A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
A farmers' market is a physical retail marketplace intended to sell foods directly by farmers to consumers. Farmers' markets may be indoors or outdoors and consist of booths, tables or stands where farmers sell fruits, meats and sometimes prepared foods and beverages. Farmers' markets reflect the local culture and economy; the size of the market may be just a few stalls or it may be as large as several city blocks. Due to their nature, they tend to be less rigidly regulated than retail produce shops, they are distinguished from public markets, which are housed in permanent structures, open year-round, offer a variety of non-farmer/non-producer vendors, packaged foods and non-food products. The current concept of a farmers' market is similar to past concepts, but different in relation to other forms – as aspects of consumer retailing, continue to shift over time. Similar forms existed before the Industrial age, but formed part of broader markets, where suppliers of food and other goods gathered to retail their wares.
Trading posts began a shift toward retailers. General stores and grocery stores continued that specialization trend in retailing, optimizing the consumer experience, while abstracting it further from production and from production's growing complexities. Modern industrial food production's advantages over prior methods depend on modern, fast transport and limited product variability, but transport costs and delays cannot be eliminated. So where distance strained industrial suppliers' reach, where consumers had strong preference for local variety, farmers' markets remained competitive with other forms of food retail. Starting in the mid-2000s, consumer demand for foods that are fresher and for foods with more variety—has led to growth of farmers' markets as a food-retailing mechanism. Farmers' markets can offer farmers increased profit over selling to wholesalers, food processors, or large grocery firms. By selling directly to consumers, produce needs less transport, less handling, less refrigeration and less time in storage.
By selling in an outdoor market, the cost of land, buildings and air-conditioning is reduced or eliminated. Farmers may retain profit on produce not sold to consumers, by selling the excess to canneries and other food-processing firms. At the market, farmers can retain the full premium for part of their produce, instead of only a processor's wholesale price for the entire lot. However, other economists say "there are few benefits in terms of energy efficiency, quality or cost... fun though they are, are not good economic models."Some farmers prefer the simplicity, immediacy and independence of selling direct to consumers. One method noted by the special interest group Food Empowerment Project promotes community-supported agriculture programs. In this scheme, consumers pay farms seasonally or monthly to receive weekly or biweekly boxes of produce. Alternatively, they may be required to pay for an entire season’s worth of produce in advance of the growing season. In either case, consumers risk losing their money.
Among the benefits touted for communities with farmers' markets: Farmers' markets help maintain important social ties, linking rural and urban populations and close neighbors in mutually rewarding exchange. Market traffic generates traffic for nearby businesses buying at markets encourages attention to the surrounding area and ongoing activities by providing outlets for'local' products, farmers' markets help create distinction and uniqueness, which can increase pride and encourage visitors to return. Reduced transport and refrigeration can benefit communities too: lower transport & refrigeration energy costs lower transport pollution lower transport infrastructure cost less land dedicated to food storageFarmers' markets may contribute to innovative distribution means that strengthen civic engagement by reducing the social distances between urban and rural communities. With fewer intermediaries, the support of independent growers by local community members can enhance local economic opportunities and health & wellness in poor communities.
Some consumers may favor farmers' markets for the perceived: reduced overhead: driving, etc. fresher foods seasonal foods healthier foods a better variety of foods, e.g.: organic foods, pasture-raised meats, free-range eggs and poultry, handmade farmstead cheeses, heirloom produce heritage breeds of meat and many less transport-immune cultivars disfavored by large grocers a place to meet neighbors, etc. A place to enjoy an outdoor walk while getting needed groceriesEvidence seems to show that overall prices at a typical farmers' market are lower than prices at a supermarket because the process of production is more concise. Due in part to the increased interest in healthier foods, a greater desire to preserve local cultivars or livestock and an increased understanding of the importance of maintaining small, sustainable farms on the fringe of urban environments, farmers' markets in the US have grown from 1,755 in 1994 to 4,385 in 2006, to 5,274 in 2009, to 8,144 in 2013. In New York City, there are 107 farmers' markets in operation.
In the Los Angeles area, 88 farmers' markets exist, many of which support Asian fare. In the U. S. all levels of government have provided funding to farmers' markets, for instance, through the federal programs, and. The programs subsidize purchases at farmers' markets by lo
Clinton Presidential Center
The William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park is the presidential library of Bill Clinton, the 42nd President of the United States, it is located in Little Rock and includes the Clinton Presidential Library, the offices of the Clinton Foundation, the University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service. It is the thirteenth presidential library to have been completed in the United States, the eleventh to be operated by the National Archives and Records Administration, the third to comply with the Presidential Records Act of 1978, it is situated on 17 acres of land located next to the Arkansas River and Interstate 30 and was designed by architectural firm Polshek Partnership, LLP with exhibition design by Ralph Appelbaum Associates. The main building cantilevers over the Arkansas River, echoing Clinton's campaign promise of "building a bridge to the 21st century". With a 68,698-square-foot floor plan, the library itself is the largest presidential library in terms of physical area, although the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library has the greatest space overall, due to its addition of the 90,000 square feet Air Force One Pavilion in 2005.
