Theocritus, the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of Theocritus beyond. We must, handle these with some caution, since some of the poems attributed to him have little claim to authenticity, it is clear that at a early date two collections were made: one consisting of poems whose authorship was doubtful yet formed a corpus of bucolic poetry, the other a strict collection of those works considered to have been composed by Theocritus himself. Theocritus was from Sicily, as he refers to Polyphemus, the cyclops in the Odyssey, as his "countryman." He probably lived in Alexandria for a while, where he wrote about everyday life, notably Pharmakeutria. It is speculated that Theocritus was born in Syracuse, lived on the island of Kos, lived in Egypt during the time of Ptolemy II; the record of these recensions is preserved by two epigrams, one of which proceeds from Artemidorus of Tarsus, a grammarian, who lived in the time of Sulla and is said to have been the first editor of these poems.
He says, "The Muses of country song were once scattered, but now they are all together in one pen, in one flock." The second epigram is anonymous, runs as follows: "The Chian is another man, but I, who wrote these poems, am one of the great populace of Syracuse, the son of Praxagoras and renowned Philinna. The last line may mean that he only wrote in Doric; the assertion that he was from Syracuse appears to be upheld by allusions in the Idylls. The information concerning his parentage bears the stamp of genuineness, disposes of a rival theory based upon a misinterpretation of Idyll 7—which made him the son of one Simichus. A larger collection more extensive than that of Artemidorus, including poems of doubtful authenticity, was known to the author of the Suda, who says: "Theocritus wrote the so-called bucolic poems in the Doric dialect; some persons attribute to him the following: Daughters of Proetus, Hymns, Dirges, Elegies, Epigrams."The first of these may have been known to Virgil, who refers to the Proetides at Eclogue 6.48.
The spurious poem 21 may have been one of the Hopes, poem 26 may have been one of the Heroines. The other classes are all represented in the larger collection; the distinction between these is that the scenes of the former are laid in the country and those of the latter in a town. The most famous of the Bucolics are 1, 6, 7 and 11. In "Idyll 1" Thyrsis sings to a goatherd about how Daphnis, the mythical herdsman, having defied the power of Aphrodite, dies rather than yielding to a passion the goddess has inflicted on him. In the poem, a series of divine figures from classical mythology, including Hermes and Aphrodite herself, interrogate the shepherd about his lovesickness; as Daphnis lays dying, Priapus asks: “‘Wretched Daphnis, why pinest thou?’”. Venus, the goddess of love, appears to taunt Daphnis for his hubris: “‘Thou indeed, didst boast that thou wouldst bend Love! Hast not thou, in thine own person, been bent by grievous love?” The failure of these figures to comfort Daphnis in his dying moments thematizes classical beliefs about the folly of mortals who challenge the gods.
In "Idyll 11" Polyphemus is depicted as in love with the sea-nymph Galatea and finding solace in song. In "Idyll 6," he is cured of his passion and naively relates how he repulses the overtures now made to him by Galatea; the monster of Homer's Odyssey has been "written up to date" after the Alexandrian manner and has become a gentle simpleton."Idyll 7," the Harvest Feast, is the most important of the bucolic poems. The scene is laid in the isle of Kos; the poet is called Simichidas by his friends. Other poets are introduced under feigned names. Ancient critics identified the character Sicelidas of Samos with Asclepiades of Samos, the character Lycidas, "the goatherd of Cydonia," with the poet Astacides, whom Callimachus calls "the Cretan, the goatherd." Theocritus speaks of himself as having gained fame, says that his songs have been brought by report unto the throne of Zeus. He praises Philitas, the veteran poet of Kos, criticizes "the fledgelings of the Muse, who cackle against the Chian bard and find their labour lost."
