Burchard III, Duke of Swabia
Burchard III, a member of the Hunfriding dynasty, was the count of Thurgau and Zürichgau of Rhaetia, Duke of Swabia from 954 to his death. He was the son of Duke of Swabia and Regilinda. At a young age on the murder of his father in 926, he was sent to Saxony for his safety after the accession of the duke Herman I. In Saxony, he married a member of the Immedinger family. From this marriage came two sons: Theodoric, count of Wettin, Burchard, count of Liesgau, his second marriage was to daughter of Henry I, Duke of Bavaria. Burchard built the great fortress atop the Hohentwiel, Hedwige was the foundress of the monastery of St. George there, but their marriage remained childless. After the rebellion of Duke Liudolf, son of King Otto I, in 954, the king bestowed the ducal title on his nephew-in-law Burchard at a general council at Arnstadt. Burchard was his queen, Adelaide of Italy, he was at the royal court and he accompanied Otto on his campaign against the Magyars and was present at the great Battle of the Lechfeld on 10 August 955.
In 965, he led a third campaign against Berengar II in Italy. At the Battle of the Po on 25 June, Burchard defeated Berengar's son and restored Italy to Ottonian control the south Italian principalities were brought to heel by 972. In 973, he died and was buried in the chapel of Saint Erasmus in the monastery on Reichenau Island in Lake Constance, he was succeeded by son of Liudolf. Bachrach, David S.. Warfare in Tenth-Century Germany; the Boydell Press. Leyser, Karl. Rule and Conflict in an Early Medieval Society:Ottonian Saxony. Edward Arnold. Reuter, Timothy. Germany in the Early Middle Ages C. 800-1056. Routledge
Duchy of Lorraine
The Duchy of Lorraine Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France. Its capital was Nancy, it was founded in 959 following the division of Lotharingia into two separate duchies: Upper and Lower Lorraine, the westernmost parts of the Holy Roman Empire. The Lower duchy was dismantled, while Upper Lorraine came to be known as the Duchy of Lorraine; the Duchy of Lorraine was coveted and occupied by the Dukes of Burgundy and the Kings of France. In 1737, the Duchy was given to Stanisław Leszczyński, the former king of Poland, who had lost his throne as a result of the War of the Polish Succession, with the understanding that it would fall to the French crown on his death; when Stanisław died on 23 February 1766, Lorraine was annexed by France and reorganized as a province. Lorraine's predecessor, was an independent Carolingian kingdom under the rule of King Lothair II, its territory had been a part of Middle Francia, created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun, when the Carolingian empire was divided between the three sons of Louis the Pious.
Middle Francia was allotted to Emperor Lothair I, therefore called Lotharii Regnum. On his death in 855, it was further divided into three parts, of which his son Lothair II took the northern one, his realm comprised a larger territory stretching from the County of Burgundy in the south to the North Sea. In French, this area became known as Lorraine, while in German, it was known as Lothringen. In the Alemannic language once spoken in Lorraine, the -ingen suffix signified a property; as Lothair II had died without heirs, his territory was divided by the 870 Treaty of Meerssen between East and West Francia and came under East Frankish rule as a whole by the 880 Treaty of Ribemont. After the East Frankish Carolingians became extinct with the death of Louis the Child in 911, Lotharingia once again attached itself to West Francia, but was conquered by the German king Henry the Fowler in 925. Stuck in the conflict with his rival Hugh the Great, in 942 King Louis IV of France renounced all claims to Lotharingia.
