Legendary Amazons is a 2011 Chinese film based on the stories of the Yang Clan Generals. The film was directed by Frankie Chan and starred Richie Jen, Cecilia Cheung, Cheng Pei-pei, Liu Xiaoqing and Kathy Chow; the film is based on the same source material as the 1972 Hong Kong film The 14 Amazons. The film is set in early 11th century China during the reign of Emperor Renzong of the Song dynasty; the emperor neglects state affairs and indulges in personal pleasures, while the government sinks into corruption and war continues to rage on at the borders of the Song dynasty. The Song dynasty is being invaded by the armies of the rival state of Western Xia. Yang Zongbao is the last man standing in the Yang clan, a family of generals who have dedicated their lives to defending the Song dynasty from foreign invaders, he dies in battle tragically when the treacherous Imperial Grand Tutor Pang refuses to send reinforcements to aid him. Yang Zongbao's widowed wife, Mu Guiying, leads the other widows of the Yang clan into battle to continue the legacy of their husbands.
Richie Jen as Yang Zongbao Cecilia Cheung as Mu Guiying Cheng Pei-pei as She Saihua Liu Xiaoqing as Chai Qingyun Ge Chunyan as Zhou Yunjing Oshima Yukari as Zou Lanxiu Li Jing as Geng Jinhua Jin Qiaoqiao as Dong Yue'e Yang Zitong as Meng Jinbang Kathy Chow as Ma Saiying Yu Na as Huyan Chijin Chen Zihan as Yang Yanqi Liu Dong as Yang Yanying Xiao Mingyu as Yang Wenguang Zhou Xiaofei as Yang Paifeng Wang Ti as Yang Jinhua Zhao Qianyu as Little Bean Tang Yaolin as Little Sparrow Shi Fanxi as Yin Qi Wu Ma as Pang Ji Lin Wei as Wang Qiang Zhong Chao as Liu Fu Li Boyu as Jiao Tinggui Luo Yingyuan as Meng Huaiyuan Han Yu as Meng Liang Hu Biao as Jiao Zan Ren Xuehai as Fan Zhongyan Xiao Rongsheng as Yang Yanzhao Xu Xiao as Di Qing Feng Ke'an as Little Bean's grandfather Jackie Chan filmography Legendary Amazons on IMDb Legendary Amazons at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase Legendary Amazons on Baidu Baike
The Shadow of Empress Wu
The Shadow of Empress Wu known as Riyue Lingkong, is a Chinese television series about the relationship between Wu Zetian, the only female emperor in Chinese history, Xie Yaohuan, a fictional female official serving in Wu's court. The series was directed by Lu Qi and starred Liu Xiaoqing, Eva Huang, Vincent Jiao, Ma Xiaowei and Yang Zi in the leading roles, it was first broadcast on CCTV from August 2007 to January 2008 in mainland China, in November 2008 on HD Jade in Hong Kong. Liu Xiaoqing as Wu Zetian Eva Huang as Xie Yaohuan Vincent Chiao as Helan Minzhi Ma Xiaowei as Emperor Gaozong of Tang Yang Zi as Luo Binwang Li Zonghan as Qiao Zhizhi Zou Yuanlong as Li Hong Xu Shengnan as Li Xian Xu Baihui as Yang Meiyun Wen Qing as Xie Yaowei Li Xinyi as Shangguan Zhengshu Shi Daimei as Sai Hong Fu Ma Si'er as Yang Fa Zhang Shuyu as Helan Minyue Long Yiyi as Wu Tuan'er Li Daojun as Xie Ao Liu Weiming as Wu Sansi Yu Le as Wu Yizong Liu Wenzhi as Shangguan Yi Yuan Man as Shangguan Tingzhi Luo Weilun as Ming Chongyan Cheng Lisha as Lady Wei Yan Feng as Zheng Yang Li Tong as Zheng Shu Fuyu Xingzi as Zheng Lan Hou Yongsheng as Li Ji Shen Lei as Li Jingye Xie Li as Xian Kelai Rao Jiexiang as Jingwei Jiang Feng as Chen Zi'ang Shun Haibin as Xue Huaiyi Guo Jinghua as Xu Jingzong Liu Xiangjing as Di Renjie Zhao Shoukai as Pei Yan Zhong Chao as Zhou Xing Zhang Xin as Lai Junchen Li Hanjun as Li Zhuan Guo Hongbo as Li Cheng Chen Chen as Wang Fuling Ma Yun as Wang Fusheng Guan Xiaotong as Huajie Nana Da Tang Nü Xun An The Shadow of Empress Wu on Sina.com