Other persons mentioned are Nicias, a physician of Miletus, whose name occurs in other poems, Aratus, whom the scholiasts identify with the author of the Phenomena. Several of the other bucolic poems consist of singing-matches, conducted according to the rules of amoebaean poetry, in which the second singer takes the subject chosen by the first and contributes a variation on the same theme, it may be noted that Theocritus' rustic characters differ in refinement. Those in "Idyll 5" are low fellows. Idylls 4 and 5 are laid in the neighborhood of Croton, we may infer that Theocritus was acquainted with Magna Graecia. Suspicion has been cast upon idylls 9 on various grounds. An extreme view holds that within "Idyll 9" there exist two genuine Theocritean fragments, ll.7-13 and 15-20, describing the joys of summer and winter which have been provided with a clumsy preface, ll.1-6, while an early editor of a bucolic collection has appended an epilogue in which he takes leave of t
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Midas is the name of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia. The most famous King Midas is popularly remembered in Greek mythology for his ability to turn everything he touched into gold; this came to be called the Midas touch. The Phrygian city Midaeum was named after this Midas, this is also the Midas that according to Pausanias founded Ancyra. According to Aristotle, legend held that Midas died of starvation as a result of his "vain prayer" for the gold touch; the legends told about this Midas and his father Gordias, credited with founding the Phrygian capital city Gordium and tying the Gordian Knot, indicate that they were believed to have lived sometime in the 2nd millennium BC, well before the Trojan War. However, Homer does not mention Midas or Gordias, while instead mentioning two other Phrygian kings and Otreus. Another King Midas ruled Phrygia in the late 8th century BC, up until the sacking of Gordium by the Cimmerians, when he is said to have committed suicide. Most historians believe this Midas is the same person as the Mita, called king of the Mushki in Assyrian texts, who warred with Assyria and its Anatolian provinces during the same period.
A third Midas is said by Herodotus to have been a member of the royal house of Phrygia and the grandfather of an Adrastus who fled Phrygia after accidentally killing his brother and took asylum in Lydia during the reign of Croesus. Phrygia was by that time a Lydian subject. Herodotus says that Croesus regarded the Phrygian royal house as "friends" but does not mention whether the Phrygian royal house still ruled as kings of Phrygia. There are many, contradictory, legends about the most ancient King Midas. In one, Midas was king of Pessinus, a city of Phrygia, who as a child was adopted by King Gordias and Cybele, the goddess whose consort he was, and, the goddess-mother of Midas himself; some accounts place the youth of Midas in Macedonian Bermion. In Thracian Mygdonia, Herodotus referred to a wild rose garden at the foot of Mount Bermion as "the garden of Midas son of Gordias, where roses grow of themselves, each bearing sixty blossoms and of surpassing fragrance". Herodotus says elsewhere that Phrygians anciently lived in Europe where they were known as Bryges, the existence of the garden implies that Herodotus believed that Midas lived prior to a Phrygian migration to Anatolia.
According to some accounts, Midas had a son, the demonic reaper of men, but in some variations of the myth he instead had a daughter, Zoë or "life". According to other accounts he had a son Anchurus. Arrian gives an alternative story of the life of Midas. According to him, Midas was the son of Gordios, a poor peasant, a Telmissian maiden of the prophetic race; when Midas grew up to be a handsome and valiant man, the Phrygians were harassed by civil discord, consulting the oracle, they were told that a wagon would bring them a king, who would put an end to their discord. While they were still deliberating, Midas arrived with his father and mother, stopped near the assembly and all. They, comparing the oracular response with this occurrence, decided that this was the person whom the god told them the wagon would bring, they therefore appointed Midas king and he, putting an end to their discord, dedicated his father’s wagon in the citadel as a thank-offering to Zeus the king. In addition to this the following saying was current concerning the wagon, that whosoever could loosen the cord of the yoke of this wagon, was destined to gain the rule of Asia.
This someone was to be Alexander the Great. In other versions of the legend, it was Midas' father Gordias who arrived humbly in the cart and made the Gordian Knot. Herodotus said that a "Midas son of Gordias" made an offering to the Oracle of Delphi of a royal throne "from which he made judgments" that were "well worth seeing", that this Midas was the only foreigner to make an offering to Delphi before Gyges of Lydia; the historical Midas of the 8th century BC and Gyges are believed to have been contemporaries, so it seems most that Herodotus believed that the throne was donated by the earlier, legendary King Midas. However, some historians believe that this throne was donated by the historical King Midas. One day, as Ovid relates in Metamorphoses XI, Dionysus found that his old schoolmaster and foster father, the satyr Silenus, was missing; the old satyr had been drinking wine and wandered away drunk, to be found by some Phrygian peasants who carried him to their king, Midas. Midas recognized him and treated him hospitably, entertaining him for ten days and nights with politeness, while Silenus delighted Midas and his friends with stories and songs.
On the eleventh day, he brought Silenus back to Dionysus in Lydia. Dionysus offered Midas his choice. Midas asked. Midas rejoiced in his new power, he touched a stone. Overjoyed, as soon as he got home, he touched every rose in the rose garden, all became gold, he ordered the servants to set a feast on the table. Upon discovering how the food and drink turned into gold in his hands, he regretted his wish and cursed it. Claudian states in his In Rufinum: "So Midas, king of Lydia, swelled at first with pride when he found he could transform everything he touched to gold.