In 953, the German king Otto. In 959, Bruno divided the duchy into Lower Lorraine; the Upper Duchy was further "up" the river system. Upper Lorraine was first denominated as the Duchy of the Moselle, both in charters and narrative sources, its duke was the dux Mosellanorum; the usage of Lotharingia Superioris and Lorraine in official documents begins around the fifteenth century. The first duke and deputy of Bruno was Frederick I of Bar, son-in-law of Bruno's sister Hedwig of Saxony. Lower Lorraine disintegrated into several smaller territories and only the title of a "Duke of Lothier" remained, held by Brabant. After the duchy of the Moselle came into the possession of René of Anjou, the name "Duchy of Lorraine" was adopted again, only retrospectively called "Upper Lorraine". At that time, several territories had split off, such as the County of Luxembourg, the Electorate of Trier, the County of Bar and the "Three Bishoprics" of Verdun and Toul; the border between the Empire and the Kingdom of France remained stable throughout the Middle Ages.
In 1301, Count Henry III of Bar had to receive the western part of his lands as a fief by King Philip IV of France. In 1475, the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold campaigned for the Duchy of Lorraine, but was defeated and killed at the 1477 Battle of Nancy. In the 1552 Treaty of Chambord, a number of insurgent Protestant Imperial princes around Elector Maurice of Saxony ceded the Three Bishoprics to King Henry II of France in turn for his support. Due to the weakening of Imperial authority during the 1618-1648 Thirty Years' War, France was able to occupy the duchy in 1634 and retained it until 1661 when Charles IV was restored. In 1670, the French invaded again. France returned the Duchy in the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick ending the Nine Years' War and Charles' son Leopold, became duke and was known as'Leopold the Good. In 1737, after the War of the Polish Succession, an agreement between France, the Habsburgs and the Lorraine House of Vaudémont assigned the Duchy to Stanisław Leszczyński, former king of Poland.
He was father-in-law to King Louis XV of France, who lost out to a candidate backed by Russia and Austria in the War of the Polish Succession. The Lorraine duke Francis Stephen, betrothed to the Emperor's daughter Archduchess Maria Theresa, was compensated with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, where the last Medici ruler had died without issue. France promised to support Maria Theresa as heir to the Habsburg possessions under the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. Leszczyński received Lorraine with the understanding that it would fall to the French crown on his death; the title of Duke of Lorraine was of course given to Stanisław, but retained by Francis Stephen, it figures prominently in the titles of his successors, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. When Stanisław died on 23 February 1766, Lorraine was annexed by France and reorganized as a province by the French government. Two regional languages survive in the re
Edith of England spelt Eadgyth or Ædgyth, a member of the House of Wessex, was German queen from 936, by her marriage with King Otto I. Edith was born to the reigning English king Edward the Elder by his second wife, Ælfflæd, hence was a granddaughter of King Alfred the Great, she had Eadgifu. At the request of the East Frankish king Henry the Fowler, who wished to stake a claim to equality and to seal the alliance between the two Saxon kingdoms, her half-brother King Æthelstan sent his sisters Edith and Edgiva to Germany. Henry's eldest son and heir to the throne Otto was instructed to choose whichever one pleased him best. Otto chose Edith, according to Hrotsvitha a woman "of pure noble countenance, graceful character and royal appearance", married her in 930. In 936 Henry the Fowler died and his eldest son Otto, Edith's husband, was crowned king at Aachen Cathedral. A surviving report of the ceremony by the medieval chronicler Widukind of Corvey makes no mention of his wife having been crowned at this point, but according to Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg's chronicle, Eadgyth was anointed as queen, albeit in a separate ceremony.
As queen consort, Edith undertook the usual state duties of a "First Lady": when she turns up in the records it is in connection with gifts to the state's favoured monasteries or memorials to holy women and saints. In this respect she seems to have been more diligent than her now widowed and subsequently sainted mother-in-law, Queen Matilda, whose own charitable activities only achieve a single recorded mention from the period of Eadgyth's time as queen. There was rivalry between the Benedictine Monastery of St Maurice founded at Magdeburg by Otto and Eadgyth in 937, a year after coming to the throne, Matilda's foundation Quedlinburg Abbey, intended by her as a memorial to her husband, the late King Henry. Edith accompanied her husband on his travels. While Otto fought against the rebellious dukes Eberhard of Franconia and Gilbert of Lorraine in 939, she spent the hostilities at Lorsch Abbey. Like her brother, Æthelstan, Edith was devoted to the cult of their ancestor Saint Oswald of Northumbria and was instrumental in introducing this cult into Germany after her marriage to the emperor.
