the river was a major transportation route. In the twentieth century, the United States Congress passed legislation in 1944 and 1945 to improve navigation for commercial traffic on the river, as well as to establish hydroelectric power and recreational facilities on a series of lakes to be created by building dams and establishing reservoirs. Creating the manmade, 46,000-acre Walter F. George Lake required evacuating numerous communities, including the majority-Native American settlement of Oketeyeconne, Georgia; the lakes were complete in 1963, covering over numerous historic and prehistoric sites of settlement. Beginning in the late twentieth century, the nonprofit organization called "Upper Chattahoochee Riverkeeper" has advocated for the preservation of the environment and ecology of the northern part of the river the part traversing Metropolitan Atlanta.
In 2010, a campaign to create a whitewater river course was launched in the portion of the Chattahoochee River that runs through Columbus, Georgia. Between 2010 and 2013, const
Fort Lonesome, Florida
Fort Lonesome is a rural area located in southeastern Hillsborough County, United States, 36 miles southeast of Tampa. A sawmill revived the area with a few houses and three stores in the early 1930s, it was short-lived: a fire destroyed the mill and the "town" disappeared. Today, it is a farming region. Fort Lonesome is located at 27.7 degrees north, 82.1 degrees west. The elevation for the community is 121 feet above sea level; this location is the intersection of State Road 674 and County Road 39S, the site of a gas station and power substation. The community is served by Hillsborough County Schools. Fort Lonesome profile from Hometown Locator
The Suwannee River is a major river that runs through South Georgia southward into Florida in the southern United States. It is a wild blackwater river, about 246 miles long; the Suwannee River is the site of the prehistoric Suwanee Straits which separated peninsular Florida from the panhandle. The headwaters of the Suwanee River are in the Okefenokee Swamp in the town of Georgia; the river runs southwestward into the Florida Panhandle drops in elevation through limestone layers into a rare Florida whitewater rapid. Past the rapid, the Suwanee turns west near the town of White Springs, Florida connects to the confluences of the Alapaha River and Withlacoochee River. Starting at the confluences of those three rivers, that confluence forms the southern borderline of Hamilton County, Florida; the Suwanee bends southward near the town of Ellaville, followed by Luraville, Florida joins together with the Santa Fe River from the east, south of the town of Branford, Florida. The river drains into the Gulf of Mexico on the outskirts of Suwannee, Florida.
The Spanish recorded the native Timucua name of Guacara for the river that would become known as the Suwannee. Different etymologies have been suggested for the modern name. San Juan: D. G. Brinton first suggested in his 1889 Notes on the Floridian Peninsula that Suwannee was a corruption of the Spanish San Juan; this theory is supported by Jerald Milanich, who states that "Suwannee" developed through "San Juan-ee" from the 17th-century Spanish mission of San Juan de Guacara, located on the Suwannee River. Shawnee: The migrations of the Shawnee throughout the South have been connected to the name Suwannee; as early as 1820, the Indian agent John Johnson said "the'Suwaney' river was doubtless named after the Shawanoese, Suwaney being a corruption of Shawanoese." However, the primary southern Shawnee settlements were along the Savannah River, with only the village of Ephippeck on the Apalachicola River being securely identified in Florida, casting doubt on this etymology. "Echo": In 1884, Albert S. Gatschet claimed that Suwannee derives from the Creek word sawani, meaning "echo", rejecting the earlier Shawnee theory.
Stephen Boyd's 1885 Indian Local Names with Their Interpretation and Henry Gannett's 1905 work The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States repeat this interpretation, calling sawani an "Indian word" for "echo river". Gatschet's etymology survives in more recent publications mistaking the language of translation. For example, a University of South Florida website states that the "Timucuan Indian word Suwani means Echo River... River of Reeds, Deep Water, or Crooked Black Water". In 2004, William Bright repeats it again, now attributing the name "Suwanee" to a Cherokee village of Sawani, unlikely as the Cherokee never lived in Florida or South Georgia; this etymology is now considered doubtful: 2004's A Dictionary of Creek Muscogee does not include the river as a place-name derived from Muscogee, lacks entries for "echo" and for words such as svwane, sawane, or svwvne, which would correspond to the anglicization "Suwannee". The Suwannee River area has been inhabited by humans for thousands of years.
During the first millennium CE, it was inhabited by the people of the Weedon Island archaeological culture, around 900 CE, a derivative local culture, known as the Suwanee River Valley culture, developed. By the 16th century, the river was inhabited by two related Timucua language-speaking peoples: the Yustaga, who lived on the west side of the river. By 1633, the Spanish had established the missions of San Juan de Guacara, San Francisco de Chuaquin, San Augustin de Urihica along the Suwannee to convert these western Timucua peoples. In the 18th century, Seminoles lived by the river; the steamboat Madison operated on the river before the Civil War, the sulphur springs at White Springs became popular as a health resort, with 14 hotels in operation in the late 19th century. This river is the subject of the Stephen Foster song "Old Folks at Home", in which he calls it the Swanee Ribber. Foster had named the Pedee River of South Carolina in his first lyrics, it has been called Swanee River because Foster had used an alternative contemporary spelling of the name.
Foster never saw the river he made world-famous. George Gershwin's song, with lyrics by Irving Caesar, made popular by Al Jolson, is spelled "Swanee" and boasts that "the folks up North will see me no more when I get to that Swanee shore". Both of these songs feature banjo-strumming and reminiscences of a plantation life more typical of 19th-century South Carolina than of among the swamps and small farms in the coastal plain of south Georgia and north Florida. Don Ameche starred as Foster in the fictional biographical film Swanee River; when approaching the Suwannee River via several major highways, motorists are greeted with a sign which announces they are crossing the Historic Suwannee River, complete with the first line of sheet music from "Old Folks at Home". This is Florida's state song, designated as such in 1935. In 2008, its original lyrics were replaced with a politically correct version. There is a Foster museum and carillon tower at Stephen Foster Folk Culture Center State Park in White Springs.
The spring itself is called White Sulphur Springs because of its high sulphur content. Since there was a belief in the healing qualities of its waters, the Springs were long popular as a health resort; the idiom "up the Swannee" or "down the swanny" means something is going badly wrong, analogous to "up the creek without a paddle". A unique aspect of the Suwannee River is the Suwannee River Wilder