The Suda or Souda is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world attributed to an author called Soudas or Souidas. It is an encyclopedic lexicon, written in Greek, with 30,000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, derived from medieval Christian compilers; the derivation is from the Byzantine Greek word souda, meaning "fortress" or "stronghold", with the alternate name, stemming from an error made by Eustathius, who mistook the title for the author's name. The Suda is somewhere between an encyclopedia in the modern sense, it explains the source and meaning of words according to the philology of its period, using such earlier authorities as Harpocration and Helladios. It is a rich source of ancient and Byzantine history and life, although not every article is of equal quality, it is an "uncritical" compilation. Much of the work is interpolated, passages that refer to Michael Psellos are deemed interpolations which were added in copies.
This lexicon contains numerous biographical notices on political and literary figures of the Byzantine Empire to the tenth century, those biographical entries being condensations from the works of Hesychius of Miletus, as the author himself avers. Other sources were the encyclopedia of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus for the figures in ancient history, excerpts of John of Antioch for Roman history, the chronicle of Hamartolus for the Byzantine age; the biographies of Diogenes Laërtius, the works of Athenaeus and Philostratus. Other principal sources include a lexicon by "Eudemus," derived from the work On Rhetorical Language by Eudemus of Argos; the lexicon copiously draws from scholia to the classics, for writers, Josephus, the Chronicon Paschale, George Syncellus, George Hamartolus, so on. The Suda paraphrases these sources at length. Since many of the originals are lost, The Suda serves an invaluable repository of literary history, this preservation of the "literary history" is more vital than the lexicographical compilation itself, by some estimation.
The lexicon is arranged alphabetically with some slight deviations from common vowel order and place in the Greek alphabet according to a system called antistoichia. The order is: α, β, γ, δ, αι, ε, ζ, ει, η, ι, θ, κ, λ, μ, ν, ξ, ο, ω, π, ρ, σ, τ, οι, υ, φ, χ, ψIn addition, double letters are treated as single for the purposes of collation; the system is not difficult to learn and remember, but some editors—for example, Immanuel Bekker – rearranged the Suda alphabetically. Little is known about the author, named "Suidas" in its prefatory note, he lived in the second half of the 10th century, because the death of emperor John I Tzimiskes and his succession by Basil II and Constantine VIII are mentioned in the entry under "Adam", appended with a brief chronology of the world. At any rate, the work must have appeared by before the 12th century, since it is quoted from and alluded to by Eustathius who lived from about 1115 AD to about 1195 or 1196; the work deals with biblical as well as pagan subjects, from which it is inferred that the writer was a Christian.
The standard printed edition was compiled by Danish classical scholar Ada Adler in the first half of the twentieth century. A modern translation, the Suda On Line, was completed on 21 July 2014; the Suda has the Kitab al-Fehrest of Ibn al-Nadim. Compare the Latin Speculum Maius, authored in the 13th century by Vincent of Beauvais. Suidas. Gaisford, Thomas. Lexicon: post Ludolphum Kusterum ad codices manuscriptos. A - Theta. 1. Typographeo Academico. Volume 2, volume 3 Adler, Ada Suidae Lexicon. Reprinted 1967-71, Stuttgart. Citations Bibliography Index of the Suda on lineSuda On Line. An on-line edition of the Ada Adler edition with ongoing translations and commentary by registered editors. Suda lexicon at the Online Books Page Suda Lexicon in three volumes, Cambridge, 1705.
A pannier is a basket, box, or similar container, carried in pairs either slung over the back of a beast of burden, or attached to the sides of a bicycle or motorcycle. The term derives from a Middle English borrowing of the Old French panier, meaning'bread basket'. Traditional panniers for animal transport are made of canvas, leather, or wicker. Modern panniers may be rectangular boxes of hard-sided plastic. Panniers are loaded in such a manner as to distribute weight evenly on either side of the animal. For horse packing, when carrying heavy loads on other animals they are supported by a pack saddle to distribute weight more evenly across the back of the animal. In some cases, additional items are placed on the back between the panniers. There are many styles of bicycle panniers. Touring panniers are sold in pairs, intended to hold enough equipment for self-sustained tours over days or weeks; the most common setup is to use a pair of smaller panniers mounted on a low rider and a pair of larger ones on the rear carrier.