Her lasting influence may have caused certain monasteries and churches in the Duchy of Saxony to be dedicated to this saint. Eadgyth's death in 946 at a young age, in her thirties, was unexpected. Otto mourned the loss of a beloved spouse, he married Adelaide of Italy in 951. Edith and Otto's children were: Liudolf, Duke of Swabia Liutgarde, married the Lotharingian duke Conrad the Red in 947both buried in St. Alban's Abbey, Mainz. Buried in the St Maurice monastery, Edith's tomb since the 16th century has been located in Magdeburg Cathedral. Long regarded as a cenotaph, a lead coffin inside a stone sarcophagus with her name on it was found and opened in 2008 by archaeologists during work on the building. An inscription recorded that it was the body of Eadgyth, reburied in 1510; the fragmented and incomplete bones were examined in 2009 brought to Bristol, for tests in 2010. The investigations at Bristol, applying isotope tests on tooth enamel, checked whether she was born and brought up in Wessex and Mercia, as written history indicated.
Testing on the bones revealed that they are the remains of Eadgyth, from study made of the enamel of the teeth in her upper jaw. Testing of the enamel revealed that the individual entombed at Magdeburg had spent time as a youth in the chalky uplands of Wessex; the bones are the oldest found of a member of English royalty. Following the tests the bones were re-interred in a new titanium coffin in her tomb at Magdeburg Cathedral on 22 October 2010. Freytag von Loringhoven, Baron. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 1965. Klaniczay, Gábor. Holy Rulers and Blessed Princesses, 2002; the life of an Anglo-Saxon princess, Michael Wood, The Guardian, 17 June 2010 How the study of teeth is revealing our history, Mike Pitts, The Guardian, 17 June 2010
Henry I, Duke of Bavaria
Henry I, a member of the German royal Ottonian dynasty, was Duke of Bavaria from 948 until his death. He was his wife Matilda of Ringelheim. After the death of his father, the royal title passed to Henry's elder brother Otto I, who had to face the indignation of several Saxon nobles. Moreover, the late king's son from his first marriage, revolted in alliance with Duke Eberhard of Franconia and had young Henry captured and arrested. While Thankmar was killed by his own henchmen in 938, Henry, in custody, chose to join the insurgents. In alliance with Duke Eberhard and Duke Gilbert of Lorraine he attempted a revolt against his elder brother King Otto in 938, believing he had a claim on the throne as firstborn son after King Henry's coronation in 919. In 939 Henry's forces were defeated at Birten and he himself was wounded. Both his allies Duke Duke Gilbert were killed at the Battle of Andernach on 2 October. Henry fled, first to his sister Gerberga, widow of Duke Gilbert of Lorraine to the court of King Louis IV of France.
When Otto's troops invaded Lorraine and marched against France, Henry returned and submitted to his elder brother. He and Otto were reconciled in 940, Henry was awarded the Lotharingian duchy. However, he could not assert his authority in Lorraine against the local nobility tending to France, as a result he was stripped of his position when the king appointed Count Otto of Verdun duke. Embittered Henry again plotted to assassinate King Otto in Easter 941 at the Imperial palace of Quedlinburg, but was discovered and put in captivity in Ingelheim, being released after doing penance at Christmas of that year. Over the years, the relationship between the brothers improved. After the death of the Luitpolding duke Berthold of Bavaria, Otto, at the instigation of his mother Matilda, enfeoffed Henry with the Duchy of Bavaria in 948. Henry had ties to Bavaria through his marriage with a daughter of late Duke Arnulf. Though he met with resistance by local nobles, he first defended, enlarged his duchy in wars with the Hungarians.