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Hibiscus Town is a 1986 Chinese film directed by Xie Jin, based on a novel by the same name written by Gu Hua. The film, a melodrama, follows the life and travails of a young woman who lives through the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution and as such is an example of the "scar drama" genre that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s that detailed life during that period; the film was produced by the Shanghai Film Studio. The film won Best Film for 1987 Golden Rooster Awards and Hundred Flowers Awards, as well as Best Actress awards for Liu Xiaoqing at both ceremonies, it was selected as the Chinese entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 60th Academy Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee. The village in Hunan province where the film was made, was known as Wang Village. In 2007, the village was renamed Furong zhen owing to this film. Liu Xiaoqing as Hu Yuyin, the film's heroine, a young woman, caught up in the political turmoil of China's Cultural Revolution, she sells rice beancurd with her husband.
Liu Linian as Li Guigui, Yuyin's first husband Jiang Wen as Qin Shutian, a "bourgeoisie" rightist who falls in love with Yuyin Zheng Zaishi as Gu Yanshan, the granary director Zhu Shibin as Wang Qiushe Xu Songzi as Li Guoxiang Zhang Guangbei as Li Mangeng The film follows Hu Yuyin, a young and hardworking woman in a small Chinese town on the eve of the Cultural Revolution. She is married and runs a successful roadside food stall selling spicy beancurd. Yuyin is supported by Party members Li Mangeng, who once wanted to marry her, Director Gu, a war veteran in charge of the granary, but in 1964 the Four Cleanups Movement sends a Party work-team to root out Rightists and capitalist roaders. The team is led by Li Guoxiang, a single woman, assisted by Wang Qiushe, a former poor peasant who has lost his land because of his drinking. At a public struggle session, Yuyin is declared to be a "new rich peasant." Both her home and business are taken from her and her husband, Li Guigui is executed for trying to kill Li Guoxiang.
After the first waves of the Revolution have ended, now relegated to a lowly street sweeper, returns to the town. She falls in love with Qin Shutian, who had come in the 1950s to collect local folksongs but was declared to be one of the Five Black Categories; when Yuyin becomes pregnant, this loving relationship attracts the outrage of Li Guoxiang and Wang Qiushe, who themselves are having a secret affair. Shutian is sent to reform through labor and it is not until Deng Xiaoping's reforms in 1978 that his case is reviewed and he is allowed to return and help Yuyin re-establish their food stall. At the end of the film, Li Guoxiang continues to hold a position in the bureaucracy while Wang Qiushe loses his mind; the film was well received domestically and was voted by Chinese film audiences as one of the three best films of 1987. It remains however quite obscure outside China. Gilbert Adair of Time Out magazine gave the film his endorsement, calling it "a potent blend of the political and personal": "Xie's portrait of China's traumatic, turbulent history ranges from'63 to the post-'Gang of Four' years, his palette the changing fortunes of an entangled group of individuals.
