Brockets or brocket deer are the species of deer in the genus Mazama. They are medium to small in size, are found in the Yucatán Peninsula and South America, the island of Trinidad. Most species are found in forests, they are unrelated. About 10 species of brocket deer are described; the genus name Mazama is derived from Nahuatl mazame, the plural of mazatl "deer". The common English name "brocket" comes from the word for a stag in its second year, with unbranched antlers; the taxonomy among Mazama species has changed in the last decades, as as 1999, some authorities only recognized four species. These four "species", M. americana, M. gouazoubira, M. rufina, M. chunnyi, included several distinct populations that subsequently were elevated to species status, resulting in a total of nine different species being recognized in Mammal Species of the World in 2005. A tenth species, M. nemorivaga, has traditionally been included in M. gouazoubira, but this was shown to be mistaken in 2000. M. nemorivaga was not recognized as a separate species in Mammal Species of the World, but this was in error.
Yet another species, the fair brocket, has been described from the lower Amazon basin. What may be an undescribed small species of brocket with a reddish coat and blackish legs has been photographed in the lowlands of Manú National Park in Peru, based on sight records may occur in northwestern Bolivia. Molecular dating suggests that the family Cervidae originated and radiated in central Asia during the Late Miocene, that the Odocoileini dispersed to North America during the Miocene/Pliocene boundary and underwent an adaptive radiation in South America after their Pliocene dispersal across the Isthmus of Panama. According to the systematic relationships and evolutionary history of neotropical deer, at least eight ancestral forms of deer invaded South America during the late Pliocene, members of the red brockets had an independent early explosive diversification soon after their ancestor arrived there, giving rise to a number of morphologically cryptic species. Deer endemic to the New World fall in two biogeographic lineages: the first, which includes genus Odocoileus and Mazama americana, is distributed in North and South America, whereas the second is composed of South American species only and includes Mazama gouazoubira.
This implies. Genetic analysis reveals high levels of molecular and cytogenetic divergence between groups of morphologically similar species of brockets and suggests a polyphyletic origin. In particular, M. americana showed a striking kinship with Odocoileus on the basis of several DNA sequences, in contrast to that expected, since this M. americana haplotype, of Mexican origin, was not close to several Bolivian Mazama sequences analyzed. Thus, Mazama as traditionally circumscribed may not be monophyletic; these Bolivian Mazama species were instead grouped with Pudu Ozotoceros bezoarticus. This could be explained by various possibilities, among them the existence of common ancestral haplotypes among the species or the need for a revised phylogenetic tree, with revised placement into true monophyletic genera that better reflect the true ancestry. Red brocket bororo Merida brocket Dwarf brocket. Gray brocket Pygmy brocket Amazonian brown brocket Yucatan brown brocket Little red brocket Central American red brocket Fair brocket Depending on species, brocket deer are small to medium-sized with stout bodies and large ears.
The head-and-body length is 60–144 cm, the shoulder height is 35–80 cm, the typical weight 8–48 kg, though exceptionally large M. americana specimens have weighed as much as 65 kg. When present, the antlers are small, simple spikes; the pelage varies from reddish to brown to gray. The species can be divided into four groups based on size and habitat: M. americana and M. temama are found in forest. They are large to medium brocket deer with a reddish to reddish-brown pelage; the head and legs are grayish or blackish. M. gouazoubira, M. nemorivaga, M. pandora are found in forest and shrubland. They are medium-sized with a brownish to grayish pale underparts. M. nana, M. bricenii, M. chunyi, M. rufina are found in forest and high-altitude grassland. They are medium to small in size, the pelage is reddish. In most, a part of the legs and the upper part of the head are blackish or dark gray, but in M. chunyi, the foreparts and neck are blackish or dark gray. M. bororo is found in Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil.