The archives are the largest as well, containing 2 million photographs, 80 million pages of documents, 21 million e-mail messages, 79,000 artifacts from the Clinton presidency. The Clinton Library is the most expensive, with all funding coming from 112,000 private donations; the museum showcases artifacts from Clinton's two terms as president and includes full-scale replicas of the Clinton-era Oval Office and Cabinet Room. Preliminary planning for the library began in 1997, while groundbreaking for the complex occurred on December 5, 2001. Early estimates put the library's cost at about $125 million. In 2001, the Clinton Foundation hoped to gather $200 million in donations to cover project costs. In the end, the entire project cost $165 million in private funding, with an additional $11.5 million of land given by the City of Little Rock to construct and covers 152,000 square feet within a 28 acres park. Fund-raising for the center was led by Terry McAuliffe, a friend of Clinton's who had contributed to the Clinton-Gore campaign in 1995.
Clinton himself was prohibited by law from soliciting donations for the center, but he did host private events relating to the library. There were no other legal restrictions on donations, the Clinton Foundation was able to accept unlimited private donations, all of which were tax deductible. $10 million of contributions came from Saudi Arabia. However, the Clinton Foundation declined to release a full donor list, similar to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Donations exceeding $1 million were given from various other foreign governments, as well as foreign individuals. Various American organizations contributed millions of dollars to the foundation; the Clinton Presidential Center was dedicated on November 18, 2004. Although it was raining, the ceremony was attended by 30,000 people and included a 20-minute speech made by Clinton, who had undergone bypass surgery, it included performances by Bono, the African Drum Ballet and the Philander Smith Collegiate Choir, as well as an invocation given by Floyd Flake and video tribute from Nelson Mandela.
Four U. S. presidents were on the same stage together. All three other presidents spoke at the event as well. Overall, the ceremony featured six speakers. On November 17, 2009, the library's fifth anniversary saw Clinton giving a speech to 1,000 people, urging for the passage of health-care reform and the reduction of energy use, he mentioned the center and school as places where discussion on such topics could take place. The five-story main building comprises 20,000 square feet of exhibition space, the Great Hall, Forty Two, classrooms. A 2,000-square-foot private penthouse used by Clinton is located on the top floor of the main building, one level above the public museum area. In 2007 the Clinton Foundation installed on the rooftop of the Presidential library the private "Rooftop Garden" with a golf course; the organization of the exhibits within the main building was inspired by the famous Long Room in the Old Library at Trinity College, which Clinton first saw when he was a Rhodes Scholar.
The Cadillac One used during Clinton's presidency is housed on the first floor. On the second floor, the main gallery houses a 110-foot timeline, representing each of Clinton's years as President. There is an 80-seat theater, the Great Hall, the replicas of the Oval Office and Cabinet Room; the restaurant is located in the basement. Between November 18, 2000 and January 27, 2001, eight Lockheed C-5 Galaxy missions that moved 602 tonnes of President Bill Clinton's papers, gifts and other official materials from Andrews Air Force Base to Little Rock Air Force Base. Commercial trucks transported the cargoes from the base to the National Archives storage facility in Little Rock, where they were to remain until completion of the Clinton presidential library in 2004; the archives are housed in a building south of and connected to the main building, which contains NARA fac
Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Arkansas. It is the county seat of Pulaski County, it was incorporated on November 7, 1831, on the south bank of the Arkansas River close to the state's geographic center. The city derives its name from a rock formation along the river, named the "Little Rock" by the French explorer Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe in the 1720s; the capital of the Arkansas Territory was moved to Little Rock from Arkansas Post in 1821. The city's population was 198,541 in 2016 according to the United States Census Bureau; the six-county Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 78th in terms of population in the United States with 738,344 residents according to the 2017 estimate by the United States Census Bureau. Little Rock is a cultural, economic and transportation center within Arkansas and the South. Several cultural institutions are in Little Rock, such as the Arkansas Arts Center, the Arkansas Repertory Theatre, the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra, in addition to hiking and other outdoor recreational opportunities.