It's impressive both for the elegant precision with which the director fills his scope frame with small, significant details, for the discreet understatement that controls his own special brand of epic melodrama. In some ways similar to the classic romances of Frank Borzage, Hibiscus Town is a moving account of survival in the face of widespread social and political madness, told with clarity and insight." Golden Rooster Awards, 1987 Best Film Best Actress — Liu Xiaoqing Best Supporting Actress — Xu Songzi Best Art Direction— Jin Qifen Hundred Flowers Awards, 1987 Best Film — tied with Dr. Sun Yat-sen and Xue zhan Taierzhuang Best Actor — Jiang Wen Best Actress — Liu Xiaoqing Best Supporting Actor — Zhu Shibin Karlovy Vary International Film Festival, 1988 Crystal Globe, Grand Prix Cultural Revolution - background of the film List of submissions to the 60th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Chinese submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Browne, Nick.
"Society and Subjectivity: On the Political Economy of Chinese Melodrama," in New Chinese Cinemas: Forms, Politics. Cambridge: CUP, 1994, 57-87. Hayford, Charles W. "Hibiscus Town: Revolution and Bean Curd." In Chris Berry, ed. Chinese Films in Focus: 25 New Takes. London: BFI Publishing, 2003, 120-27. Kipnis, Andrew. "Anti-Maoist Gender: Hibiscus Town's Naturalization of a Dengist Sex/Gender/Kinship System." Asian Cinema 8, 2: 66-75. Hibiscus Town on IMDb Hibiscus Town at AllMovie Hibiscus Town article from China.org Hibiscus Town from the Chinese Movie Database Overview and questions of Hibiscus Town from Ohio State University
Where the Legend Begins
Where the Legend Begins is a 2002 Hong Kong television series produced by TVB. The series is based on the life story of Zhen Fu, a noble lady who lived during the Three Kingdoms period, it contains embellishments from folktales about Yan's romance with Cao Zhi. The series was first aired in Hong Kong on TVB Jade from 24 June to 26 July in 2002. Note: Some of the characters' names are in Cantonese romanisation. All the songs were composed by Joseph Koo. Shui Chung Sin - the opening theme song performed by Steven Ma Lau Sa - the ending theme song performed by Steven Ma and Rain Li Sik Fa - insert song performed by Priscilla Ku TVB Anniversary Awards My Favourite Character My Favourite Character Most Improved Male Artiste Nominated: Best Actor - Top 5 Nominated: Best Actress - Top 5 God of River Lok List of media adaptations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms Where the Legend Begins on IMDb Where the Legend Begins official page on TVB's website Where the Legend Begins on Baidu Baike
Chengdu romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China. It is one of the three most populous cities in Western China, the other two being Chongqing and Xi'an; as of 2014, the administrative area housed 14,427,500 inhabitants, with an urban population of 10,152,632. At the time of the 2010 census, Chengdu was the 5th-most populous agglomeration in China, with 10,484,996 inhabitants in the built-up area including Xinjin County and Deyang's Guanghan City. Chengdu is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network; the surrounding Chengdu Plain is known as the "Country of Heaven" and the "Land of Abundance". Its prehistoric settlers included the Sanxingdui culture. Founded by the state of Shu prior to its incorporation into China, Chengdu is unique as a major Chinese settlement that has maintained its name unchanged throughout the imperial and communist eras.
It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu during the Three Kingdoms Era, as well as several other local kingdoms during the Middle Ages. It is now one of the most important economic, commercial, cultural and communication centers in Western China. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, a hub of Air China and Sichuan Airlines is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, Chengdu railway station is one of the six biggest in China. Chengdu hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates. More than 260 Fortune 500 companies have established branches in Chengdu; the name Chengdu is attested in sources dating back to shortly after its founding. It has been called the only major city in China to have remained at an unchanged location with an unchanged name throughout the imperial and communist eras, although it had other names, for example it was known as Xijing in the 17th century; the Song-era geographical work A Universal Geography of the Taiping Era states that the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty named his new capital Chengdu after a statement by King Tai of Zhou that a settlement needed "one year to become a town, two to become a city, three to become a metropolis".
