A bookmaker, bookie, or turf accountant is an organization or a person that accepts and pays off bets on sporting and other events at agreed-upon odds. The first bookmaker, stood at Newmarket in 1795. Bookmakers in many countries focus on accepting bets on professional sports horse racing and association football. However, a wider range of bets, including on political elections, awards ceremonies such as the Oscars, novelty bets are accepted by bookmakers in more and more countries. By "adjusting the odds" in their favour or by having a point spread, bookmakers aim to guarantee a profit by achieving a'balanced book', either by getting an equal number of bets for each possible outcome or by getting the amounts wagered on each outcome to reflect the odds; when a large bet comes in, a bookmaker may try to lay off the risk by buying bets from other bookmakers. Bookmakers do not attempt to make money from the bets themselves but rather by acting as market makers and profiting from the event regardless of the outcome.
Their working methods are similar to those of an actuary, who does a similar balancing of financial outcomes of events for the assurance and insurance industries. Depending on the country, bookmaking may be legal or illegal and is regulated. In the United Kingdom, since 1 May 1961, bookmaking has been legal and has been a small contributor to the British economy, with a recent explosion of interest with regard to the international gaming sector industry. However, gambling debts were unenforceable under English law until the Gambling Act 2005. Many bookmakers are members of an industry organisation used to settle disputes. Bookmaking is illegal in the United States, with Nevada being an exception due to the influence of Las Vegas. In May 2018, a United States Supreme Court ruling struck down the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992, which prevented individual states from legalizing bookmaking. In some countries, such as Singapore, Sweden and Japan, the only legal bookmaker is owned and operated by the state.
In Canada, this is known as Sport Select. The first bookmaker in the United Kingdom is considered to be Harry Ogden, who opened a business in the 1790s, although similar activities had existed in other forms earlier in the eighteenth century. Following the Gaming Act 1845, the only gambling allowed in the United Kingdom was at race tracks; the introduction of special excursion trains meant that all classes of society could attend the new racecourses opening across the country. Cash concentrated towards the bookmakers who employed bodyguards against protection gangs operating within the vast crowds. Illegal betting shops were fined, but some, like Bella Thomasson, ran betting businesses that the police appeared to turn a blind eye to. In 1961, Harold Macmillan's Conservative government legalised betting shops, with tough measures enacted to ensure that bookmakers remained honest. A large industry has grown since. At one time, there were over 15,000 betting shops. Now, through consolidation, they have been reduced to between 9,100 and 9,200 in 2013.
The group of the largest bookmakers in the country, known as the "Big Three", comprises William Hill and Coral. Improved TV coverage and the modernisation of the law have allowed betting in shops and casinos in most countries. In the UK, on-track bookies still mark up the odds on boards beside the race course and use tic-tac or mobile telephones to communicate the odds between their staff and to other bookies, with the modernisation of United Kingdom bookmaking laws and high street gambling are at an all-time high. A so-called super-casino had been planned for construction in Manchester, but the government announced that this plan had been scrapped on 26 February 2008. Although online gambling first started in 1994 when the licensing authority of Antigua and Barbuda passed the Free Trade & Processes Act, bookmakers did not get involved until 2001, they were forced to act when research at the time found there were eight million online players worldwide. With the arrival of the World Wide Web, many bookmakers have an online brand, but independently owned bookmakers still maintain a "bricks and mortar" only operation as the software and hardware required to operate a successful online betting operation are complex and their costs are quite prohibitive.
The main websites require bets to be from countries where Internet gambling is allowed and from people over 18 years old. Some small bookmakers and startups purchase software from specialised white label solution providers. Since gambling products have a high conversion rate from one niche to another, most online betting websites feature other gambling products such as poker, live dealer casino games, bingo and other casino games. Controversially, the explosion in Internet gambling is being linked to a rise in gambling addiction, according to the UK's help and advice organisations for addicts, GamCare and Gamblers Anonymous. Online bettors are turning to the use of betting exchanges such as Betfair and BETDAQ, which automatically match back and lay bets between different bettors, thus cutting out the bookmaker's traditional profit margin called an overround; these online exchange markets operate a market index of prices near but not at 100% competitiveness, as exchanges take commissions on winnings.