Little Rock's history is available through history museums, historic districts or neighborhoods like the Quapaw Quarter, historic sites such as Little Rock Central High School. The city is the headquarters of Dillard's, Windstream Communications, Stephens Inc. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Heifer International, the Clinton Foundation, the Rose Law Firm, Arkansas Blue Cross and Blue Shield. Other corporations, such as Dassault Falcon Jet, LM Wind Power, Simmons Bank, Euronet Worldwide, AT&T, Entergy have large operations in the city. State government is a large employer, with many offices downtown. Two major Interstate highways, Interstate 30 and Interstate 40, meet in Little Rock, with the Port of Little Rock serving as a shipping hub. Little Rock derives its name from a small rock formation on the south bank of the Arkansas River called the "Little Rock"; the Little Rock was used by early river traffic as a landmark and became a well-known river crossing. The Little Rock is across the river from The Big Rock, a large bluff at the edge of the river, once used as a rock quarry.
Archeological artifacts provide evidence of Native Americans inhabiting Central Arkansas for thousands of years before Europeans arrived. The early inhabitants may have been the Folsom people, Bluff Dwellers, Mississippian culture peoples who built earthwork mounds recorded in 1541 by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. Historical tribes of the area were the Caddo, Osage and Cherokee. Little Rock was named for a stone outcropping on the bank of the Arkansas River used by early travelers as a landmark, it was named in 1722 by French explorer and trader Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, marked the transition from the flat Mississippi Delta region to the Ouachita Mountain foothills. Travelers referred to the area as the "Little Rock." Though there was an effort to name the city "Arkopolis" upon its founding in the 1820s, that name did appear on a few maps made by the US Geological Survey, the name Little Rock is what stuck. Little Rock is located at 34°44′10″N 92°19′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 116.8 square miles, of which 116.2 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water.
Little Rock is located on the south bank of the Arkansas River in Central Arkansas. Fourche Creek and Rock Creek run through the city, flow into the river; the western part of the city is located in the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. Northwest of the city limits are Pinnacle Mountain and Lake Maumelle, which provides Little Rock's drinking water; the city of North Little Rock is located just across the river from Little Rock, but it is a separate city. North Little Rock was once the 8th ward of Little Rock. An Arkansas Supreme Court decision on February 6, 1904, allowed the ward to merge with the neighboring town of North Little Rock; the merged town renamed itself Argenta, but returned to its original name in October 1917. The 2017 U. S. Census population estimate for the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area was 738,344; the MSA covers the following counties: Pulaski, Grant, Lonoke and Saline. The largest cities are Little Rock, North Little Rock, Jacksonville, Sherwood, Cabot and Bryant.
Little Rock lies in the humid subtropical climate zone, with hot, humid summers and cool winters, with little snow. It has experienced temperatures as low as −12 °F, recorded on February 12, 1899, as high as 114 °F, recorded on August 3, 2011; as of the 2005–2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U. S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 52.7% of Little Rock's population. Blacks or African Americans made up 42.1% of Little Rock's population, with 42.0% being non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.4% of Little Rock's population while Asian Americans made up 2.1% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans made up less than 0.1% of the city's population. Individuals from some other race made up 1.2% of the city's population. Individuals from two or more races made up 1.4% of the city's population. In addition and Latinos made up 4.7% of Little Rock's population. As of the 2010 census, there were 193,524 people, 82,018 households, 47,799 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,576.0 people p
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. It flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U. S. states of Colorado, Kansas and Arkansas. The river's source basin lies in the western United States in Colorado the Arkansas River Valley, where the headwaters derive from the snowpack in the Sawatch and Mosquito mountain ranges, it flows east into the Midwest via Kansas, into the South through Oklahoma and Arkansas. At 1,469 miles, it is the sixth-longest river in the United States, the second-longest tributary in the Mississippi–Missouri system, the 45th longest river in the world, its origin is in the Rocky Mountains in Lake County, near Leadville. In 1859, placer gold discovered in the Leadville area brought thousands seeking to strike it rich, but the recovered placer gold was exhausted; the Arkansas River's mouth is at Napoleon and its drainage basin covers nearly 170,000 sq mi. In terms of volume, the river is much smaller than the Missouri and Ohio Rivers, with a mean discharge of about 40,000 cubic feet per second.