There are, several versions of why the capital had been moved from nearby Pi County and modern scholars sometimes theorize that the name was a transcription of an earlier name into Chinese characters. The present spelling is based on pinyin romanization, its former status as the seat of the Chengdu Prefecture prompted Marco Polo's spellings Sindafu, Sin-din-fu, &c. and the Protestant missionaries' romanization Ching-too Foo. Although the official name of the city has remained constant, the surrounding area has sometimes taken other names, including Yizhou. Chinese nicknames for the city include the Turtle City, variously derived from the old city walls' shape on a map or a legend that Zhang Yi had planned their course by following a turtle's tracks; the city logo adopted in 2011 is inspired by the Golden Sun Bird, an ancient artifact unearthed in 2001 from the Jinsha Ruins. Archaeological discoveries at the Sanxingdui and Jinsha sites have established that the area surrounding Chengdu was inhabited over four thousand years ago.
At the time of China's Xia and Zhou dynasties, it represented a separate ancient bronze-wielding culture which—following its partial sinification—became known to the Chinese as Shu. In the early 4th century BC, the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty relocated from nearby Pi County, giving his new capital the name Chengdu. Shu was conquered by Qin in the settlement re-founded by the Qin general Zhang Yi. Although he had argued against the invasion, the settlement thrived and the additional resources from Sichuan helped enable the First Emperor of Qin to unify the Warring States which had succeeded the Zhou. Under the Han, the brocade produced in Chengdu was exported throughout China. A "Brocade Official" was established to oversee its supply. After the fall of the Eastern Han, Liu Bei ruled Shu, the southwestern of the Three Kingdoms, from Chengdu, his minister Zhuge Liang called the area the "Land of Abundance". Under the Tang, Chengdu was considered the second most prosperous city in China after Yangzhou.
Both Li Bai and Du Fu lived in the city. Li Bai praised it as "lying above the empyrean"; the city's present Caotang was constructed in 1078 in honor of an earlier, more humble structure of that name erected by Du Fu in 760, the second year of his 4-year stay. The Taoist Qingyang Gong was built in the 9th century. Chengdu was the capital of Wang Jian's Former Shu from 907 to 925, when it was conquered by the Later Han; the Later Shu was founded with its capital at Chengdu. Its King Mengchang beautified the city by ordering hibiscus to be planted upon the city walls; the Song conquered the city in 965 and used it for the introduction of the first used paper money in the world. Su Shi praised it as "the southwestern metropolis". At the fall of the Song, a rebel leader set up a short-lived
Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
Empress Xiaozhuangwen, of the Khorchin Mongol Borjigit clan, personal name Bumbutai, was a consort of Hong Taiji. She was 21 years his junior; as Empress Dowager and Grand Empress Dowager during the reigns of her son and grandson she had significant influence in the Qing imperial court and was respected for her political wisdom and insight. Although she never held the rank of Empress during Hong Taiji's reign, she was posthumously honoured as an empress. Father: Zhaisang, held the title of a first rank prince Paternal grandfather: Manggusi, held the title of a first rank prince Paternal aunt: Empress Xiaoduanwen Mother: Boli Four elder brothers First elder brother: Wukeshan, held the title of a first rank prince, the father of Consort Jing Fourth elder brother: Manzhuxili, held the title of a first rank prince, the paternal grandfather of Empress Xiaohuizhang One elder sister First elder sister: Primary consort Minhui The future Empress Xiaozhuangwen was born on the eighth day of the intercalary second lunar month in the 41st year of the reign of the Wanli Emperor, which translates to 28 March 1613 in the Gregorian calendar.
