Fossilworks is a portal which provides query and analysis tools to facilitate access to the Paleobiology Database, a large relational database assembled by hundreds of paleontologists from around the world. Fossilworks is housed at Macquarie University, it includes many analysis and data visualization tools included in the Paleobiology Database. "Fossilworks". Retrieved 2010-04-08
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Fusui County is a county in the southwest of Guangxi, China. It is the easternmost county-level division of the prefecture-level city of Chongzuo. Fusui is located in eastern Chongzuo City, it borders Qingxiu District of Nanning in the east, Shangsi County and Ningming County in the south, Jiangzhou District in the west, Long'an County in the north. The city is located on the north bank of the Zuo River, offering a waterway to Nanning, whence it flows into the Xi River which provides access to Wuzhou and the Pearl River Delta, is navigable by shallow-draft junks and motor launches though it is obstructed by rapids and sandbanks. Travelling upstream the Zuo River leads to Vietnam. Fusui is situated in a hilly basin with elevations between 100–200 m above sea-level. Leiyantai Mountain dominates the southern part of town, its area is 2,836 km2, 590 km2 of, forested. Fusui's warm climate gives it a large amount of biodiversity. There are more than 1,100 species of plants. National grade one protected animals include white-headed langurs, clouded leopard, musk deer, python more than 30 species.
Country grade one protected plant include cycads, country grade two protected plant include ferns, Jian wood, camphor wood. Fusui's climate is humid monsoon-influenced. Within the prefecture, the annual mean is 21.3–22.8 °C. There are 346 frost-free days. Annual precipitation is between 1,050–1,300 millimetres. Fusui is one of the earliest centers of Zhuang culture. Important sites dating back to the stone age have been found here; the Rock Paintings of Hua Mountain along the Zuo River at Yinweng, Hetou, Tuotan,Xiatong, Balai Mountain date back 1800 to 2500 year and are one of the largest groups of pictographs in China and in the world. On several cliff faces are hundreds of large red pictographs depicting a large battle; the red pigment is still bright and vivid and individual figures and animals are easy to distinguish. The cliffs, part of the sacred Frog Mountain, were important site to the early Zhuang. A state seat called Longzhou was first established at the site in AD 638; the state government is located in today's Fusui Xinning town.
This became the administrative seat of a commandery. In AD 771, the Longzhou commandery was dissolved, the state was renamed Xiyuanzhou. In AD 1572, Xiyuanzhou commandery was dissolved, the state was renamed Xinningzhou. In 1914, Xinningzhou was renamed Funan County, which could be regarded as the beginning of the county. In 1951, Funan and Suilu County merged into Fusui County; the county administers 8 towns, 3 townships, which are further divided into a total of 14 residential communities and 119 villages. These figures are based on the following official statistics: Fusui's population was 440,000. 82.8% of the people belong to the Zhuang ethnic group. The rest include Han and other ethnic groups. An impoverished county, Fusui from 1992 experienced agricultural growth; the county is surrounded by a fertile agricultural region producing subtropical fruits and sugarcane. Fusui has been a center for cane sugar and cement manufacture, it is famous in Traveling. According to statistics issued by the Fusui government in 2011, the county's GDP was 101 billion yuan.
Forestry and agriculture are two of Fusui's biggest industries. Rice, oranges, cassava, bananas, durian, pineapples and tea are all major crops, but sugarcane and sisal are the center of Fusui agriculture. Farm raised animals include beef and dairy cattle, ducks, geese, turtle and pigeon. Aquaculture for fish is significant. Chinese medicinal herbs are picked from the wild and grown. Important mineral resources include manganese, ferberite, iron, zinc, nickel, limestone, crystal and mercuric sulfide, it is sisal producer base. Cement and building materials are the center of Fusui industry. Other industries include export infrastructure, forest products such as timber and turpentine, pharmaceuticals. Among important companies based in Fusui are: Fusui Dongmen Nanhua Sugar Industry Corp Fusui Funan East Asia sugar industrial Corp Conch Group Fusui Xinning Conch Cement Corp Funan East Asia sugar industrial Corp Shanxu Sisal Processing Corp Fusui Fuyuan Sisal Corp According to the official Zuo River's Daily newspaper, Zhuang is the first language for 82% of the 440,000 residents of the Fusui, while the other 10% speak Southwestern Mandarin.
