Kythira is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula. It is traditionally listed as one of the seven main Ionian Islands, although it is distant from the main group. Administratively, it belongs to the Islands regional unit, part of the Attica region; the island is strategically located between the Greek mainland and Crete, from ancient times until the mid 19th century was a crossroads of merchants and conquerors. As such, it has had a long and varied history and has been influenced by many civilisations and cultures; this is reflected in its architecture, as well as the traditions and customs, influenced by centuries of coexistence of the Greek and Ottoman cultures. Kythira and the nearby island of Antikythira were separate municipalities until they were merged at the 2011 local government reform; the municipality has an area of 300.023 km2, the municipal unit 279.593 km2. The province of Kythira was one of the provinces of the Piraeus Prefecture, it had the same territory as the present municipality Kythira.
It was abolished in 2006. There are archaeological remains from contemporary with the Minoans. There is archaeological evidence of Kythiran trade as far as Mesopotamia. Kythira had a Phoenician colony in the early archaic age. Xenophon refers to a Phoenician Bay in Kythira; the archaic Greek city of Kythira was at Scandea on Avlemonas. Its acropolis, now Palicastro, has the temple of Aphrodite Ourania, who may well represent a Phoenician cult of Astarte. In classical times, Kythira was part of the territory of several larger city-states. Sparta took the island from Argos early in the sixth century, ruled it under a kytherodíkes, in Thucydides' time. Kythira was independent, issued her own coins in 195 after the Achaean defeat of Sparta. In Augustus' time, it was again subject to Sparta, being the property of Gaius Julius Eurycles, both a Spartan magnate and a Roman citizen. By this time, the Greek cities were in practice subject to the Roman Empire. Kythira continued to exist under its Byzantine successor state for centuries.
Christianity is attested from the time of Constantine. Kythira is not mentioned in the literary sources for centuries after its conversion. Archaeological evidence suggests the island was abandoned about 700 AD; when Saint Theodore of Cythera led a resettlement after the Byzantine reconquest of Crete in 962, he found the island occupied only by wandering bands of hunters. He established a great monastery at Paliochora; when the Byzantine Empire was divided among the conquerors of the Fourth Crusade, the Republic of Venice took her share, three eighths of the whole, as the Greek islands, Kythira among them. She established a coast patrol on Kythira and Antikythera to protect her trade route to Constantinople. During the Venetian domination the island was known as Cerigo. Kythirans still talk about the looting of Paliochora by Barbarossa. One can accept the stories of locals by noticing the number of monasteries embedded in the rocky hillsides to avoid destruction by the pirates. Barbary pirates ranged across the Mediterranean waters, raiding ships and islands, taking booty and slaves for the Barbary slave trade.
Kythira was at the mercy of Barbary pirates due to its strategic location in the Mediterrean. In order to intercept merchant vessels, islands along the trade routes were of course more interesting for pirates. In the 17th century the small islands like Sapientza south of Messinia, Cergio south of the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese, along the coast of Asia minor, the deserted islands of Fourni southwest of Samos, the island of Psara, west of Chios, all functioned as pirates nests; when Napoleon put an end to the Venetian Republic in 1797, Kythira was among the islands incorporated in that most distant départment of France, called Mer-Égée. Kythira shared a common destiny with the other Ionian islands during the turbulent Napoleonic era, is still regarded as one of them. In 1799, the Ionian islands became the Septinsular Republic, nominally under Ottoman suzerainty, but in practice dominated by Russia. In 1807, France took them back only to have the British seize the islands in 1809 and set up one of their first protectorates, the United States of the Ionian Islands.