True wholesale odds are odds. Betting exchanges compete with the traditional bookmaker. The
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Walter Matthau was an American actor and comedian, best known for his film roles, including as Oscar Madison in The Odd Couple, based on the play of the same title by playwright Neil Simon, in which he appeared on broadway theatre, notably, opposite Audrey Hepburn in Charade. He appeared in the less successful Odd Couple film sequel some 30 years The Odd Couple II. Matthau was known for his frequent collaborations with Odd Couple co-star Jack Lemmon in the 1990s with Grumpy Old Men and its sequel Grumpier Old Men, he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in the 1966 Billy Wilder film The Fortune Cookie. Besides the Oscar, he was the winner of Golden Globe and Tony awards. Matthau was born Walter John Matthow on October 1920, in New York City's Lower East Side, his mother, was a Lithuanian-Jewish immigrant who worked in a garment sweatshop, his father, Milton Matthow, was a Ukrainian-Jewish peddler and electrician, from Kiev, Ukraine. As part of a lifelong love of practical jokes, Matthau created the rumors that his middle name was Foghorn and his last name was Matuschanskayasky.
As a young boy, Matthau attended a Jewish non-profit sleepaway camp, Tranquillity Camp, where he first began acting in the shows the camp would stage on Saturday nights. He attended Surprise Lake Camp, his high school was Seward Park High School. He worked for a short time. During World War II, Matthau saw active service as a radioman-gunner in the U. S. Army Air Forces with the Eighth Air Force in Great Britain, crewing a Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber, he was with the same 453rd Bombardment Group as James Stewart. While based in England at RAF Old Buckenham, in Norfolk he flew missions across to continental Europe during the Battle of the Bulge, he ended the war with the rank of Staff Sergeant, returned home to America for demobilization at the war's end intent on pursuing a career as an actor. Matthau was trained in acting at the Dramatic Workshop of The New School with German director Erwin Piscator, he joked that his best early review came in a play where he posed as a derelict. One reviewer said, "The others just looked like actors in make-up, Walter Matthau looks like a skid row bum!"
Matthau was a respected stage actor for years in such fare as Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter? and A Shot in the Dark. He won the 1962 Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a play. Matthau appeared in the pilot of Mister Peepers with Wally Cox. For reasons unknown he used the name Leonard Elliot, his role was of the gym teacher Mr. Wall, he made his motion picture debut as a whip-wielding bad guy in The Kentuckian opposite Burt Lancaster. He played a villain in King Creole. Around the same time, he made Ride a Crooked Trail with Audie Murphy, Onionhead starring Andy Griffith. Matthau had a featured role opposite Griffith in the well received drama A Face in the Crowd, directed by Elia Kazan. Matthau directed a low-budget movie called The Gangster Story and was a sympathetic sheriff in Lonely Are the Brave, which starred Kirk Douglas, he appeared opposite Audrey Hepburn in Charade. Appearances on television were common too, including two on Naked City, as well as an episode of The Eleventh Hour, he appeared eight times between 1962 and 1964 on The DuPont Show of the Week and as Franklin Gaer in an episode of Dr. Kildare.
Additionally he featured in the syndicated crime drama Tallahassee 7000, as a Florida-based state police investigator. Comedies were rare in Matthau's work at that time, he was cast in a number of stark dramas, such as Fail Safe, in which he portrayed Pentagon adviser Dr. Groeteschele, who urges an all-out nuclear attack on the Soviet Union in response to an accidental transmission of an attack signal to U. S. Air Force bombers. Neil Simon cast him in the play The Odd Couple in 1965, with Matthau playing slovenly sportswriter Oscar Madison, opposite Art Carney as Felix Ungar. Matthau reprised the role in the film version, with Jack Lemmon as Felix Ungar, he played detective Ted Casselle in the Hitchcockian thriller Mirage, directed by Edward Dmytryk. He achieved great success in the comedy film, The Fortune Cookie, as a shyster lawyer, William H. "Whiplash Willie" Gingrich, starring opposite Lemmon, the first of many collaborations with Billy Wilder, a role that would earn him an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor.