In appearance, it is intermediate in appearance between M. nana. In addition to being small and nocturnal, Mazama species are shy and are thus observed, they are found living alone or in mated pairs within their own small territory, the boundaries marked with urine, feces, or secretions from the eye glands. When threatened by predators, they use their knowledge of their territory to finding hiding places in nearby vegetation; as herbivores, their diet consists of leaves and shoots. Mated pairs that live together remain monogamous. Single male deer mate with nearby females
Páramo can refer to a variety of alpine tundra ecosystems. Some ecologists describe the páramo broadly as "all high, montane vegetation above the continuous timberline". A more narrow term classifies the páramo according to its regional placement in the northern Andes of South America and adjacent southern Central America; the páramo is the ecosystem of the regions above the continuous forest line, yet below the permanent snowline. It is a "Neotropical high mountain biome with a vegetation composed of giant rosette plants and grasses". According to scientists, páramos may be "evolutionary hot spots" and among the fastest evolving regions on Earth; the Northern Andean Paramo global ecoregion includes the Cordillera Central páramo, Santa Marta páramo, Cordillera de Merida páramo and Northern Andean páramo terrestrial ecoregions. The Costa Rican páramo in Costa Rica and Panama is another páramo ecoregion. In the strictest sense of the term, all páramo ecosystems are located in the Neotropics South and Central America.
Scattered throughout the regions between 11°N and 8°S latitudes, these ecosystems are located in the northwest corner of South America, in Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Venezuela, the páramo occurs in the Cordillera de Mérida. Páramo ecosystems are found in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia, in the regions of Huehuetenango and El Quiché of Guatemala in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes; the Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica and the westernmost part of Panama has páramo. In northern Ecuador, the Guandera Biological Station is a undisturbed páramo ecosystem; the majority of the páramo ecosystems occur in the Colombian Andes. The Sumapaz Páramo, south of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes, is the largest páramo in the world; this region was declared a National Park of Colombia in 1977 because of its importance as a biodiversity hotspot and main source of water for the most densely populated area of the country, the Bogotá Savannah. The 5.7-square-kilometre Páramo Wildlife Refuge Park in the San José Province of Costa Rica "protects tropical forest areas in the high elevations of the Talamanca Mountains".
Cotopaxi National Park contains 329.9 square kilometres of protected land in the Cotopaxi Province of Ecuador. Much of this park is páramo, its flora includes gentians, clubmosses and asters such as Loricaria and Chuquiraga species. Páramo climates differ depending on the specific location. In Colombia and northern Ecuador, air masses from the Intertropical Convergence Zone have a substantial effect on the climate, these regions tend to be humid throughout the year; the Andes play a key role in the climate of these regions as they cause an orographic uplift in which moist air rises. This creates continuous moisture via rain and fog, with many of them receiving over 2,000 mm of rain annually; the páramos of the northern-most Andes of Venezuela, northern Colombia, Costa Rica experience a different climate due to the dry season, caused by northeasterly trade winds. Southern Ecuador and northern Peru experience the most severe dryness as they are influenced by an air mass from the Amazon Basin, which releases its moisture on the eastern slopes, as well as another air mass from the west, influenced by the Humboldt Current.
Overall, páramo climates are known for their daily fluctuations in humidity. While they are cold and humid ecosystems, they undergo a sudden and drastic change in weather in which they fluctuate between temperatures from below freezing to as high as 30 °C; this oscillation results in a daily freeze-and-thaw cycle, sometimes described as "summer every day and winter every night." Mean annual temperatures of páramo ecosystems range from 2 °C to 10 °C, with colder temperatures at higher latitudes. Soils in páramo ecosystems vary, but most are young and weathered; the soil has a low pH because of an abundance of moisture and organic content. Organic content within disturbed sites averages high which contributes to water retention in the soil. During cold and wet weather, there are few nutrients available and productivity is low in páramo soils. Soils in páramo ecosystems have changed because of human activity due to burning vegetation to clear land for grazing. Soils in the south Ecuadorian páramo are characterized broadly into Andisols, Histosols and Mollisols.