Commuters who bicycle have pannier options designed to hold laptop computers and folders, changes of clothes or shoes and lunches. There are panniers that convert to backpacks or shoulder bags for easier carrying when not on a bicycle; the first panniers designed for bicycles were patented by John B. Wood of Camden, New Jersey, in 1884; the modern bicycle pannier was invented by Hartley Alley of Boulder, Colorado, in 1971. Alley designed a handlebar bag and other bicycle luggage that he manufactured and sold under the Touring Cyclist brand in the 1970s until his retirement in 1984. Bicycle panniers are made of nylon or other synthetic fabric that can be stitched, or, in the case of waterproof panniers, welded together; as bicycles are ridden in the rain, many panniers are built to be water-repellent or waterproof by themselves. Others include built-in rain-covers; the shape of the pannier may be enforced by a frame or stiffening panel made of plastic or metal to help keep it in place and prevent it from contacting a wheel.
Panniers are built to attach to a rear rack or front rack fitted to the bicycle. Removable panniers hook onto the top edge of the rack and are held in place by a latch or elastic mechanism. Motorcycle panniers are hard box containers with lids, made of metal or hard plastic; the panniers may be removable. Soft cases may be leather or fabric without permanent mountings and are called saddlebags or'throwovers'. Outline of cycling Pannier Saddlebag Pannier Market "Pannier". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. 1911. P. 680
Greek mythology is the body of myths told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities and mythological creatures, the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself; the Greek myths were propagated in an oral-poetic tradition most by Minoan and Mycenaean singers starting in the 18th century BC. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians and comedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, in texts from the time of the Roman Empire by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias.
Aside from this narrative deposit in ancient Greek literature, pictorial representations of gods and mythic episodes featured prominently in ancient vase-paintings and the decoration of votive gifts and many other artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an extensive influence on the culture and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes. Greek mythology is known today from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c. 900 BC to c. 800 BC onward. In fact and archaeological sources integrate, sometimes mutually supportive and sometimes in conflict.
Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every genre of Greek literature. The only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus; this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens wrote on many of these topics, his writings may have formed the basis for the collection. Among the earliest literary sources are the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the "epic cycle", but these and lesser poems now are lost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the "Homeric Hymns" have no direct connection with Homer, they are choral hymns from the earlier part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiod, a possible contemporary with Homer, offers in his Theogony the fullest account of the earliest Greek myths, dealing with the creation of the world. Hesiod's Works and Days, a didactic poem about farming life includes the myths of Prometheus and the Five Ages.
The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, rendered yet more dangerous by its gods. Lyrical poets took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became less narrative and more allusive. Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, relate individual mythological incidents. Additionally, myth was central to classical Athenian drama; the tragic playwrights Aeschylus and Euripides took most of their plots from myths of the age of heroes and the Trojan War. Many of the great tragic stories took on their classic form in these tragedies; the comic playwright Aristophanes used myths, in The Birds and The Frogs. Historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, geographers Pausanias and Strabo, who traveled throughout the Greek world and noted the stories they heard, supplied numerous local myths and legends giving little-known alternative versions. Herodotus in particular, searched the various traditions presented him and found the historical or mythological roots in the confrontation between Greece and the East.
Herodotus attempted to reconcile the blending of differing cultural concepts. The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise, it contains many important details that would otherwise be lost. This category includes the works of: The Roman poets Ovid, Valerius Flaccus and Virgil with Servius's commentary; the Greek poets of the Late Antique period: Nonnus, Antoninus Liberalis, Quintus Smyrnaeus. The Greek poets of the Hellenistic period: Apollonius of Rhodes, Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Parthenius. Prose writers from the same periods who make reference to myths includ
An idyll or idyl is a short poem, descriptive of rustic life, written in the style of Theocritus' short pastoral poems, the Idylls. Unlike Homer, Theocritus did not engage in heroes and warfare, his idylls are limited to a small intimate world, describe scenes from everyday life. Imitators include the Roman poets Virgil and Catullus, Italian poets Torquato Tasso and Leopardi, the English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Nietzsche's Idylls from Messina. Goethe called his poem Hermann and Dorothea—which Schiller considered the climax in Goethe's production—an idyll; the term is used in music to refer to a work evocative of pastoral or rural life such as Edward MacDowell's Forest Idylls, more to a kind of French courtly entertainment of the baroque era where a pastoral poem was set to music, accompanied by ballet and singing. Examples of the latter are Lully's L'Idylle sur la Paix set to a text by Racine and Desmarets' Idylle sur la naissance du duc de Bourgogne set to a text by Antoinette Deshoulières.
In the visual arts, an idyll is a painting depicting the same sort of subject matter to be found in idyllic poetry with rural or peasant life as its central theme. One of the earliest examples is the early 15th century Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry; the genre was popular in English paintings of the Victorian era. Arcadia Et in Arcadia ego Pastoral John Greenleaf Whittier, Snow-Bound: A Winter Idyl William Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper The dictionary definition of idyll at Wiktionary Media related to Shepherds in art at Wikimedia Commons