Tommy Koh Thong Bee BBM, DUNU, PJG, is a Singaporean international lawyer and diplomat. He was Singapore's former Permanent Representative to the United Nations. Tommy Koh was awarded the Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Koh was born in Singapore on 12 November 1937, his father was from Tong Fujian province and his mother from Shanghai. He graduated from Raffles Institution and Serangoon Secondary School and received a LL. B. degree from the University of Malaya in Singapore. He holds a LL. M. from Harvard University and a post-graduate Diploma in Criminology from Cambridge University. He was conferred a full professorship in 1977. Prof Koh was awarded honorary LL. D. degrees from Yale University and Monash University. He has received awards from Columbia University, Stanford University, Georgetown University, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Curtin University, he is an international lawyer and Ambassador-at-Large for the Government of Singapore.
He presently serves as Special Adviser at the Singapore Institute of Policy Studies, Chairman of the National Heritage Board, Chairman of the Governing Board of the NUS Centre for International Law, Rector of Tembusu College at the National University of Singapore. He is on secondment from the National University of Singapore Faculty of Law, he was President of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, 1980–1982. Lax and Sebenius present Koh and his efforts in getting the Convention passed, as an example of successful negotiating. 1990 to 1992 he served as Chairman of the Main Committee of the UN Conference on Environment and Development, where he presided over the negotiations on Agenda 21. He has served as Singapore's ambassador to the United Nations and the United States. Koh was the first Executive Director of the Asia-Europe Foundation, established in Singapore in 1997 by the countries of the Asia-Europe Meeting. Professor Koh is a special advisor to the Institute of Policy Studies.
On 9 August 2008, Koh was conferred with the Order of Nila Utama by the Singapore Government, for his outstanding contributions in the Singapore legislative team representing Singapore, in the Pedra Branca dispute case with the Malaysian government. He is on the panel of mediators for Singapore International Mediation Centre. Tommy Koh, A Constitution of the Oceans, UNCLOS December 1982, accessed 20 May 2017 Tommy Koh, Five Years After Rio:Some Personal Reflections, UN Chronicle 1997, accessed at 29 August 2006 Tommy T. B. Koh and Amitav Acharya, The Quest for World Order: Perspectives of a Pragmatic Idealist, Times Academic Press, Singapore, 1997 ISBN 981-210-108-X Tommy Koh; the Tommy Koh Reader: Favourite Essays and Lectures. World Scientific, 2013. P. 640. ISBN 978-981-4571-07-4. Tommy Koh, Li Lin Chang and Joanna Koh. 50 Years of Singapore and the United Nations. World Scientific, 2015. P. 384. ISBN 978-981-4713-03-0. 1961: Adrian Clarke Memorial Medal, University of Malaya 1961: Leow Chia Heng Prize, University of Malaya 1963: Fulbright Student, Master of Laws, Harvard University 1971: Public Service Star, Singapore 1976: International Visitors Leadership Program, Washington DC 1979: Meritorious Service Medal, Singapore 1984: Wolfgang Friedman Award, Columbia University Law School, New York 1984: Honorary Doctor of Laws, Yale University, Connecticut 1985: Jackson H.
Ralston Prize, Stanford Law School, California 1985: Annual Award of the Asia Society, New York 1987: International Service Award, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, USA 1987: Jit Trainor Award for Distinction in Diplomacy, Georgetown University, USA 1990: Distinguished Service Order Award, Singapore 1993: Commander, Order of the Golden Ark, The Netherlands 1996: Elizabeth Haub Prize for Environmental Law, University of Brussels 1997: Grand Cross of the Order of Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile 1998: Fok Ying Tung Southeast Asia Prize, Fok Ying Tung Foundation, Hong Kong 2000: Commander, First Class, of the Order of the Lion of Finland 2000: John Curtin Medal, Curtin University of Technology, Western Australia 2000: Grand Officer, Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2000: Distinguished Service to Arts Education, LASALLE-SIA College Award 2001: Officer in the Légion d'honneur, President of the French Republic 2003: Peace and Commerce Award for efforts at building trade links with the United States 2004: Outstanding Service Award, National University of Singapore on 12 May 2004: Encomienda of Isabel la Catolica, from His Majesty King Juan Carlos of Spain on 24 May 2006: Champions of the Earth, United Nations Environment Programme 2007: Tatler Leadership Award for Lifetime Achievement, Singapore Tatler magazine 2008: Order of Nila Utama 2009: Order of the Rising Sun and Silver Star, 2009.