In 951 he accompanied King Otto on his Italian campaign against King Berengar II and acted as matchmaker for his brother, when he brought Queen Adelaide to Pavia. In turn he received the newly established March of Verona with Friuli and Istria at the 952 Imperial Diet in Augsburg. In 953–954 Henry, temporarily deserted by his Bavarian subjects, brutally suppressed a revolt by Otto's son, Duke Liudolf of Swabia and Duke Conrad of Lorraine. While his brother gained a glorious victory over the Hungarians in the Battle of Lechfeld, Henry fell ill in 955 and died on 1 November in Pöhlde Abbey, his son and heir was Henry Duke of Bavaria. He was laid to rest in the abbey of Niedermünster in Regensburg, where his wife Judith is buried. Henry married daughter of Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, they had: Gerberge, abbess to Gandersheim Hadwig, married to Burchard III, Duke of Swabia Henry II, Duke of Bavaria Bachrach, David S.. Warfare in Tenth-Century Germany; the Boydell Press. Barraclough, Geoffrey, ed.. Studies in Mediaeval History:Mediaeval Germany.
Vol. II. Essays. Basil Blackwell. Bernhardt, John W.. Itinerant Kingship and Royal Monasteries in Early Medieval Germany, C.936-1075. Cambridge University Press. Reuter, Timothy; the New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 3, C.900-c.1024. Cambridge University Press
Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 899 until his death. He was the elder son of his wife Ealhswith; when Edward succeeded to the throne, he had to defeat a challenge from his cousin Æthelwold, who had a strong claim to the throne as the son of Alfred's elder brother and predecessor, Æthelred. Alfred had succeeded Æthelred as king of Wessex in 871, faced defeat against the Danish Vikings until his decisive victory at the Battle of Edington in 878. After the battle, the Vikings still ruled Northumbria, East Anglia and eastern Mercia, leaving only Wessex and western Mercia under Anglo-Saxon control. In the early 880s Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, the ruler of western Mercia, accepted Alfred's lordship and married his daughter Æthelflæd, around 886 Alfred adopted the new title King of the Anglo-Saxons as the ruler of all Anglo-Saxons not subject to Danish rule. In 910 a Mercian and West Saxon army inflicted a decisive defeat on an invading Northumbrian army, ending the threat from the northern Vikings.
In the 910s, Edward conquered Viking-ruled southern England in partnership with his sister Æthelflæd, who had succeeded as Lady of the Mercians following the death of her husband in 911. Historians dispute how far Mercia was dominated by Wessex during this period, after Æthelflæd's death in June 918, her daughter Ælfwynn became second Lady of the Mercians, but in December Edward took her into Wessex and imposed direct rule on Mercia. By the end of the 910s he ruled Wessex and East Anglia, only Northumbria remained under Viking rule. In 924 he faced a Mercian and Welsh revolt at Chester, after putting it down he died at Farndon in Cheshire on 17 July 924, he was succeeded by his eldest son Æthelstan. Edward was admired by medieval chroniclers, in the view of William of Malmesbury, he was "much inferior to his father in the cultivation of letters" but "incomparably more glorious in the power of his rule", he was ignored by modern historians until the 1990s, Nick Higham described him as "perhaps the most neglected of English kings" because few primary sources for his reign survive.
His reputation rose in the late twentieth century and he is now seen as destroying the power of the Vikings in southern England while laying the foundations for a south-centred united English kingdom. Mercia was the dominant kingdom in southern England in the eighth century and maintained its position until it suffered a decisive defeat by Wessex at the Battle of Ellandun in 825. Thereafter the two kingdoms became allies, to be an important factor in English resistance to the Vikings. In 865 the Danish Viking Great Heathen Army landed in East Anglia and used this as a starting point for an invasion; the East Anglians were forced to pay off the Vikings. They appointed a puppet king in 867, moved on Mercia, where they spent the winter of 867–868. King Burgred of Mercia was joined by King Æthelred of Wessex and his brother, the future King Alfred, for a combined attack on the Vikings, who refused an engagement; the following year, the Danes conquered East Anglia, in 874 they expelled King Burgred and, with their support, Ceolwulf became the last King of Mercia.