There has been an increase in Andisol soils due to more volcanic activity These soils have a high water retention rate, which contributes to the rise in cultivation and differential land use. This water supply stored in the soil in the higher elevation páramo in the Andes becomes the water supply for Andean settlements in lower altitudes. Páramos are divided into separate zones based on altitude and vegetation structure, with the three main types of páramo vegetation unequally distributed throughout the different zones. Superpáramo is at the highest elevation and is considered to be the transition zone between the higher, permanent snow region and the lower grass páramo zone; the superpáramo zone is narrow and exists atop loose stones and sandy soils at about 4,500–4,800 m. It has the lowest air temperature, precipitation level, soil water-holding capacity, nutrient content of all the zones. Being the highest in altitude, it has the highest levels of solar radiation and night frost. For this reason, vegetation in the superpáramo must be h
The Antilocapridae are a family of artiodactyls endemic to North America. Their closest extant relatives are the giraffids with which they comprise the superfamily Giraffoidea. Only one species, the pronghorn, is living today; the living pronghorn is a small ruminant mammal resembling an antelope. In most respects, antilocaprids resemble other ruminants, they have a complex, four-chambered stomach for digesting tough plant matter, cloven hooves, small, forked horns. Their horns resemble those of the bovids, in that they have a true horny sheath, uniquely, they are shed outside the breeding season, subsequently regrown, their lateral toes are further diminished than in bovids, with the digits themselves being lost, only the cannon bones remaining. Antilocaprids have the same dental formula as most other ruminants: 0.0.3.33.1.3.3. The antilocaprids evolved in North America, where they filled a niche similar to that of the bovids that evolved in the Old World. During the Miocene and Pliocene, they were a diverse and successful group, with many different species.
Some had horns with bizarre shapes, or had four, or six, horns. Examples include Osbornoceros, with smooth curved horns, with flattened horns that widened to forked tips, with fan-shaped horns, Hayoceros, with four horns. Subfamily Antilocaprinae Tribe Antilocaprini Genus Antilocapra Antilocapra americana - pronghorn A. a. americana - Common pronghorn A. a. mexicana - Mexican pronghorn A. a. peninsularis - Baja California pronghorn A. a. sonoriensis - Sonoran pronghorn A. a. oregona - Oregon pronghorn Antilocapra maquinensis Antilocapra pacifica Genus †Texoceros Texoceros altidens Texoceros edensis Texoceros guymonensis Texoceros minorei Texoceros texanus Texoceros vaughani Tribe †Ilingoceratini Genus †Ilingoceros Ilingoceros alexandrae Ilingoceros schizoceros Genus †Ottoceros Ottoceros peacevalleyensis Genus †Plioceros Plioceros blicki Plioceros dehlini Plioceros floblairi Genus †Sphenophalos Sphenophalos garciae Sphenophalos middleswarti Sphenophalos nevadanus Tribe †Proantilocaprini Genus †Proantilocapra Proantilocapra platycornea Genus †Osbornoceros Osbornoceros osborni Tribe Stockoceratini Genus †Capromeryx - Capromeryx arizonensis - Capromeryx furcifer - Capromeryx gidleyi - Capromeryx mexicana - Capromeryx minor - Capromeryx tauntonensis Genus †Ceratomeryx Ceratomeryx prenticei Genus †Hayoceros Hayoceros barbouri Hayoceros falkenbachi Genus †Hexameryx Hexameryx simpsoni Genus †Hexobelomeryx Hexobelomeryx fricki Hexobelomeryx simpsoni Genus †Stockoceros Stockoceros conklingi Genus †Tetrameryx Tetrameryx irvingtonensis Tetrameryx knoxensis Tetrameryx mooseri Tetrameryx shuleri Tetrameryx tacubayensis Subfamily Merycodontinae Genus †Cosoryx Cosoryx agilis Cosoryx cerroensis Cosoryx furcatus Cosoryx ilfonensis Cosoryx trilateralis Genus †Meryceros Meryceros crucensis Merycerus crucianus Meryceros hookwayi Meryceros joraki Meryceros major Meryceros nenzelensis Meryceros warreni Genus †Merycodus Merycodus furcatus Merycodus grandis Merycodus necatus Merycodus prodromus Merycodus sabulonis Genus †Paracosoryx Paracosoryx alticornis Paracosoryx burgensis Paracosoryx dawesensis Paracosoryx furlongi Paracosoryx loxoceros Paracosoryx nevadensis Paracosoryx wilsoni Genus †Ramoceros Ramoceros brevicornis Ramoceros coronatus Ramoceros marthae Ramoceros merriami Ramoceros osborni Ramoceros palmatus Ramoceros ramosus Genus †Submeryceros Submeryceros crucianus Submeryceros minimus Submeryceros minor
The okapi known as the forest giraffe, congolese giraffe or zebra giraffe, is an artiodactyl mammal native to the northeast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa. Although the okapi has striped markings reminiscent of zebras, it is most related to the giraffe; the okapi and the giraffe are the only living members of the family Giraffidae. The okapi stands about 1.5 m tall at the shoulder and has an average body length around 2.5 m. Its weight ranges from 200 to 350 kg, it has a long neck, large, flexible ears. Its coat is a chocolate to reddish brown, much in contrast with the white horizontal stripes and rings on the legs and white ankles. Male okapis have short, hair-covered, horn-like protuberances on their heads called ossicones, less than 15 cm in length. Females possess hair whorls, ossicones are absent. Okapis are diurnal, but may be active for a few hours in darkness, they are solitary, coming together only to breed. Okapis are herbivores, feeding on tree leaves and buds, ferns and fungi.
Rut in males and estrus in females does not depend on the season. In captivity, estrous cycles recur every 15 days; the gestational period is around 440 to 450 days long, following which a single calf is born. The juveniles are kept in hiding, nursing takes place infrequently. Juveniles start taking solid food from three months, weaning takes place at six months. Okapis inhabit canopy forests at altitudes of 500–1,500 m, they are endemic to the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where they occur across the central and eastern regions. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources classifies the okapi as endangered. Major threats include habitat loss due to logging and human settlement. Extensive hunting for bushmeat and skin and illegal mining have led to a decline in populations; the Okapi Conservation Project was established in 1987 to protect okapi populations. Although the okapi was unknown to the Western world until the 20th century, it may have been depicted since the early fifth century BCE on the façade of the Apadana at Persepolis, a gift from the Ethiopian procession to the Achaemenid kingdom.
For years, Europeans in Africa had heard of an animal. The animal was brought to prominent European attention by speculation on its existence found in press reports covering Henry Morton Stanley's journeys in 1887. In his travelogue of exploring the Congo, Stanley mentioned a kind of donkey that the natives called the atti, which scholars identified as the okapi. Explorers may have seen the fleeting view of the striped backside as the animal fled through the bushes, leading to speculation that the okapi was some sort of rainforest zebra; when the British special commissioner in Uganda, Sir Harry Johnston, discovered some Pygmy inhabitants of the Congo being abducted by a showman for exhibition, he rescued them and promised to return them to their homes. The Pygmies fed Johnston's curiosity about the animal mentioned in Stanley's book. Johnston was puzzled by the okapi. Though Johnston did not see an okapi himself, he did manage to obtain pieces of striped skin and a skull. From this skull, the okapi was classified as a relative of the giraffe.
Okapia johnstoni was first described as Equus johnstoni by English zoologist Philip Lutley Sclater in 1901. The generic name Okapia derives from the Lese Karo name o'api, while the specific name is in recognition of Sir Harry Johnston, who first acquired an okapi specimen for science from the Ituri Forest while repatriating a group of Pygmies to the Congo Free State. Remains of a carcass were sent to London by Johnston and became a media event in 1901. In 1901, Sclater presented a painting of the okapi before the Zoological Society of London that depicted its physical features with some clarity. Much confusion arose regarding the taxonomical status of this newly discovered animal. Sir Harry Johnston himself called it a relative of other extinct giraffids. Based on the description of the okapi by Pygmies, who referred to it as a "horse", Sclater named the species Equus johnstoni. Subsequently, Lankester declared that the okapi represented an unknown genus of the Giraffidae, which he placed in its own genus and assigned the name Okapia johnstoni to the species.