2014: Great Negotiator Award, 2014. 2018: Padma Shri Award, India's fourth highest civilian honour The Art and Science of Chairing Major Inter-governmental Conferences in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law The Negotiating Process of UNCLOS III in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law Straits Used for International Navigation in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law Practical idealism Koh, Buck Song, Interview with Professor Tommy Koh in The Arts in Singapore, 1996, Singapore: National Arts Counci
A city-state is a sovereign state described as a type of small independent country, that consists of a single city and its dependent territories. This included cities such as Rome, Athens and the Italian city-states during the Renaissance; as of 2019, only a handful of sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which are city-states. A great deal of consensus exists that the term properly applies to Singapore and Vatican City. City states are sometimes called micro-states which however includes other configurations of small countries, not to be confused with Micronations. A number of other small states share similar characteristics, therefore are sometimes cited as modern city-states—namely, Brunei, Kuwait and Malta, which each have an urban center comprising a significant proportion of the population, though all have several distinct settlements and a designated or de facto capital city. Other small states with high population densities, such as San Marino, are cited, despite lacking a large urban centre characteristic of traditional city-states.
Several non-sovereign cities enjoy a high degree of autonomy, are sometimes considered city-states. Hong Kong and Macau, along with independent members of the United Arab Emirates, most notably Dubai and Abu Dhabi, are cited as such. Historical city-states included Sumerian cities such as Ur. Danish historian Poul Holm has classed the Viking colonial cities in medieval Ireland, most Dublin, as city-states. In Cyprus, the Phoenician settlement of Kition was a city-state that existed from around 800 BC until the end of the 4th century BC; some of the most well-known examples of city-state culture in human history are the ancient Greek city-states and the merchant city-states of Renaissance Italy, which organised themselves as small independent centers. The success of small regional units coexisting as autonomous actors in loose geographical and cultural unity, as in Italy and Greece prevented their amalgamation into larger national units. However, such small political entities survived only for short periods because they lacked the resources to defend themselves against incursions by larger states.
Thus they gave way to larger organisations of society, including the empire and the nation-state. In the history of mainland Southeast Asia, aristocratic groups, Buddhist leaders, others organized settlements into autonomous or semi-autonomous city-states; these were referred to as mueang, were related in a tributary relationship now described as mandala or as over-lapping sovereignty, in which smaller city-states paid tribute to larger ones that paid tribute to still larger ones—until reaching the apex in cities like Ayutthaya, Bagan and others that served as centers of Southeast Asian royalty. The system existed until the 19th century. Siam, a regional power at the time, needed to define their territories for negotiation with the European powers so the Siamese government established a nation-state system, incorporated their tributary cities into their territory and abolished the mueang and the tributary system. In early Philippine history, the Barangay was a complex sociopolitical unit which scholars have considered the dominant organizational pattern among the various peoples of the Philippine archipelago.
These sociopolitical units were sometimes referred to as Barangay states, but are more properly referred to using the technical term "polity", so they are simply called "barangays." Evidence suggests a considerable degree of independence as "city states" ruled by Datu's, Rajah's and Sultan's. Early chroniclers record that the name evolved from the term balangay, which refers to a plank boat used by various cultures of the Philippine archipelago prior to the arrival of European colonizers. In the Holy Roman Empire over 80 Free Imperial Cities came to enjoy considerable autonomy in the Middle Ages and in early-modern times, buttressed by international law following the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. Some, like three of the earlier Hanseatic cities - Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck - pooled their economic relations with foreign powers and were able to wield considerable diplomatic clout. Individual cities made protective alliances with other cities or with neighbouring regions, including the Hanseatic League, the Swabian League of Cities, the Décapole in the Alsace, or the Old Swiss Confederacy.
The Swiss Cantons of Zürich, Lucerne, Solothurn, Basel and Geneva originated as city-states. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, some cities – members of different confederacies – became sovereign city-states – such as the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, the Free City of Frankfurt upon Main, the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (180
Lee Hsien Loong
Lee Hsien Loong is a Singaporean politician. He is the current and third Prime Minister of Singapore since 2004, he took over the leadership of the People's Action Party when former Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong stepped down from the position to become the new Senior Minister. Lee led his party to victory in the 2006, 2011 and 2015 general elections, he began his current term on 15 January 2016 following the opening of Singapore's 13th Parliament. Lee is the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew. Lee graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge University, as Senior Wrangler in 1974 and earned a Master of Public Administration at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. From 1971 to 1984, he served in the Singapore Armed Forces where he rose to the rank of brigadier general, he won his first election for Member of Parliament in 1984, contesting as a member of the People's Action Party. Under Singapore's second prime minister, Goh Chok Tong, Lee served as the Minister for Trade and Industry, Minister for Finance and Deputy Prime Minister.
The eldest child of Singapore's first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and his wife Kwa Geok Choo, Lee Hsien Loong was born in Singapore on 10 February 1952. His paternal grandmother, Chua Jim Neo, was a Hokkien Nyonya, his mother has ancestry from Tong'an District, Fujian, China. According to Lee Kuan Yew's biography, the younger Lee had learnt the Jawi script from the age of five, has always been interested in the affairs of Singapore following his father to the rally grounds since 1963. Lee studied at Nanyang Primary School and received his secondary education at Catholic High School, before going on to National Junior College. In 1971, he was awarded a President's Scholarship and Singapore Armed Forces Overseas Scholarship by the Public Service Commission to study mathematics at Trinity College, University of Cambridge, he was Senior Wrangler in 1973, graduated in 1974 with first-class honours on a Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics and a Diploma in Computer Science with distinction. In 1980, he completed a Master of Public Administration at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
Lee joined the Singapore Armed Forces in 1971, served as an officer from 1974 to 1984. In 1978, he attended the United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, held various staff and command posts, including the Director of the Joint Operations and Plans Directorate, Chief of Staff of the General Staff. Lee rose through the ranks in the Singapore Army, becoming the youngest brigadier-general in Singaporean history after his promotion in July 1983. Notably, he was put in command of the rescue operations following the Sentosa Cable Car Disaster. Lee served as commanding officer of 23rd Singapore Artillery in the Singapore Army before he left the SAF in 1984 to pursue civilian politics. In the 1980s, Lee was regarded as the core member of the next batch of new leaders in the People's Action Party leadership transition, taking place in the mid-1980s, as Lee Kuan Yew had declared that he would step down as prime minister in 1984. Following the 1984 general election, all of the old Central Executive Committee members resigned on 1 January 1985, except for Lee Kuan Yew himself.
Lee was first elected Member of Parliament for the Teck Ghee Single Member Constituency in 1984, at the age of thirty-two. Following his first election, he was appointed as a Minister of State in the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Defence by his father Lee Kuan Yew, the prime minister at that time. In 1985, Lee chaired the government's economic committee, which recommended changes to established government policies to reduce business costs, foster longer-term growth and revive the Singapore economy, experiencing a recession at the time; the committee's recommendations included reductions in corporate and personal taxes and the introduction of a consumption tax. In 1986, Lee was appointed the acting minister for Industry. In 1987, he became a full member of the Cabinet as the minister for trade and Industry and second minister for defence. Lee was the chairman of the PAP Youth Committee, the predecessor to the Young PAP, when it was established in 1986. Lee said that the youth wing would be a channel to communicate dissent, in which otherwise they might be "tempted" to vote for the opposition political parties and bring the PAP government down.
On 28 November 1990, Goh Chok Tong took over from Lee Kuan Yew as Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong was made one of two Deputy Prime Ministers. He continued to serve as the Minister for Trade and Industry until 1992. In 1992, Lee underwent a three-month period of chemotherapy; when his treatment began, he relinquished his position as the Minister for Trade and Industry, though he continued to be a Deputy Prime Minister. His chemotherapy was successful, his cancer has since gone into remission. Lee was appointed Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore in 1998, in 2001 he was made the Minister for Finance. To ease the growing budget deficit due to falling tax revenues from cuts in corporate and personal income taxes and other factors such as the Iraq War and SARS outbreak, Lee proposed on 29 August 2003 to raise the GST from three percent to five percent, a change which took place in January 2004. Lee initiated several amendments to render requirements for Singapore citizenship less r
Government of Singapore
The Government of Singapore is defined by the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore to mean the Executive branch of government, made up of the President and the Cabinet of Singapore. Although the President acts in his/her personal discretion in the exercise of certain functions as a check on the Cabinet and Parliament of Singapore, his/her role is ceremonial, it is the Cabinet, composed of the Prime Minister and other Ministers appointed on his/her advice by the President, that directs and controls the Government. The Cabinet is formed by the political party. A statutory board is an autonomous agency of the Government, established by an Act of Parliament and overseen by a government ministry. Unlike ministries and government departments that are subdivisions of ministries, statutory boards are not staffed by civil servants and have greater independence and flexibility in their operations. There are five Community Development Councils appointed by the board of management of the People's Association for districts in Singapore.
Where there are not less than 150,000 residents in a district, the PA's board of management may designate the chairman of a CDC to be the mayor for the district that the CDC is appointed for. As it is the practice for MPs to be appointed as Chairmen of CDCs, these MPs have been designated as mayors. From the founding of modern Singapore in 1819 until 1826, Singapore was headed by two residents in succession. Following Singapore's amalgamation into the Straits Settlements in 1826, it was governed by a governor together with a legislative council. An executive council of the Straits Settlements was introduced in 1877 to advise the Governor but wielded no executive power. In 1955, a Council of Ministers was created, appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the Leader of the House. Constitutional talks between Legislative Assembly representatives and the Colonial Office were held from 1956 to 1958, Singapore gained full internal self-government in 1959; the governor was replaced by the Yang di-Pertuan Negara, who had power to appoint to the post of prime minister the person most to command the authority of the assembly, other ministers of the Cabinet on the prime minister's advice.
In the 1959 general elections, the People's Action Party swept to power with 43 out of the 51 seats in the assembly, Lee Kuan Yew became the first prime minister of Singapore. The executive branch of the Singapore Government remained unchanged following Singapore's merger with Malaysia in 1963, subsequent independence in 1965; the PAP has been returned to power in every general election and has thus formed the Cabinet since 1959. The government is perceived to be competent in managing the country's economy and free from political corruption. On the other hand, it has been criticized for using unfair election tactics, violating freedom of speech and its excessive use of the death penalty for non-violent crimes; the term Government of Singapore can have a number of different meanings. At its widest, it can refer collectively to the three traditional branches of government – the Executive branch, Legislative branch and Judicial branch; the term is used colloquially to mean the Executive and Legislature together, as these are the branches of government responsible for day-to-day governance of the nation and lawmaking.
At its narrowest, the term is used to refer to the Members of Parliament belonging to a particular political party holding a majority of seats in Parliament sufficient to enable the party to form the Cabinet of Singapore – this is the sense intended when it is said that a political party "forms the Government". The Constitution of the Republic of Singapore uses the word Government to mean the Executive branch, made up of the President and the Cabinet; this article describes the Government of Singapore in this technical sense, as well as selected aspects of the Executive branch of the Government. On 30 January 1819 Sir Stamford Raffles, an Englishman, the Governor of Bencoolen, entered into a preliminary agreement with the Temenggung of Johor, Abdul Rahman Sri Maharajah, for the British East India Company to establish a "factory" or trading post on the island of Singapore; this was confirmed by another agreement signed by Raffles, the Temenggung and Sultan Hussein Shah on 6 February. In June 1823 Singapore ceased to be a dependency of Bencoolen and was placed under the control of the Presidency City of Calcutta in the Bengal Presidency.
On 24 June 1824, Singapore and Malacca were formally transferred to the East India Company, with the result that they came under the control of Fort William. Full cession of Singapore to the Company by the Sultan and Temenggung was effected by a treaty of 19 November 1824, ratified by Calcutta on 4 March 1825. Between 1819 and 1826, Singapore was headed by two Residents of Singapore in Maj.-Gen. William Farquhar and Dr. John Crawfurd. In 1826, Malacca and Singapore were amalgamated into the Straits Settlements, which were made a Crown colony with effect from 1 April 1867; the Colony was governed by a governor together with a legislative council. An executive council was introduced in 1877 by letters patent issued by the Crown, Composed of "such persons and constituted in such manner as may be directed" by royal instructions, it existed to advise the Governor and wielded no executive power; the Governor was required to consult the Executive Council on all affairs of importance unless they were too urgent to be laid before it, or if reference to it would pre
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
The Straits Times
The Straits Times is an English-language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore owned by Singapore Press Holdings. Singapore Press Holdings claims that the print and digital editions of the newspaper have a daily average circulation of 383,600, it was established on 15 July 1845 as The Straits Times and Singapore Journal of Commerce, There are specific Myanmar and Brunei editions published, with a newsprint circulation of 5,000 and 2,500 respectively. The Straits Times was started by an Armenian, Catchick Moses. Moses's friend, Martyrose Apcar, had intended to start a local paper, but met with financial difficulties. To fulfil his friend's dream, Moses appointed Robert Carr Woods as editor. On 15 July 1845, The Straits Times was launched as an eight-page weekly, published at 7 Commercial Square using a hand-operated press; the subscription fee was Sp.$1.75 per month. In September 1846, he sold the paper to Robert Woods. On 20 February 1942, five days after the British had surrendered to the Japanese, The Straits Times became known as The Shonan Times and The Syonan Shimbun.
This name change lasted until 5 September 1945. During the early days of Singaporean self-governance, the paper had an uneasy relationship with some politicians, including the leaders of the People's Action Party. Editors were warned that any reportage that may threaten the merger between the Malayan Federation and Singapore may result in subversion charges, that they may be detained without trial under the Preservation of Public Security Ordinance Act; the Straits Times functions with 16 bureaus and special correspondents in major cities worldwide. The paper has five sections: the main section consist of Asian and international news, with sub-sections of columns and editorials and the Forum Page; the Home section consist of local news and topics on Education for Monday and Body for Tuesday, Digital for Wednesday, Community for Thursday and Science for Friday. There are a sports and finance section, a classified ads and job listing section and a lifestyle, style and the arts section titled "Life!".
The newspaper publishes special editions for primary and secondary schools in Singapore. The primary-school version contains a special pull-out, titled "Little Red Dot" and the secondary-school version contains a pull-out titled "In". A separate edition The Sunday Times is published on Sundays. Owing to political sensitivities, The Straits Times is not sold in neighboring Malaysia, the Malaysian newspaper New Straits Times is not sold in Singapore; the ban was imposed before independence in Malaysia. A specific Myanmar and Brunei edition of this paper was launched on 25 Mar 2014 and 30 October 2014, it is published daily with local newspaper printers on licence with SPH. This paper is distributed on ministries, major hotels, airlines and supermarkets on major cities and target sales to local and foreign businessmen in both countries. Circulation of the Myanmar edition stands at 5,000 and 2,500 for the Brunei edition; the Brunei edition is sold at B$1 per copy and an All-in-One Straits Times package consisting of the print edition and full digital access via online and smartphones, will be introduced in Brunei.
Launched on 1 January 1994, The Straits Times' website was free of charge and granted access to all the sections and articles found in the print edition. On 1 January 2005, the online version began requiring registration and after a short period became a paid-access-only site. Only people who subscribe to the online edition can read all the articles on the Internet, including the updated "Latest News" section. A free section, featuring a selection of news stories, is available at the site. Regular podcast and twice-daily—mid-day and evening updates—radio-news bulletins are available for free online; the Straits Times School Pocket Money Fund was initiated on October 1, 2000 by The Straits Times, to heighten public awareness of the plight of children from low-income families who were attending school without proper breakfast, or pocket money to sustain their day in school. The aim is to alleviate the financial burden faced by parents in providing for their children's education. At the same time the funds will help children who are facing difficulties in remaining in school to stay on.
The Straits Times Media Club is a youth programme to encourage youth readership and interest in news and current affairs. Schools will have to subscribe for at least 500 copies, will receive their papers every Monday. A youth newspaper, IN, is slotted in together with the main paper for the students; the newspaper is sometimes referred as "the mouthpiece" of the ruling party or at least "mostly pro-government" and "close to the government". Chua Chin Hon ST’s bureau chief for the United States, was quoted as saying that SPH’s “editors have all been groomed as pro-government supporters and are careful to ensure that reporting of local events adheres to the official line” in a 2009 US diplomatic cable leaked by WikiLeaks. Past chairpersons of Singapore Press Holdings have been public servants. Current SPH Chairman Lee Boon Yang is a former PAP cabinet minister who took over from Tony Tan, former Deputy Prime Minister. Many current ST management and senior editors have close links to the government as well.