In 877 the Vikings partitioned Mercia, taking the eastern regions for themselves and allowing Ceolwulf to keep the western ones. In early 878 they invaded Wessex, many West Saxons submitted to them. Alfred, now king, was reduced to a remote base in the Isle of Athelney in Somerset, but the situation was transformed when he won a decisive victory at the Battle of Edington, he was thus able to prevent the Vikings from taking Wessex and western Mercia, although they still occupied Northumbria, East Anglia and eastern Mercia. Edward's parents and Ealhswith, married in 868, her father was Æthelred Mucel, Ealdorman of the Gaini, her mother, was a member of the Mercian royal family. Alfred and Ealhswith had five children; the oldest was Æthelflæd, who married Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, ruled as Lady of the Mercians after his death. Edward was next, the second daughter, Æthelgifu, became abbess of Shaftesbury; the third daughter, Ælfthryth, married Baldwin, Count of Flanders, the younger son, Æthelweard, was given a scholarly education, including learning Latin.
This would suggest that he was intended for the church, but it is unlikely in Æthelweard's case as he had sons. There were an unknown number of children who died young. Neither part of Edward's name, which means'protector of wealth', had been used by the West Saxon royal house, Barbara Yorke suggests that he may have been named after his maternal grandmother Eadburh, reflecting the West Saxon policy of strengthening links with Mercia. Historians estimate that Edward was born in the mid-870s, his eldest sister, Æthelflæd, was born about a year after her parents' marriage, Edward was brought up with his youngest sister, Ælfthryth. Edward led troops in battle in 893, must have been of marriageable age in that year as his oldest son Æthelstan was born about 894. According to Asser in his Life of King Alfred, Edward and Ælfthryth were educated at court by male and female tutors, read ecclesiastical and secular works in English, such as the Psalms and Old English poems, they were taught the courtly qualities of gentleness and humility, Asser wrote that they were obedient to their father and friendly to visitors.
This is the only known case of princess receiving the same upbringing. As a son of a king, Edward was an ætheling, a pri
The term Kaiserpfalz or Königspfalz refers to a number of castles and palaces across the Holy Roman Empire that served as temporary, secondary seats of power for the Holy Roman Emperor in the Early and High Middle Ages. The term was used more for a bishop who, as a territorial lord, had to provide the king and his entourage with board and lodging, a duty referred to as Gastungspflicht. Kaiserpfalz is a German word, a combination of Kaiser, meaning "emperor", derived from "caesar". Königspfalz is a combination of König, "king", Pfalz, meaning "royal palace". Like their peers in France and England, the medieval emperors of the Holy Roman Empire did not rule from a capital city, but had to maintain personal contact with their vassals on the ground; this was so-called "itinerant kingship". Because pfalzen were built and used by the king as a ruler within the Holy Roman Empire, the correct historical term is Königspfalz or "royal palace"; the term Kaiserpfalz is a 19th-century appellation that overlooks the fact that the king did not bear the title of the Roman Emperor until after his imperial coronation.
Unlike a pfalz, where the itinerant ruler enacted his sovereign duties, a royal estate or Königshof is only an economic estate owned by the king, only used by the king on his itinerary. Unlike the common notion of "palace", a pfalz was not a permanent residence but a place where the emperor stayed for a certain time less than a year. Moreover, they were not always grand palaces in the accepted sense: some were small castles or fortified hunting lodges, such as Bodfeld in the Harz, but in the main they were large manor houses, that offered catering and accommodation for the king and his many retainers running to hundreds of staff, as well as numerous guests and their horses. In Latin, such a royal manor was known as a villa regia or curtis regia, they were located either near the bishop's residences, near important abbeys, near towns the king held or in the countryside in the middle of royal estates. Pfalzen were built at intervals of 30 kilometres, which represented a day's journey by horse at that time.