Filming had to be placed on a five-month hiatus. He gave up his three pack a day smoking habit as a result. Matthau appeared during the Oscar telecast shortly after having been injured in a bicycle accident. Oscar nominations would come Matthau's way again for Kotch, directed by Lemmon, The Sunshine Boys, another adaptation of a Neil Simon stage play, this time about a pair of former vaudeville stars. For the latter role he won a Golden Globe award for Best Actor in a Comedy. Broadway hits turned into films continued to cast Matthau in lead roles in Hello, Dolly! and Cactus Flower. Matthau played three roles in the film version of Simon's Plaza Suite and was in the cast of its followup California Suite (197
Pre-Code Hollywood refers to the brief era in the American film industry between the widespread adoption of sound in pictures in 1929 and the enforcement of the Motion Picture Production Code censorship guidelines, popularly known as the "Hays Code", in mid-1934. Although the Code was adopted in 1930, oversight was poor, it did not become rigorously enforced until July 1, 1934, with the establishment of the Production Code Administration. Before that date, movie content was restricted more by local laws, negotiations between the Studio Relations Committee and the major studios, popular opinion, than by strict adherence to the Hays Code, ignored by Hollywood filmmakers; as a result, some films in the late 1920s and early 1930s depicted or implied sexual innuendo, mild profanity, illegal drug use, prostitution, abortion, intense violence, homosexuality. Strong female characters were ubiquitous in such pre-Code films as Female, Baby Face, Red-Headed Woman. Gangsters in films like The Public Enemy, Little Caesar, Scarface were seen by many as heroic rather than evil.
Along with featuring stronger female characters, films examined female subject matters that would not be revisited until decades in US films. Nefarious characters were seen to profit from their deeds, in some cases without significant repercussions, drug use was a topic of several films. Many of Hollywood's biggest stars such as Clark Gable, Barbara Stanwyck, Joan Blondell, Edward G. Robinson got their start in the era. Other stars who excelled during this period, like Ruth Chatterton and Warren William, would wind up forgotten by the general public within a generation. Beginning in late 1933 and escalating throughout the first half of 1934, American Roman Catholics launched a campaign against what they deemed the immorality of American cinema. This, plus a potential government takeover of film censorship and social research seeming to indicate that movies which were seen to be immoral could promote bad behavior, was enough pressure to force the studios to capitulate to greater oversight. In 1922, after some risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder William H.
"Will" Hays, a figure of unblemished rectitude. Hays nicknamed the motion picture "Czar", was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. Hays, Postmaster General under Warren G. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee, served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, where he "defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums, negotiated treaties to cease hostilities." Hollywood mimicked the decision Major League Baseball had made in hiring judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as League Commissioner the previous year to quell questions about the integrity of baseball in wake of the 1919 World Series gambling scandal. Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed "The Formula" in 1924, which the studios were advised to heed, asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning; the Supreme Court had decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures, while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before, such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry in 1916, little had come of the efforts.
In 1929, an American Roman Catholic layman Martin Quigley, editor of the prominent trade paper Motion Picture Herald, Father Daniel A. Lord, a Jesuit priest, created a code of standards, submitted it to the studios. Lord's concerns centered on the effects sound film had on children, whom he considered susceptible to their allure. Several studio heads, including Irving Thalberg of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, met with Lord and Quigley in February 1930. After some revisions, they agreed to the stipulations of the Code. One of the main motivating factors in adopting the Code was to avoid direct government intervention, it was the responsibility of the Studio Relations Committee, headed by Colonel Jason S. Joy, to supervise film production and advise the studios when changes or cuts were required; the Code was divided into two parts. The first was a set of "general principles" which concerned morality; the second was a set of "particular applications", an exacting list of items that could not be depicted.
Some restrictions, such as the ban on homosexuality or the use of specific curse words, were never directly mentioned but were assumed to be understood without clear demarcation. Miscegenation, the mixing of the races, was forbidden, it stated that the notion of an "adults-only policy" would be a dubious, ineffective strategy that would be difficult to enforce. However, it did allow that "maturer minds may understand and accept without harm subject matter in plots which does younger people positive harm." If children were supervised and the events implied elliptically, the code allowed what Brandeis University cultural historian Thomas Doherty called "the possibility of a cinematically inspired thought crime". The Code sought not only to determine what could be portrayed on screen, but to promote traditional values. Sexual relations outside of marriage could not be portrayed as attractive and beautiful, presented in a way that might arouse passion, nor be made to seem right and permissible. All criminal action had to be punish
Shirley Temple Black was an American actress, dancer and diplomat, Hollywood's number one box-office draw as a child actress from 1935 to 1938. As an adult, she was named United States ambassador to Ghana and to Czechoslovakia, served as Chief of Protocol of the United States. Temple began her film career at the age of three in 1932. Two years she achieved international fame in Bright Eyes, a feature film designed for her talents, she received a special Juvenile Academy Award in February 1935 for her outstanding contribution as a juvenile performer in motion pictures during 1934. Film hits such as Curly Top and Heidi followed year after year during the mid-to-late 1930s. Temple capitalized on licensed merchandise, her box-office popularity waned. She appeared in 14 films from the ages of 14 to 21. Temple retired from film in 1950 at the age of 22. In 1958, Temple returned to show business with a two-season television anthology series of fairy tale adaptations, she made guest appearances on television shows in the early 1960s and filmed a sitcom pilot, never released.