The Arkansas from its headwaters to the 100th meridian west formed part of the U. S.-Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty until the Texas Annexation or Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Name pronunciation varies by region. Many people in western states, including Kansas and parts of Colorado, pronounce it ar-KAN-zəs, People in Oklahoma, parts of Colorado, the majority of the remaining United States pronounce it AR-kən-saw, how the Arkansas state is always pronounced according to a state law passed in 1881; the path of the Arkansas River has changed over time. Sediments from the river found in a palaeochannel next to Nolan, a site in the Tensas Basin, show that part of the river's meander belt flowed through up to 5200 BP. Whilst it was thought that this relict channel was active at the same time as another relict of Mississippi River's meander belt, it has been shown that this channel of the Arkansas was inactive 400 years before the Mississippi channel was active; the Arkansas has three distinct sections in its long path through central North America.
At its headwaters beginning near Leadville, the Arkansas runs as a steep fast-flowing mountain river through the Rockies in its narrow valley, dropping 4,600 feet in 120 miles. This section supports extensive whitewater rafting, including The Numbers, Brown's Canyon, the Royal Gorge. At Cañon City, the Arkansas River valley widens and flattens markedly. Just west of Pueblo, the river enters the Great Plains. Through the rest of Colorado and much of Oklahoma, it is a typical Great Plains riverway, with wide, shallow banks subject to seasonal flooding and periods of dwindling flow. Tributaries include the Salt Fork Arkansas River. In eastern Oklahoma the river begins to widen further into a more contained consistent channel. To maintain more reliable flow rates, a series of large reservoir lakes have been built on the Arkansas and its intersecting tributaries including the Canadian, Neosho and Poteau rivers; these locks and dams allow the river to be navigable by barges and large river craft downriver of Muskogee, where the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System joins in with the Verdigris River.
Into western Arkansas, the river path works between the encroaching Boston and Ouachita Mountains, including many isolated, flat-topped mesas, buttes, or monadnocks such as Mount Nebo, Petit Jean Mountain, Mount Magazine, the highest point in the state. The river valley expands as it encounters much flatter land beginning just west of Little Rock, Arkansas, it continues eastward across the plains and forests of eastern Arkansas until it flows into the Mississippi River. Water flow in the Arkansas River has dropped from 248 cubic feet per second average from 1944-1963 to 53 cubic feet per second average from 1984–2003 because of the pumping of groundwater for irrigation in eastern Colorado and western Kansas. Important cities along the Arkansas River include Colorado; the I-40 bridge disaster of May 2002 took place on I-40's crossing of Kerr Reservoir on the Arkansas River near Webbers Falls, Oklahoma. Since 1902, Kansas has claimed Colorado takes too much of the river's water, resulting in a number of lawsuits before the U.
S. Supreme Court that continue to this day under the name of Kansas v. Colorado; the problems over the possession and use of Arkansas River water by Colorado and Kansas led to the creation of an interstate compact or agreement between the two states. While Congress approved the Arkansas River Compact in 1949, the compact did not stop further disputes by the two states over water rights to the river; the Kansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River Basin Compact was created in 1965 to promote mutual consideration and equity over water use in the basin shared by those states. It led to the Kansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River Commission, charged with administering the compact and reducing pollution; the compact was approved and implemented by both states in 1970, has been in force since then. The McClellan–Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System begins at the Tulsa Port of Catoosa on the Verdigris River, enters the Arkansas River near Muskogee, runs via an extensive lock and dam system to the Mississippi River. Through Oklahoma and Arkansas, dams which artificially deepen and widen the river to sustain comme
Arkansas River Trail
The Arkansas River Trail is a rail trail that runs 17 miles in along both sides of the Arkansas River in Central Arkansas. The Arkansas River Trail began with funding from a $1.9 million bond issue from the city of Little Rock in 2003. The trail includes a portion of the Little Western Railway; the former railbed operates adjacent to the trail. Both former railroad bridges have been converted into bicycling bridges; the Junction Bridge opened in May 2008. S. president Bill Clinton, opened in October 2011. Both connect the two cities' riverfront parks; the Junction Bridge is accessed via elevators. Renovation work on the Clinton Presidential Park Bridge began in May 2010; the railroad bridge constructed in 1899 as the Rock Island Bridge, is the eastern pedestrian and bicycle connection for the River Trail. Renovation work on the Clinton Presidential Park Bridge cost $10.5 million and was funded by a mix of funds including $4 million from the Clinton Foundation, $2.5 million of federal stimulus money, $2 million from the Commerce Department, $1 million from the city of Little Rock, $750,000 from the city of North Little Rock.
Of the three railroad spans in the downtown area one is still in use by the Union Pacific Railroad. UP gave tentative approval to build a small bridge near the Little Rock Amtrak station. Arkansas River Trail maps, businesses and more The Arkansas River Trail Page on Traillink.com American Trails web page on the Arkansas River Trail
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou