Saint Richardis known as Richgard, Richardis of Swabia and Richarde de Souabe in French, was the Holy Roman Empress as the wife of Charles the Fat. She was renowned for her piety, was the first abbess of Andlau. Repudiated by her husband, Richardis became a Christian model of devotion and just rule, she was canonised in 1049. She was born in Alsace, the daughter of Erchanger, count of the Nordgau, of the family of the Ahalolfinger, she married Charles in 862 and was crowned with him in Rome by Pope John VIII in 881. The marriage was childless. Charles' reign was marked by internal and external strife, caused by the constant plundering of Norman raiders on the northern French coast; these attacks had intensified as the aggressors, no longer content to pillage the coastline, had moved their attentions to cities and towns along the rivers. The Carolingian world was unable to deal with these external threats. By 887, Charles appears to have succumbed to fits of madness. During this crisis, Richardis was unsuccessful.
In an effort to bring down the over-powerful and hated Liutward, Charles' archchancellor, he and Richardis were accused by Charles and his courtiers of adultery. Charles demanded a divorce, she was put to the ordeal by fire. Protected by her family, she withdrew to Andlau Abbey, which she had founded on her ancestral lands in 880, where her niece Rotrod was abbess.. She was buried there. After her lifetime, a legend grew up around the life of Richardis; the legend relates that, despite being a virtuous wife, her husband continued to accuse her of misconduct. This he did for over ten years. In a bid to assure him of her innocence, she assented to an ordeal by fire. Though she was barefoot and wearing a shirt covered in wax, the flames refused to touch her. Disheartened by her husband's continued mistrust, Richardis left the imperial palace and wandered into the forest. There she was visited by an angel, who ordered her to found a convent in a certain spot, which a bear would indicate to her. In Val d'Eleon, at the banks of the river, she saw a bear scratching in the dirt.
There she built the abbey of Andlau. An alternative legend recounts that Richardis found the mother bear grieving over her dead cub in the forest; when Richardis held the cub, it returned to life. After the working of this miracle, both mother and cub remained devoted to the saint for the rest of their lives. However, the abbey had been founded seven years before her divorce from Charles the Fat, the area had long been associated with the bear. Incorporating the mythos of the bear, the nuns at Andlau long maintained a live bear, allowed free board and passage to passing bear-keepers. To this day images of the saint are still accompanied by that of a bear. Richardis was canonised and remains translated in November 1049 by Pope Leo IX to a more impressive tomb in the newly rebuilt abbey church; the present tomb dates from 1350. Richardis is patron of Andlau, of protection against fires, her iconography refers to her ordeal by fire. The bear and ploughshare refer to the foundation legend of Andlau Abbey.
List of Catholic saints List of Holy Roman Empresses Ekkart Sauser. "Richardis: hl. Kaiserin". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 17. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols. 1141–1142. ISBN 3-88309-080-8. Wilhelm Wiegand, "Richgard", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 28, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 420–421
Duchy of Saxony
The Duchy of Saxony was the area settled by the Saxons in the late Early Middle Ages, when they were subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 772 and incorporated into the Carolingian Empire by 804. Upon the 843 Treaty of Verdun, Saxony was one of the five German stem duchies of East Francia. Upon the deposition of the Welf duke Henry the Lion in 1180, the ducal title fell to the House of Ascania, while numerous territories split from Saxony, such as the Principality of Anhalt in 1218 and the Welf Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1235. In 1296 the remaining lands were divided between the Ascanian dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg and Saxe-Wittenberg, the latter obtaining the title of Electors of Saxony by the Golden Bull of 1356; the Saxon stem duchy covered the greater part of present-day Northern Germany, including the modern German states of Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt up to the Elbe and Saale rivers in the east, the city-states of Bremen and Hamburg, as well as the Westphalian part of North Rhine-Westphalia and the Holstein region of Schleswig-Holstein.
In the late 12th century, Duke Henry the Lion occupied the adjacent area of Mecklenburg. The Saxons were one of the most robust groups in the late tribal culture of the times, bequeathed their tribe's name to a variety of more and more modern geopolitical territories from Old Saxony near the mouth of the Elbe up the river via the Prussian Province of Saxony to Upper Saxony, the Electorate and Kingdom of Saxony from 1806 corresponding with the German Free State of Saxony, which bears the name today though it was not part of the medieval duchy. According to the Res gestae saxonicae by 10th century chronicler Widukind of Corvey, the Saxons had arrived from Britannia at the coast of Land Hadeln in the Elbe-Weser Triangle, called by the Merovingian rulers of Francia to support the conquest of Thuringian kingdom. More Saxon tribes from Land Hadeln under the leadership of legendary Hengist and Horsa in the late days of the Roman Empire had invaded Britannia.. The Royal Frankish Annals mention a 743 Frankish campaign led by the Carolingian Mayor of the Palace Carloman against the Saxons, followed by a second expedition together with his brother Pepin the Short the next year.
In 747 their rebellious brother Grifo allied with Saxon tribes and temporarily conquered the stem duchy of Bavaria. Pepin, Frankish king from 750, again invaded Saxony and subdued several Westphalian tribes until 758. In 772 Pepin's son Charlemagne started the final conquest of the Saxon lands. Though his ongoing campaigns were successful, he had to deal with the fragmentation of the Saxon territories in Westphalian and Angrian tribes, demanding the conclusion of specific peace agreements with single tribes, which soon were to be broken by other clans; the Saxons devastated the Frankish stronghold at Eresburg. Widukind had to pledge allegiance in 785, having himself baptised and becoming a Frankish count. Saxon uprisings continued until 804, when the whole stem duchy had been incorporated into the Carolingian Empire. Afterwards, Saxony was ruled by Carolingian officials, e.g. Wala of Corbie, a grandson of Charles Martel and cousin of the emperor, who in 811 fixed the Treaty of Heiligen with King Hemming of Denmark, defining the northern border of the Empire along the Eider River.
Among the installed dukes were nobles of Saxon descent, like Wala's successor Count Ekbert, husband of Saint Ida of Herzfeld, a close relative of Charlemagne. Ida of Herzfeld may have been an ancestor of the Saxon count Liudolf, who married Oda of Billung and ruled over a large territory along the Leine river in Eastphalia, where he and Bishop Altfrid of Hildesheim founded Gandersheim Abbey in 852. Liudolf became the progenitor of the Saxon ducal and imperial Ottonian dynasty. Subdued only a few decades earlier, the Saxons rose to one of the leading tribes in East Francia. Liudolf's elder son Bruno, progenitor of the Brunswick cadet branch of the Brunonen, was killed in a battle with invading Vikings under Godfrid in 880, he was succeeded by his younger brother Otto the Illustrious, mentioned as dux in the contemporary annals of Hersfeld Abbey, which however seems to have been denied by the Frankish rulers. His position was strong enough to wed Hedwiga of Babenberg, daughter of mighty Duke Henry of Franconia, princeps militiae of King Charles the Fat.
As all of Hedwiga's brothers were killed in the Franconian Babenberg feud with the rivalling Conradines, Otto was able to adopt the strong position of his father-in-law and to evolve the united Saxon duchy under his rule. In 911 the East Frankish Carolingian dynasty became extinct with the death of King Louis the Child, whereafter the dukes of Saxony and Bavaria met at Forchheim to elect the Conradine duke Conrad I of Franconia king. One year Otto's son Henry the Fowler succeeded his father as Duke of Saxony. According to the medieval chronicler Widukind of Corvey, King Conrad designated Henry his heir, thereby denying the succession of his own brother Eberhard of Franconia, in 919 the Saxon duke was elected King
The island Frauenchiemsee is the second largest of the three islands in Chiemsee, Germany. It belongs to the municipality of Chiemsee in the Upper Bavarian district of Rosenheim, the smallest municipality in all of Bavaria; the 15.5-hectare large and car free Fraueninsel houses 300 permanent residents as well as an active Benedictine convent. Frauenchiemsee along with its sister island Herreninsel is one of the main tourist attractions on the Chiemsee, is famous for the Kloster Liquor spirit, produced by the nuns; the school on the island was named Irmengard Gymnasium. The monastery was founded in 782 by Duke of Bavaria, it was called "Schönau" in the Notitia de servitio monasteriorum. After the destruction of the Hungarian incursions, the monastery's heyday was between the 11th and 15th centuries; the monastery buildings were rebuilt between 1728 and 1732. In the course of the German Mediatisation the monastery was secularised between 1803 and 1835. King Ludwig I of Bavaria rebuilt the Benedictine monastery in 1836 under the new requirement that they should pay for the education of "fallen women".
As of 2007 the monastery has 30 sisters, the abbess is Johanna Mayer. The island is accessible by ship year round from Gstadt and Seebruck. There are several boats that can take passengers from Frauenchiemsee to Herreninsel and back. A cenotaph to Alfred Jodl, army general and executed war criminal, is located on the island
Kingdom of Bavaria
The Kingdom of Bavaria was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph; the crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and Würzburg. With the unification of Germany into the German Empire in 1871, the kingdom became a federal state of the new Empire and was second in size and wealth only to the leading state, the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1918, Bavaria became a republic, the kingdom was thus succeeded by the current Free State of Bavaria. On 30 December 1777, the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs became extinct, the succession on the Electorate of Bavaria passed to Charles Theodore, the Elector Palatine.
After a separation of four and a half centuries, the Palatinate, to which the duchies of Jülich and Berg had been added, was thus reunited with Bavaria. In 1792, French revolutionary armies overran the Palatinate. Charles Theodore, who had done nothing to prevent wars or to resist the invasion, fled to Saxony, leaving a regency, the members of which signed a convention with Moreau, by which he granted an armistice in return for a heavy contribution. Between the French and the Austrians, Bavaria was now in a bad situation. Before the death of Charles Theodore, the Austrians had again occupied the country, in preparation for renewing the war with France. Maximilian IV Joseph, the new elector, succeeded to a difficult inheritance. Though his own sympathies, those of his all-powerful minister, Maximilian von Montgelas, were, if anything, French rather than Austrian, the state of the Bavarian finances, the fact that the Bavarian troops were scattered and disorganized, placed him helpless in the hands of Austria.
By the Treaty of Lunéville, Bavaria lost the duchies of Zweibrücken and Jülich. In view of the scarcely disguised ambitions and intrigues of the Austrian court, Montgelas now believed that the interests of Bavaria lay in a frank alliance with the French Republic; the 1805 Peace of Pressburg allowed Maximilian to raise Bavaria to the status of a kingdom. Accordingly, Maximilian proclaimed himself king on 1 January 1806; the King still served as an Elector until Bavaria seceded from the Holy Roman Empire on 1 August 1806. The Duchy of Berg was ceded to Napoleon only in 1806; the new kingdom faced challenges from the outset of its creation, relying on the support of Napoleonic France. The kingdom faced war with Austria in 1808 and from 1810 to 1814, lost territory to Württemberg and Austria. In 1808, all relics of serfdom were abolished. In the same year, Maximilian promulgated Bavaria's first written constitution. Over the next five years, it was amended numerous times in accordance with Paris' wishes.
During the French invasion of Russia in 1812 about 30,000 Bavarian soldiers were killed in action. With the Treaty of Ried of 8 October 1813 Bavaria left the Confederation of the Rhine and agreed to join the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon in exchange for a guarantee of her continued sovereign and independent status. On 14 October, Bavaria made a formal declaration of war against Napoleonic France; the treaty was passionately backed by Marshal von Wrede. With the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813 ended the German Campaign with the Coalition nations as the victors, in a complete failure for the French, although they achieved a minor victory when an army of Kingdom of Bavaria attempted to block the retreat of the French Grande Armée at Hanau. With the defeat of Napoleon's France in 1814, Bavaria was compensated for some of its losses, received new territories such as the Grand Duchy of Würzburg, the Archbishopric of Mainz and parts of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. In 1816, the Rhenish Palatinate was taken from France in exchange for most of Salzburg, ceded to Austria.
It was the second largest and second most powerful state south of the Main, behind only Austria. In Germany as a whole, it ranked third behind Austria. Between 1799 and 1817, the leading minister Count Montgelas followed a strict policy of modernisation and laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived the monarchy and are valid until today. On 1 February 1817, Montgelas had been dismissed and Bavaria had entered on a new era of constitutional reform. On 26 May 1818, Bavaria's second constitution was proclaimed; the constitution established a bicameral Parliament. The upper house comprising the aristocracy and noblemen, including the royal princes, government officials, high-class hereditary landowners and nominees of the crown; the lower house, would include representatives of landowners, the three universities, the towns and the peasants. Without the consent of both houses no law c
Aschaffenburg is a town in northwest Bavaria, Germany. The town of Aschaffenburg is not considered part of the district of Aschaffenburg, but is the administrative seat. Aschaffenburg belonged to the Archbishopric of Mainz for more than 800 years; the town is located at the westernmost border of Lower Franconia and separated from the central and eastern part of the Regierungsbezirk by the Spessart hills, whereas it opens towards the Rhine-Main plain in the west and north-west. Therefore, the inhabitants speak neither Bavarian nor East Franconian but rather a local version of Rhine Franconian; the town is located on both sides of the Main in the southwest part of Germany, 41 kilometers southeast of Frankfurt am Main. In the western part of the municipal territory, the smaller Aschaff flows into the Main; the region is known as Bayerischer Untermain. Aschaffenburg lies in the far northwest of the state of Bavaria, close to the border to the state of Hesse; the climate is continental with warm, dry summers and cold, damp winters.
Aschaffenburg receives less snowfall during the winter than the nearby Spessart. Aschaffenburg comprises 10 Stadtteile: Damm Gailbach Leider Nilkheim Obernau Obernauer Kolonie Österreicher Kolonie Schweinheim Stadtmitte StrietwaldNilkheim and Leider are the only Stadtteile which are located on the left bank of the river Main; the following municipalities border Aschaffenburg: Johannesberg, Goldbach, Bessenbach, Sulzbach am Main, Großostheim, Stockstadt am Main and Mainaschaff. The name Aschaffenburg meant "castle at the ash tree river" deriving from the river Aschaff that runs through parts of the town; the earliest remains of settlements in the area of Aschaffenburg date from the Stone Age. Aschaffenburg was a settlement of the Alamanni. Roman legions were stationed here. In c. 700 AD, the Ravenna Cosmography names two settlements in region: Ascapha. Around 550, the area had been conquered by the Franks, their Hausmeier built a castle here. In the 8th century, a Benedictine monastery was founded, dedicated to St. Michael by Saint Boniface.
This became the Kollegiatstift St. Peter und Alexander in the second half of the 10th century. In 869, King Louis the Younger married Liutgard of Saxony at Aschaffenburg, she died here in 885 and was laid to rest with her daughter Hildegard in the Stiftskirche. Ascaffinburg is mentioned first in 974 in a gift document by Otto II, in which he gave several villages including Wertheim am Main and a stretch of forest in the Spessart to the collegiate church. In the Middle Ages the town was known as Ascapha or Ascaphaburg. A stone bridge over the Main was built by Archbishop Willigis in 989, who made the town his second residence; the town was part of the Archbishopric of Mainz from 982. A Vizedom is mentioned for the first time in 1122 as the top local representative of the Archbishop. In 1292 a synod was held here, in 1447 an imperial diet, preliminary to that of Vienna, approved a concordat. In the German Peasants' War, the town backed the losing side. In 1552, the late-Gothic castle of Johannisburg was destroyed.
It was replaced in 1605-14 by the Renaissance Schloss Johannisburg. The town suffered during the Thirty Years' War, being held in turn by the various belligerents. During the Battle of Dettingen, which took place to the north, the town was occupied by French troops, it formed part of the electorate of the Archbishop of Mainz, in 1803 was made over to Archbishop Karl Theodor von Dalberg as the Principality of Aschaffenburg. Aschaffenburg was the site of the "Forstliche Hochschule Aschaffenburg", established in 1807, "made famous by the researches of Professor Dr Ernst Ebermayer." The Academy was "dissolved in 1832, but re-organized under the Ministry of Finance in 1874". In 1814 the town was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria by an Austrian-Bavarian treaty. In 1817 it was included within Bavarian Lower Franconia. From 1840–1848, King Ludwig I of Bavaria had a Roman villa built to the west of town, it was named Pompejanum after its model, the house of Pollux at Pompeii. In 1866, the Prussian Army inflicted a severe defeat on the Austrians in the vicinity during the Austro-Prussian War.
In World War II, Aschaffenburg was damaged by Allied area bombing, including Schloss Johannisburg, restored several years later. The Germans chose to defend Aschaffenburg with particular steadfastness, which resulted in the "Battle of Aschaffenburg" fought 28 March – 3 April 1945; the U. S. 45th Infantry Division was forced to take the fortified town against stiff German resistance in a series of frontal assaults that involved house-to-house fighting and vicious close combat. The resulting widespread urban destruction was quite severe, as cannon fire was used point-blank to blast through structures. At the end of World War II the United States Army occupied military facilities used and controlled by the Wehrmacht; these were converted for use by U. S. military personnel as processing centres for displaced persons at the end of the war. From 1945 7,000 Ukrainians were accommodated in four displa
Liudolf, Duke of Saxony
Liudolf was a Carolingian office bearer and count in the Duchy of Saxony from about 844. The ruling Liudolfing house known as the Ottonian dynasty, is named after him, he was his wife, Gisla von Verla. Liudolf had extended possessions in the western Harz foothills and on the Leine river, he served as a military leader in the wars of the East Frankish king Louis the German against Norman invasions, the Polabian Slavs, Great Moravia. Authors called Liudolf a Duke of the Eastern Saxons and Count of Eastphalia. About 830 Liudolf married Oda, daughter of a Frankish princeps named his wife Aeda. By marrying a Frankish nobleman's daughter, Liudolf followed suggestions set forth by Charlemagne about ensuring the integrity of the Carolingian Empire in the aftermath of the Saxon Wars through marriage. Oda died on 17 May 913 at the age of 107, they had at least seven children: Bruno, succeeded his father as a Saxon leader, supposed progenitor of the Brunonids Oda of Saxony, married to Lothar I, Count of Stade Otto the Illustrious, succeeded his brother in 880, father of King Henry the Fowler Liutgard, married the East Frankish ruler Louis the Younger, second son of King Louis the German, in 874.
Hathumoda, first Abbess of Brunshausen from 852 Gerberga, Abbess of Brunshausen from 874 Christina, Abbess of Gandersheim from 896/97. In 845/846, Liudolf and his wife went on a pilgrimage to Rome, upon approval by Pope Sergius II they founded a house of holy canonesses dedicated to Pope Saints Anastasius and Innocent around 852; the monastery, duly established at their proprietary church in Brunshausen, was consecrated by the Hildesheim bishop Altfrid and Liudolf's minor daughter Hathumoda became its first abbess. The convent was relocated in 881 to form Gandersheim Abbey, elevated to an Imperial monastery by Liudolf's grandson Henry the Fowler in 919. While King Louis the German was preoccupied with Imperial politics, relying on the rank as well as the allodial lands he had inherited from his ancestors, rose to a leading position among the Saxon nobles – made evident by the marriage of his daughter Liutgard with King Louis the Younger, he is buried in his proprietary monastery of Brunshausen.
His successions by his sons Otto met with no resistance. Althoff, Gerd. Family and Followers: Political and Social Bonds in Medieval Europe. Cambridge University Press. Queenship and sanctity: The lives of Mathilda and The epitaph of Adelheid. Translated by Gilsdorf, Sean. Catholic University of America Press. 2004. Riche, Pierre; the Carolingians: A Family who Forged Europe. Translated by Allen, Michael Idomir. University of Pennsylvania Press. Widukind of Corvey. Deeds of the Saxons. Translated by Bachrach, Bernard S.. Wolfram, Herwig. Conrad II, 990-1039: Emperor of Three Kingdoms. Translated by Kaiser, Denise A; the Pennsylvania State University Press
The Ottonian dynasty was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs, named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto its first Emperor Otto I. It is known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony; the family itself is sometimes known as the Liudolfings, after its earliest known member Count Liudolf and one of its primary leading-names. The Ottonian rulers were successors of the Germanic king Conrad I, the only Germanic king to rule in East Francia after the Carolingian dynasty and before this dynasty. In the 9th century, the Saxon count Liudolf held large estates on the Leine river west of the Harz mountain range and in the adjacent Eichsfeld territory of Thuringia, his ancestors acted as ministeriales in the Saxon stem duchy, incorporated into the Carolingian Empire after the Saxon Wars of Charlemagne. Liudolf married a member of the Frankish House of Billung. About 852 the couple together with Bishop Altfrid of Hildesheim founded Brunshausen Abbey, relocated to Gandersheim, rose to a family monastery and burial ground.
Liudolf held the high social position of a Saxon dux, documented by the marriage of his daughter Liutgard with Louis the Younger, son of the Carolingian king Louis the German in 869. Liudolf's sons Bruno and Otto the Illustrious ruled over large parts of Saxon Eastphalia, Otto acted as lay abbot of the Imperial abbey of Hersfeld with large estates in Thuringia, he married a daughter of the Babenberg duke Henry of Franconia. Otto accompanied King Arnulf on his 894 campaign to Italy. According to the Saxon chronicler Widukind of Corvey, Otto upon the death of the last Carolingian king Louis the Child in 911 was a candidate for the East Frankish crown, which however passed to the Franconian duke Conrad I. Upon Otto's death in 912, his son Henry. Henry had married Matilda of Ringelheim, a descendant of the legendary Saxon ruler Widukind and heiress to extended estates in Westphalia; the Ottonian rulers of East Francia, the German kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire were: Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony from 912, King of East Francia from 919 until 936 Otto I, the Great, Duke of Saxony and King of East Francia from 936, King of Italy from 951, Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until 973 Otto II, co-ruler from 961, Holy Roman Emperor from 967, sole ruler from 973 until 983 Otto III, King of the Romans from 983, Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until 1002 Henry II, the Saint, Duke of Bavaria from 995, King of the Romans from 1002, King of Italy from 1004, Holy Roman Emperor from 1014 until 1024 Although never Emperor, Henry the Fowler was arguably the founder of the imperial dynasty.
While East Francia under the rule of the last Carolingian kings was ravaged by Hungarian invasions, he was chosen to be primus inter pares among the German dukes. Elected Rex Francorum in May 919, Henry abandoned the claim to dominate the whole disintegrating Carolingian Empire and, unlike his predecessor Conrad I, succeeded in gaining the support of the Franconian, Bavarian and Lotharingian dukes. In 933 he led a German army to victory over the Hungarian forces at the Battle of Riade and campaigned both the land of the Polabian Slavs and the Duchy of Bohemia; because he had assimilated so much power through his conquest, he was able to transfer power to his second son Otto I. Otto I, Duke of Saxony upon the death of his father in 936, was elected king within a few weeks, he continued the work of unifying all of the German tribes into a single kingdom expanding the powers of the king at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, he installed members of his own family to the kingdom's most important duchies.
This, did not prevent his relatives from entering into civil war: both Otto's brother Duke Henry of Bavaria and his son Duke Liudolf of Swabia revolted against his rule. Otto was able to suppress their uprisings, in consequence, the various dukes, co-equals with the king, were reduced into royal subjects under the king's authority, his decisive victory over the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 ended the Hungarian invasions of Europe and secured his hold over his kingdom. The defeat of the pagan Magyars earned King Otto the reputation as the savior of Christendom and the epithet "the Great", he transformed the Church in Germany into a kind of proprietary church and major royal power base to which he donated charity and for the creation of which his family was responsible. By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy, a troublesome inheritance that none wanted, extended his kingdom's borders to the north and south. In control of much of central and southern Europe, the patronage of Otto and his immediate successors caused a limited cultural renaissance of the arts and architecture.
He confirmed the 754 Donation of Pepin and, with recourse to the concept of translatio imperii in succession of Charlemagne, proceeded to Rome to have himself crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII in 962. He reached a settlement with the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes by marrying his son and heir Otto II to John's niece Theophanu. In 968 he established the Archbishopric of Magdeburg at his long-time residence. Co-ruler with his father since 961 and crowned emperor in 967, Otto II ascended the throne at the age of 18. By excluding the Bavarian line of Ottonians from the line of succession, he strengthened Imperial authority and secured his own son's