She sat on the boards of corporations and organizations including The Walt Disney Company, Del Monte Foods, the National Wildlife Federation. She began her diplomatic career in 1969, when she was appointed to represent the United States at a session of the United Nations General Assembly, where she worked at the U. S Mission under Ambassador Charles W. Yost. In 1988, she published Child Star. Temple was the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including the Kennedy Center Honors and a Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award, she is 18th on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest female American screen legends of Classic Hollywood cinema. Shirley Temple was born on April 23, 1928, in Santa Monica, the third child of homemaker Gertrude Amelia Temple and bank employee George Francis Temple; the family was of Dutch and German ancestry. She had two brothers: John Stanley, George Francis, Jr; the family moved to Los Angeles. Her mother encouraged her singing and acting talents, in September 1931 enrolled her in Meglin's Dance School in Los Angeles.
At about this time, Shirley's mother began styling her daughter's hair in ringlets. While at the dance school, she was spotted by Charles Lamont, a casting director for Educational Pictures. Temple hid behind the piano. Lamont took a liking to Temple, invited her to audition. Educational Pictures was going to launch its Baby Burlesks, multiple short films satirizing recent film and political events by using preschool children in every role. Baby Burlesks is a series of one-reelers, another series of two-reelers called Frolics of Youth followed with Temple playing Mary Lou Rogers, a youngster in a contemporary suburban family. To underwrite production costs at Educational Pictures and her child co-stars modeled for breakfast cereals and other products, she was lent to Tower Productions for a small role in her first feature film in 1932 and, in 1933, to Universal and Warner Bros. Pictures for various parts. After Educational Pictures declared bankruptcy in 1933, her father managed to purchase her contract for just $25.
Fox Film songwriter Jay Gorney was walking out of the viewing of Temple's last Frolics of Youth picture when he saw her dancing in the movie theater lobby. Recognizing her from the screen, he arranged for her to have a screen test for the movie Stand Up and Cheer! Temple arrived for the audition on December 7, 1933; the role was a breakthrough performance for Temple. Her charm was evident to Fox executives, she was ushered into corporate offices immediately after finishing Baby Take a Bow, a song-and-dance number she did with James Dunn. On December 21, 1933, her contract was extended to a year at the same $150/week with a seven-year option and her mother Gertrude was hired on at $25/week as her hairdresser and personal coach. Released in May 1934, Stand Up and Cheer! became Shirley's breakthrough film. Within months, she became the symbol of wholesome family entertainment. In June, her success continued. After the success of her first three movies, Shirley's parents realized that their daughter was not being paid enough money.