At a minimum, a pfalz consisted of a palas with its Great Hall or Aula Regia, an imperial chapel and an estate. It was here that kings and emperors carried out the business of state, held their imperial court sessions and celebrated important church festivals; each was administered by a count palatine. One of the most important of them would rise to the title of Prince-elector; the pfalzen that the rulers visited varied depending on their function. Important were those palaces in which the kings spent the winter, the festival palaces, Easter being the most important and celebrated at Easter palaces; the larger palaces were in towns that had special rights, but could be bishop's seats or imperial abbeys. In the Hohenstaufen era of the Roman-German kingdom, important imperial princes began to demonstrate their claims to power by building their own pfalzen. Important examples of these include Henry the Lion's Dankwarderode Castle in Brunswick and the Wartburg above Eisenach in Thuringia. Both buildings followed the basic design of Hohenstaufen pfalzen and had the same dimensions.
Examples of surviving imperial palaces may be found in the town of Goslar and at Düsseldorf-Kaiserswerth. Palace Palas Imperial castle Adolf Eggers: Der königliche Grundbesitz im 10. Und beginnenden 11. Jahrhundert, H. Böhlaus Nachfolger, 1909 Lutz Fenske: Deutsche Königspfalzen: Beiträge zu ihrer historischen und archäologischen Erforschung, Zentren herrschaftlicher Repräsentation im Hochmittelalter: Geschichte Architektur und Zeremoniell, by the Max Planck Institute of History, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1963, ISBN 3-525-36521-7, 9783525365212 Paul Grimm: Stand und Aufgaben des archäologischen Pfalzenforschung in den Bezirken Halle und Magdeburg, Akademie-Verlag, 1961 Günther Binding: Deutsche Königspfalzen, Von Karl dem Großen bis Friedrich II.. Darmstadt, 1996, ISBN 3-534-12548-7. Alexander Thon: Barbarossaburg, Kaiserpfalz, Königspfalz oder Casimirschloss? Studien zu Relevanz und Gültigkeit des Begriffes „Pfalz“ im Hochmittelalter anhand des Beispiels Lautern. In: Kaiserslauterer Jahrbuch für pfälzische Geschichte und Volkskunde.
Kaiserslautern, 1.2001, ISSN 1619-7283, pp. 109–144. Alexander Thon:... ut nostrum regale palatium infra civitatem vel in burgo eorum non hedificent. Studies of relevance and validity to do with the term "Pfalz" for the research of castles of the 12th and 13th centuries in: Burgenbau im 13. Jahrhundert. Pub. by the Wartburg-Gesellschaft for the research of castles and palaces along with the Germanic National Museum. Research into castles and palaces. Vol. 7. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich, 2002, ISBN 3-422-06361-7, pp. 45–72. Gerhard Streich: Burg und Kirche während des deutschen Mittelalters. Untersuchungen zur Sakraltopographie von Pfalzen, Burgen und Herrensitzen, 2 Vols. Published by the Constance Working Group for Medieval History, Thorbecke-Verlag, 1984, ISBN 978-3-7995-6689-6
Novara is the capital city of the province of Novara in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy, to the west of Milan. With 104 284 inhabitants, it is the second most populous city in Piedmont after Turin, it is an important crossroads for commercial traffic along the routes from Milan to Turin and from Genoa to Switzerland. Novara lies between the rivers Agogna and Terdoppio in northeastern Piedmont, 50 kilometres from Milan and 95 kilometres from Turin. Novara was founded in ancient times by the Romans, its name is formed from Nov, meaning "new", Aria, the name the Cisalpine Gauls used for the surrounding region. Ancient Novaria, which dates to the time of the Ligures and the Celts, was a municipium and was situated on the road from Vercellae to Milan, its position on perpendicular roads dates to the time of the Romans. After the city was destroyed in 386 by Magnus Maximus for having supported his rival Valentinian II, it was rebuilt by Theodosius I. Subsequently, it was sacked by Attila. Under the Lombards, Novara became a duchy.