Other languages such as Iu Mien language are spoken in significant numbers as well. In Fusu, Zhuang's characteristics on dresses remain on their own, the colors of which are principally conventional navy blue. Zhuang's men and the women cover their heads with a blue scarf; some women substitute this scarf by a turban. They decorate their shirts with decorations made out of silver. In Fusui, Zhuang people celebrate many exciting and meaningful festivals such as “Ancestor worship festival in spring”, “Tomb sweeping festival” and “Song Festival”, “Wheat heat Festival”, “Ghost festival”, “Ancestor worship festival in autumn” (8 August -Chinese calendar's agrarian
2010 in paleontology
Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces and chemical residues; because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2010; as science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors
Saurischia is one of the two basic divisions of dinosaurs. ‘Saurischia’ translates to lizard-hipped. In 1888, Harry Seeley classified dinosaurs into two orders, based on their hip structure, though today most paleontologists classify Saurischia as an unranked clade rather than an order. All carnivorous dinosaurs are traditionally classified as saurischians, as are all of the birds and one of the two primary lineages of herbivorous dinosaurs, the sauropodomorphs. At the end of the Cretaceous Period, all saurischians except the birds became extinct in the course of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Birds, as direct descendants of one group of theropod dinosaurs, are a sub-clade of saurischian dinosaurs in phylogenetic classification. Saurischian dinosaurs are traditionally distinguished from ornithischian dinosaurs by their three-pronged pelvic structure, with the pubis pointed forward; the ornithischians' pelvis is arranged with the pubis rotated backward, parallel with the ischium also with a forward-pointing process, giving a four-pronged structure.
The saurischian hip structure led Seeley to name them "lizard-hipped" dinosaurs, because they retained the ancestral hip anatomy found in modern lizards and other reptiles. He named ornithischians "bird-hipped" dinosaurs because their hip arrangement was superficially similar to that of birds, though he did not propose any specific relationship between ornithischians and birds. However, in the view which has long been held, this "bird-hipped" arrangement evolved several times independently in dinosaurs, first in the ornithischians in the lineage of saurischians including birds, lastly in the therizinosaurians; this would be an example of convergent evolution, therizinosaurians, ornithischian dinosaurs all developed a similar hip anatomy independently of each other as an adaptation to their herbivorous or omnivorous diets. In his paper naming the two groups, Seeley reviewed previous classification schemes put forth by other paleontologists to divide up the traditional order Dinosauria, he preferred one, put forward by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1878, which divided dinosaurs into four orders: Sauropoda, Theropoda and Stegosauria.
Seeley, wanted to formulate a classification that would take into account a single primary difference between major dinosaurian groups based on a characteristic that differentiated them from other reptiles. He found this in the configuration of the hip bones, found that all four of Marsh's orders could be divided neatly into two major groups based on this feature, he placed the Stegosauria and Ornithopoda in the Ornithischia, the Theropoda and Sauropoda in the Saurischia. Furthermore, Seeley used this major difference in the hip bones, along with many other noted differences between the two groups, to argue that "dinosaurs" were not a natural grouping at all, but rather two distinct orders that had arisen independently from more primitive archosaurs; this concept that "dinosaur" was an outdated term for two distinct orders lasted many decades in the scientific and popular literature, it was not until the 1960s that scientists began to again consider the possibility that saurischians and ornithischians were more related to each other than they were to other archosaurs.
Although his concept of a polyphyletic Dinosauria is no longer accepted by most paleontologists, Seeley's basic division of the two dinosaurian groups has stood the test of time, has been supported by modern cladistic analysis of relationships among dinosaurs. One alternative hypothesis challenging Seeley's classification was proposed by Robert T. Bakker in his 1986 book The Dinosaur Heresies. Bakker's classification separated the theropods into their own group and placed the two groups of herbivorous dinosaurs together in a separate group he named the Phytodinosauria; the Phytodinosauria hypothesis was based on the supposed link between ornithischians and prosauropods, the idea that the former had evolved directly from the latter by way of an enigmatic family that seemed to possess characters of both groups, the segnosaurs. However, it was found that segnosaurs were an unusual type of herbivorous theropod saurischian related to birds, the Phytodinosauria hypothesis fell out of favor. A 2017 study by Dr Matthew Grant Baron, Dr David B. Norman and Prof. Paul M. Barrett did not find support for a monophyletic Saurischia, according to its traditional definition.
Instead, the group was found to be paraphyletic, with Theropoda removed from the group and placed as the sister group to the Ornithischia in the newly defined clade Ornithoscelida. As a result, the authors redefined Saurischia as "the most inclusive clade that contains D. carnegii, but not T. horridus", resulting in a clade containing only the Sauropodomorpha and Herrerasauridae