Her image began to appear on numerous commercial products without her legal authorization and without compensation. To get control over the corporate unlicensed use of her image and to negotiate with Fox, Temple's parents hired lawyer Loyd Wright to represent them. On July 18, 1934, the contractual salary was raised to $1,000 a week and her mother's salary was raised to $250 a week, with an additional $15,000 bonus for each movie finished. Temple's original contract for $150 per week is equivalent to $2,750 in 2015, adjusted for inflation. However, the economic value of $150 during the Great Depression was equal to $18,500; the subsequent salary increase to $1,000 weekly had the economic value of $123,000 and the bonus of $15,000 per movie was equivalent to $1.85 million in a decade when a quarter could buy a meal. Cease and desist letters were sent out to many companies and the process was begun for awarding corporate licenses. On December 28, 1934, Bright Eyes was released; the movie was the first feature film crafted for Temple's talents and the first where her name appeared eponymously over the ti
Sorrowful Jones known as Damon Runyon's Sorrowful Jones, is a 1949 film directed by Sidney Lanfield. The film stars Bob Hope. Sorrowful Jones was a remake of Little Miss Marker. In the film, a young girl is left with the notoriously cheap Sorrowful Jones as a marker for a bet; when her father does not return, he learns that taking care of a child interferes with his free-wheeling lifestyle. Lucille Ball plays a nightclub singer, dating Sorrowful's boss. Ball's singing voice is provided by Annette Warren, who sang for her in Fancy Pants and provided the singing voice for Ava Gardner in Show Boat. Sorrowful Jones is a New York bookie who keeps his operation hidden behind a trap door in a Broadway barber shop, he suffers from a financial setback when a horse named Dreamy Joe, owned by gangster Big Steve Holloway, unexpectedly wins a race. Jones has to pay all the many customers betting on the horse to win, which empties his pockets completely; when visiting a night club, Jones learns that the race was fixed by Big Steve, who tells him about giving the horse a "speedball."
It turns out Big Steve has informed all the bookies in his circle of friends about the fixed race, demands a sum of $1,000 from each one of them in exchange for this information. Before the next race, Jones gets information that Dreamy Joe will lose, but still takes bets on the horse from his customers, he takes bets with payment in markers from gambler Orville Smith, who leaves his daughter Martha Jane, four years old, as collateral for the bet. Things get more complicated when Orville is killed by one of Big Steve's goons, Once Over Sam; the reason is that Orville overhears a phone call involving Big Steve, where he reveals that the race is fixed. Because of Orville's demise, Jones is forced to take care of Martha Jane and brings her home with him; the next day Jones gets help from his ex-girlfriend, burlesque performer Gladys O'Neill, to take care of the little girl. Big Steve visits Jones and tells him he is quitting the race-fixing business, since he is being investigated by the racing commission.
Big Steve plans to make one final race before he gets out of the game, where he is fixing the race so that Dreamy Joe will win. He transfers the ownership of the horse to Martha Jane, unaware that the girl is Orville's daughter. After the race, Big Steve will kill the horse by giving it a too high dose of "speedball". Jones finds out that she is dead. Gladys suggests that Jones give all of Dreamy Joe's winnings to Martha Jane to help her survive, or she will contact the police and tell them about Jones' operation, she has no knowledge of Big Steve's plan to fix the race. Big Steve finds out that Martha Jane is Orville's daughter, so Jones must hide her to protect her from getting killed; when hiding on a fire escape's landing, Martha Jane falls down and is injured. While in a coma, the little girl calls out for Dreamy Joe. In order to save Martha Jane and wake her up, Jones and hjs partner Regret steal the horse from Big Steve at the race track, they take it into the hospital room. Martha Jane wakes up and the police find out that Big Steve is responsible for Orville's murder.
After Big Steve is arrested, Jones proposes to Gladys. The police wants Martha Jane to be placed in an orphanage, but Jones and Gladys, who have married, decide to adopt the girl, they go away on their honeymoon together with their newly adopted daughter. Bob Hope as Sorrowful Jones Lucille Ball as Gladys Bruce Cabot as Big Steve William Demarest as Regret Mary Jane Saunders as Martha Jane Sorrowful Jones on IMDb Sorrowful Jones at AllMovie
Sam Hardy (actor)
Sam B. Hardy was an American stage and film actor who appeared in feature films during the silent and early sound eras. Born in New Haven, Hardy attended Yale but left there to become an actor on stage, he entered the world of film with Biograph Studios. Hardy appeared in about 85 movies between 1915 and 1935, he was in comedic roles, his best-known role to modern audiences is Charles Weston, the theatrical agent, in the 1933 film classic King Kong. Hardy became ill while he was working in the film Shoot the Chutes, starring Eddie Cantor, he died of intestinal problems. He was known as Samuel Hardy. Goldner, Orville & Turner, George Eugene; the Making of King Kong: The Story Behind a Film Classic. A. S. Barnes, 1975. Low, Rachael. History of the British Film: Filmmaking in 1930s Britain. George Allen & Unwin, 1985. Sam Hardy at the Internet Broadway Database Sam Hardy on IMDb Portrait gallery findagrave.com TRAVALANCHE: Sam Hardy: Friend of Fields from the Follies