In 1902, Swiss zoologist Charles Immanuel Forsyth Major suggested the inclusion of O. johnstoni in the extinct giraffid subfamily Palaeotraginae. However, the species was placed in its own subfamily Okapiinae, by Swedish palaeontologist Birger Bohlin in 1926 due to the lack of a cingulum, a major feature of the palaeotragids. In 1986, Okapia was established as a sister genus of Giraffa on the basis of cladistic analysis; the two genera together with Palaeotragus constitute the tribe Giraffini. The earliest members of the Giraffidae first appeared in the early Miocene in Africa, having diverged from the superficially deer-like climacoceratids. Giraffids spread into Asia by the middle Miocene in a first radiation. Another radiation began in the Pliocene, but was terminated by a decline in diversity in the Pleistocene. Several important primitive giraffids existed more or less contemporaneously in the Miocene, including Canthumeryx, Giraffokeryx and Samotherium. According to palaeontologist and author Kathleen Hunt, Samotherium split into Okapia (18 million years ago
The reticulated giraffe known as the Somali giraffe, is a subspecies of giraffe native to the Horn of Africa. It lives in Somalia, southern Ethiopia, northern Kenya. There are 8,500 individuals living in the wild; the reticulated giraffe was described and given its binomial name by British zoologist William Edward de Winton in 1899, however the IUCN recognizes only one species of giraffe with nine subspecies. Reticulated giraffes can interbreed with other giraffe species in captivity or if they come into contact with populations of other species in the wild. Together with the Rothschild's giraffe, it is by far the giraffe, most seen in zoos, its coat consists of large, liver-colored spots outlined by a network of bright-white lines. The blocks may sometimes appear deep red and may cover the legs. Giraffes are the tallest mammals in the world; the IUCN recognizes only one species of giraffe with nine subspecies, one of, the reticulated giraffe. All living giraffes were classified as one species by Carl Linnaeus in 1758.
The subspecies was described and given a binomial name Giraffa reticulata by British zoologist William Edward de Winton in 1899. Reticulated giraffes occurred throughout Northeast Africa, their favored habitats are savannas, seasonal floodplains, rainforests. To save the remaining 9,000, or so, Reticulated giraffes, several conservation organizations have been formed. One of these organizations is San Diego Zoo Global's "Twiga Walinzi" initiative, their work includes hiring and training local Kenyans to monitor 120 trail cameras in Northern Kenya that capture footage of wild giraffes and other Kenyan wildlife. Along with the Rothschild's giraffe, the reticulated giraffe is the most common giraffe found in zoos; the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo in Colorado Springs, Colorado is said to have the largest reticulated giraffe herd in all of North America. Reticulated and Rothschild's giraffes have been bred together in the past; this was done. However, new research, done in 2016 discovered that the separate giraffe populations do not interbreed.
Few zoos reticulated giraffe herds. The San Diego Zoo Safari Park, Bronx Zoo, Chester Zoo have herds of just Rothschild's giraffe. Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, Busch Gardens Tampa, The Maryland Zoo, Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo all have reticulated giraffe herds. However, some zoos still breed Rothschild's giraffe and reticulated giraffes. At Utah's Hogle Zoo, their giraffe herd consists of male Riley, a reticulated giraffe, females Kipenzi, a reticulated giraffe, Pogo, a Rothschild's giraffe. In early 2016, Willow was born to Pogo. According to the new research discovered in 2016, Willow would be a hybrid; the trend of exhibiting only reticulated giraffe or only Rothschild's giraffe is becoming more popular. Cheyenne Mountain Zoo Giraffe Cam Saint Louis Zoo, Reticulated Giraffe The BIG zoo Saint Louis Zoo Article
See Giraffe for details of how this proposed taxonomy fits with the accepted taxonomy of giraffes. The northern giraffe known as three-horned giraffe, is a proposed species of giraffe native to North Africa. In the current IUCN taxonomic scheme, there is only one species of giraffe with the name G. camelopardalis and nine subspecies. Once abundant throughout Africa since the 19th century, it ranged from Senegal and Nigeria from West Africa to up north in Egypt; the West African giraffes once lived in Algeria and Morocco in ancient periods until their extinctions due to the Saharan dry climate. It is isolated in South Sudan, Kenya and Niger. All giraffes are considered Vulnerable to extinction by the IUCN. In 2016, around 97,000 individuals from all subspecies were present in the wild. There are 5,195 northern giraffes. In the current IUCN taxonomic scheme there is only one species of giraffe with the name G. camelopardalis and nine subspecies. Three subspecies of northern giraffes are proposed; the giraffes have two horn-like protuberances known as ossicones on their foreheads.