In March or April 1625, Lady Borjigit became one of his multiple wives. Prior to this, the Khorchin Mongols had sent Hong Taiji another woman, the future Empress Xiaoduanwen, on 28 May 1614, to strengthen the relationship between the Qing dynasty and the Khorchin. Lady Borjigit's elder sister, the future primary consort Minhui, would marry Hong Taiji on 6 December 1634. Lady Borjigit gave birth on 31 January 1629 to Hong Taiji's fourth daughter, Princess Yongmu of the First Rank, on 2 March 1632 to his fifth daughter, Princess Shuhui of the First Rank, on 16 December 1633 to his seventh daughter, Princess Shuzhe of the First Rank; when Hong Taiji conferred titles on his five primary spouses in August 1636, Lady Borjigit was named "Consort Zhuang" of Yongfu Palace. On 15 March 1638, Lady Borjigit gave birth to Hong Taiji's ninth son, Fulin. Hong Taiji died on 21 September 1643 and was succeeded by Fulin, enthroned as the Shunzhi Emperor. Lady Borjigit, as the mother of the reigning emperor, was honoured with the title "Holy Mother, Empress Dowager".
Her aunt Jerjer, as the empress consort of the previous emperor, was honoured as "Mother Empress, Empress Dowager". Hong Taiji's younger half-brother, was appointed as Prince regent to rule on behalf of the Shunzhi Emperor until the emperor reached adulthood. After Dorgon died on 31 December 1650, the Shunzhi Emperor posthumously stripped him of his princely title and had his dead body exhumed and mutilated, it is believed – though not supported by historical evidence – that Lady Borjigit secretly married Dorgon after Hong Taiji's death, since levirate marriage was common among Mongols. Lady Borjigit kept a low profile during the reign of her son and had little interference in politics; the Shunzhi Emperor died on 5 February 1661 and was succeeded by his third son Xuanye, enthroned as the Kangxi Emperor. As the grandmother of the reigning emperor, Lady Borjigit was honoured as "Grand Empress Dowager Zhaosheng". Since the emperor was underage at the time, the Four Regents of the Kangxi Emperor, appointed by the Shunzhi Emperor, ruled on his behalf until he reached adulthood.
During this time, Lady Borjigit advised her grandson to learn from the regents and took charge of his upbringing after the emperor's mother died. When the Kangxi Emperor grew up and began his personal rule in 1667, he felt threatened by the strong influence of Oboi, one of the four regents. Two years Lady Borjigit assisted her grandson in his plans to get rid of Oboi. Oboi was lured into a trap, placed under arrest, removed from power. Throughout her life, Lady Borjigit disliked living in the Forbidden City, despite the luxurious conditions it offered, she refused to hold any birthday celebrations as she felt that it would be costly. When Lady Borjigit fell sick in the autumn of 1687, the Kangxi Emperor took care of his grandmother, she died on 27 January 1688. During the reign of the Wanli Emperor: Lady Borjigit During the reign of Nurhaci: Secondary consort During the reign of Hong Taiji: Consort Zhuang, fourth rank consort During the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor: Empress Dowager Zhaosheng During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor: Grand Empress Dowager Zhaosheng Empress Xiaozhuangwen As secondary consort: Princess Yongmu of the First Rank, personal name Yatu, Hong Taiji's fourth daughter Married Birtakhar of the Khorchin Borjigit clan in 1641 Princess Shuhui of the First Rank, personal name Atu, Hong Taiji's fifth daughter Married Suo'erha of the Khalkha Borjigit clan in 1643 Married Sabdan of the Barin Borjigit clan in 1648 Princess Shuzhe of the First Rank, Hong Taiji's seventh daughter Married Lamasi of the Jarud Borjigit clan in 1645 As Consort Zhuang: Fulin, Hong Taiji's ninth son, enthroned on 8 October 1643 as the Shunzhi Emperor Xiaozhuang Mishi, a novel about Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang, written by Yang Haiwei.
Shaonian Tianzi, a novel about the Shunzhi Emperor, written by Ling Li. The Rise and Fall of Qing Dynasty, a long-running Hong Kong television series about the history of the Qing dynasty. Empress Dowa