SPH CEO Alan Chan was a former top civil servant and Principal Private Secretary of Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew. Current editor-in-chief Warren Fernandez was considered as a PAP candidate for the 2006 elections. In his memoir OB Markers: My Straits Times Story, former edi
Goh Chok Tong
Goh Chok Tong is a Singaporean politician. A member of the People's Action Party, he became Singapore's second Prime Minister on 28 November 1990, succeeding Lee Kuan Yew, served in the role until 12 August 2004, when he stepped down and was succeeded by Lee Hsien Loong, he subsequently served as Senior Minister until May 2011, as Chairman of the Monetary Authority Of Singapore. He continues to serve as a Member of Parliament representing the Marine Parade Group Representation Constituency and holds the honorary title of "Emeritus Senior Minister". In November 2018, he released his autobiography, Tall Order: The Goh Chok Tong Story which will be the first volume of a two-part biography. Goh was born in Singapore in 1941 to Goh Kah Choon and Quah Kwee Hwa both hailing from the southern Fujian province of China, his family is Hokkien. Goh studied at Raffles Institution from 1955 to 1960, he was a competitive swimmer in his younger days and was given the nickname "Bold". Goh earned a Bachelor of Arts degree with first class honours in economics from the University of Singapore, a Master of Arts in development economics from Williams College in 1967.
After his studies, Goh returned to Singapore to serve in the Administrative Service. Goh's dream of getting a PhD was disrupted, as the government would not transfer his bursary bond to the university, where he had signed on as a research fellow after graduation. In 2015, Goh was awarded the highest recognition from his alma mater, NUS, the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, presented to him for his contributions to Singapore in public service. In 1969, Goh was seconded to the shipping company Neptune Orient Lines as the company's Planning and Projects Manager, his career advanced and by 1973, he became the Managing Director and led NOL to achieve impressive financial results during his tenure. Here Goh worked under Muhammad Jalaluddin Sayeed. In the 1976 Singapore general election, at the age of 35, Goh was elected as Member of Parliament for Marine Parade Group Representation Constituency, as a People's Action Party candidate, he was appointed a Senior Minister of State for Finance. In 1981, he was promoted to Minister for Trade and Industry and served in other appointments including Minister for Health and Minister for Defence.
In 1985, Goh became the first Deputy Prime Minister and began to assume the responsibility of the government in a managed leadership transition. According to Lee Kuan Yew, his preferred successor was Tony Tan. On 28 November 1990, Goh became the second Prime Minister of Singapore, taking over from Lee Kuan Yew. Lee remained an influential member of his Cabinet; the 1991 general elections, the first electoral test for Goh, led to the party winning 61% of the popular vote. In 1992, Lee Kuan Yew handed over the post of Secretary General of People's Action Party to Goh completing the leadership transition; as Prime Minister, Goh promised a more open-minded and consultative style of leadership than that of his predecessor. This greater openness extended to the socio-economic spheres of life, for instance, in his support for the rise of "little bohemias" in Singapore, enclaves where more creativity and entrepreneurship could thrive, his administration introduced several major policies and policy institutions, including: Medisave Non-Constituency Members of Parliament Government Parliamentary Committees Group representation constituency Nominated Members of Parliament Vehicle Quota Scheme Elected President Singapore 21During the period under Goh's administration, Singapore experienced several crises, such as the 1997 Asian financial crisis, threats of terrorism including the 2001 Singapore embassies attack plot by Jemaah Islamiyah, the 2001-2003 economic recession, the 2003 SARS outbreak.
As Secretary General, Goh led the PAP to three general election victories in 1991, 1997, 2001, in which the party won 61%, 65% and 75% of the votes respectively. After the general election in 2001, Goh indicated that he would step down as Prime Minister after leading the country out of the recession. During an interview with the magazine Time in July 2003, Goh surprised his nation by announcing that his government is now employing gays in sensitive jobs, despite homosexual acts remaining illegal under Section 377A of the Penal Code, his announcement drew a strong backlash from conservatives of the island nation but reinforced Goh's image as an open-minded leader. On 12 August 2004, Goh stepped down as Prime Minister and began service as Senior Minister in Lee Hsien Loong's Cabinet. On 20 August 2004, Goh assumed the post of Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore. After a number of threats of terrorism in Singapore, Goh met local Islamic religious leaders in 2004, made a visit to Iran, where he met Iranian president Mohammad Khatami, visited local mosques.
Goh subsequently visited other Middle-Eastern countries as Senior Minister, with a view to improving diplomatic relationships and thus gaining wider business opportunities for Singaporean businessmen in the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. On 1 February 2005, Goh was appointed an honorary Companion of the Order of Australia, Australia's highest civilian honour, "for eminent service to Australia/Singapore relations". On 19 May 2005, Goh signed a Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement with Israel's Finance Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on a visit to Israel, superseding the agreement signed in 1971. Improvem