The northern giraffe's are longer and larger than that of the southern giraffes', though male northern giraffes have a third cylindrical ossicone in the center of the head just above the eyes which are from 3 to 5 inches long. The Northern giraffes live in the savannahs and woodlands. After local extinctions in various places, the Northern giraffes are the least numerous species and the most endangered. In East Africa, they are found in Kenya and southwestern Ethiopia, though in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and South Sudan. There are about 2,000 in the Central African Republic and Cameroon of Central Africa. Once widespread in West Africa, a few hundreds of Northern giraffes are confined at the Dosso Reserve of Kouré, Niger, they are common in both outside of protected areas. The earliest ranges of the Northern giraffes were in Chad during the late Pliocene. Were once abundant in North Africa, they lived in Algeria since early Pleistocene during the Quaternary period. They lived in Morocco until their extinction around the year AD 600, as the dry climate of the Sahara made conditions impossible for the giraffes.
They are extinct in Libya and Egypt. ARKive – images and movies of the giraffe. Giraffe, African Wildlife Foundation Giraffa camelopardalis, Encyclopedia of Life
Musk deer can refer to any one, or all seven, of the species that make up Moschus, the only extant genus of the family Moschidae. The musk deer family differs from cervids, or true deer, by lacking antlers and facial glands and by possessing only a single pair of teats, a gallbladder, a caudal gland, a pair of tusk-like teeth and—of particular economic importance to humans—a musk gland. Musk deer live in forested and alpine scrub habitats in the mountains of southern Asia, notably the Himalayas. Moschids, the proper term when referring to this type of deer rather than one/multiple species of musk deer, are Asian in their present distribution, being extinct in Europe where the earliest musk deer are known to have existed from Oligocene deposits. Musk deer resemble small deer with a stocky build, hind legs longer than their front legs, they are about 80 to 100 cm long, 50 to 70 cm high at the shoulder, weigh between 7 and 17 kg. The feet of musk deer are adapted for climbing in rough terrain. Like the Chinese water deer, a cervid, they have no antlers, but the males do have enlarged upper canines, forming sabre-like tusks.
The dental formula is similar to that of true deer: 0.1.3.33.1.3.3 The musk gland is found only in adult males. It lies in a sac located between the genitals and the umbilicus, its secretions are most used to attract mates. Musk deer are herbivores, living in hilly, forested environments far from human habitation. Like true deer, they eat leaves and grasses, with some mosses and lichens, they are solitary animals, maintain well-defined territories, which they scent mark with their caudal glands. Musk deer are shy, either nocturnal, or crepuscular. Males leave their territories during the rutting season, compete for mates, using their tusks as weapons. Female musk deer give birth to a single fawn after about 150–180 days; the newborn young are small, motionless for the first month of their lives, a feature that helps them remain hidden from predators. Musk deer have been hunted for their scent glands, which are used in perfumes; the glands can fetch up to $45,000/kg on the black market. It is rumored that it is an aphrodisiac.
Musk deer may be a surviving representative of the Palaeomerycidae, a family of ruminants, ancestral to deer. They disappeared in the Pliocene. Most species lacked antlers, though some were found in species; the musk deer are, still placed in a separate family. While they have been traditionally classified as members of the deer family and all the species were classified as one species, recent studies have indicated that moschids are more related to bovids; the following taxonomy is after Prothero Moschidae Hydropotopsis Hydropotopsis lemanensis Hispanomeryx Hispanomeryx aragonensis Hispanomeryx daamsi Hispanomeryx duriensis Hispanomeryx andrewsi Oriomeryx Oriomeryx major Oriomeryx willii Friburgomeryx Friburgomeryx wallenriedensis Bedenomeryx Bedenomeryx truyolsi Bedenomeryx milloquensis Bedenomeryx paulhiacensis Dremotheriinae Pomelomeryx Pomelomeryx boulangeri Pomelomeryx gracilis Dremotherium Dremotherium cetinensis Dremotherium guthi Dremotherium quercyi Dremotherium feignouxi Blastomerycinae Pseudoblastomeryx Pseudoblastomeryx advena Machaeromeryx Machaeromeryx tragulus Longirostromeryx Longirostromeryx clarendonensis Longirostromeryx wellsi Problastomeryx Problastomeryx primus Parablastomeryx Parablastomeryx floridanus Parablastomeryx gregorii Blastomeryx Blastomeryx gemmifer Moschinae Micromeryx Micromeryx styriacus Micromeryx flourensianus Micromeryx? eiselei - this species is a proposed member of genus Micromeryx Moschus Moschus moschiferus Moschus anhuiensis Moschus berezovskii Moschus fuscus Moschus chrysogaster Moschus cupreus Moschus leucogaster