Novara came to enjoy the rights of a free imperial city. In 1110, it was conquered by Henry V and destroyed. At the end of the 12th century, it accepted the protection of Milan and became a dominion of the Visconti and of the Sforza. In the Battle of Novara in 1513, Swiss mercenaries defending Novara for the Sforzas of Milan routed the French troops besieging the city; this defeat ended the French invasion of Italy in the War of the League of Cambrai. In 1706, which had long ago been promised by Filippo Maria Visconti to Amadeus VIII of Savoy, was occupied by Savoyard troops. With the Peace of Utrecht, the city, together with Milan, became part of the Habsburg Empire. After its occupation in 1734, Novara passed, to the House of Savoy. After Napoleon's campaign in Italy, Novara became the capital of the Department of the Agogna, but was reassigned to the House of Savoy in 1814. In 1821, it was the site of a battle in which regular Sardinian troops defeated the Piedmontese constitutional liberals.
In the larger Battle of Novara in 1849, the Sardinian army was defeated by the Austrian army of Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky von Radetz. This defeat led to the abdication of Charles Albert of Sardinia and to the partial occupation of the city by the Austrians; the defeat of the Sardinians can be seen as the beginning of the Italian unification movement. A decree in 1859 created the province of Novara, which included the present-day provinces of Vercelli and Verbano-Cusio-Ossola; the city of Novara had a population of 25,144 in 1861. Industrialisation during the 20th century brought an increase in the city's population to 102,088 in 1981; the city's population has changed little in subsequent years. Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, former president of Italy and Italian senator for life, was born in Novara in 1918. Novara's sights can be divided into two groupings; the city's most important sights lie within its historic centre, the area once enclosed by the city walls. However, several important sights lie outside the line of the former city walls.
The old urban core makes up the "Historic centre", situated in the district of the same name. Novara once had an encircling wall, demolished to permit urban development. Of the old wall there remains only the Barriera Albertina, a complex of two neo-classical buildings that constituted the gate of entry to the city, the required passageway for those who traveled from Turin to Milan. After their removal, the walls were replaced by the present-day baluardi, the broad, tree-lined boulevards that surround the Historic Centre; the most imposing monument in the city is the Basilica of San Gaudenzio, with a cupola 121 metres high, designed by Alessandro Antonelli and constructed in 1888. The bell tower is of particular interest; the centre of the religious life of the city is the Novara Cathedral, in the neo-classical style designed by Alessandro Antonelli. It rises where the temple of Jupiter stood in the time of the Romans. Facing the Duomo is the oldest building in Novara today: the early Christian Battistero.
Close to the Duomo is the courtyard of the Broletto, the centre of the political life of the imperial free city of Novara. Overlooking the courtyard of the Broletto are the Palazzo del Podestà, Palazzetto dei Paratici, site of the Civic Museum and of the Gallery of Modern Art, the Palace of the City Council, a building of the 15th century. Not far from the Piazza della Repubblica is the Piazza Cesare Battisti, which constitutes the exact centre of the city of Novara. In Piazza Giacomo Matteotti stands the Palazzo Natta-Isola, seat of the province and of the prefecture of Novara; the landmark feature of this palace is its clock tower. Extending from this square is the via Fratelli Rosselli, along, the Palazzo Cabrino, the official seat of the administrative offices of the city; as it was a Roman city, the street network of Novara is characterized by a cardo and a Decumanus Maximus, which correspond to the present-day Corso Cavour and Corso Italia. The two streets cross at the so-called "Angolo delle Ore".
The largest square is Piazza Martiri della Libertà dominated by the equestrian s