Thessaloniki (regional unit)
Thessaloniki is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the Region of Central Macedonia and its capital is the city of Thessaloniki; the regional unit stretches from the Thermaic Gulf in the southwest to the Strymonic Gulf in the east. Two bodies of water are located in the north, Lake Koroneia in the heart of the regional unit and Lake Volvi in the east. There are farmlands throughout the west and southwest, with fewer in the northeast and along the Axios River valley. Mountainous areas include the Chortiatis in the west-central part, the Vertiskos in the north and parts of the Kerdylio mountains in the northeast; the regional unit borders on the Imathia regional unit to the southwest, Pella to the west, Kilkis to the north, Serres to the east and Chalkidiki to the south. Its climate includes hot Mediterranean summers and cool to mild winters in low-lying areas and plains. Winter weather is common in areas 500m above sea level and into the mountains; the area, to become the Thessaloniki regional unit was annexed by Greece in 1912, during the First Balkan War.
The area was struck by an earthquake in 1978, by flooding due to rainfall in October 2006. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern Turkey, was born in Salonica, the name for the city of Thessaloniki when it was part of the Ottoman Empire; the Thessaloniki regional unit is subdivided into 14 municipalities. These are: Ampelokipoi-Menemeni Chalkidona Delta Kalamaria Kordelio-Evosmos Lagkadas Neapoli-Sykies Oraiokastro Pavlos Melas Pylaia-Chortiatis Thermaikos Thermi Thessaloniki Volvi The Thessaloniki Prefecture was created when the area was annexed by Greece during the First Balkan War in 1913. At that time, its area was the largest prefecture in the country, covering about 7% of the total land. The prefectures of Pella and Kilkis were split off in 1930 and 1937 and after World War II in 1947, Imathia and Pieria were additionally created from land belonging to the Thessaloniki Prefecture; as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the prefecture was transformed into a regional unit within the Central Macedonia region, without any change in boundaries.
At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Province of Thessaloniki Province of LagkadasNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece; the regional unit of Thessaloniki is connected with the following highways. Motorways: A1/E75 A2/E90 A25/Ε79 A25 National Roads: ΕΟ2/Ε86 W ΕΟ12/Ε79 Ν ΕΟ16, SW ΕΟ65, Ν Until the A1/E75 motorway and the A2/E90 motorway were constructed, GR-1 and GR-2 were the main road links connecting the regional unit of Thessaloniki with other parts of the country. Furthermore, parts of GR-67 linking Chalkidiki, GR-65 linking Kilkis, were converted into motorways during the 2000s. Public transport services are provided by the Thessaloniki Urban Transport Organization Thessaloniki Metro Most of the stations are in the city. Here are list of stations outside the city: Thermi TV - Thermi Iraklis Aris PAOK Apollon Kalamarias Agrotikos Asteras List of settlements in the Thessaloniki regional unit Macedonia
Imathia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Macedonia; the capital of Imathia is the city of Veroia. The regional unit Imathia is subdivided into 3 municipalities; these are: Alexandreia Naousa Veroia As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Imathia was created out of the former prefecture Imathia. The prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Veroia Province Naousa ProvinceNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece since 2006; the northeastern part of Imathia, along the lower course of the river Aliakmonas, is a vast agricultural plain known as Kampania or Roumlouki. The area is known for the production such as peaches and strawberries. Much of the population lives in this plain, where the towns Veroia are situated. Imathia has a short shoreline on the Thermaic Gulf, around the mouth of the Aliakmonas; the mountainous western part of Imathia is covered by the Vermio Mountains, reaching 2,052 metres near the city of Naousa.
The Pierian Mountains reach into the southern part of Imathia, south of the Aliakmonas. The regional unit borders on Pieria to the south, Kozani to the west, Pella to the north and Thessaloniki to the east. Imathia has a Mediterranean climate with warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters; the railway from Thessaloniki to Florina and the important railway from Thessaloniki to Athens pass through Imathia, with main stations at Platy and Alexandreia. The motorways A2 and A1 and the Greek National Roads EO1, EO4 and EO4a pass through Imathia; the Alexandreia Airport is a military airport. Imathia was named after the historic region Emathia, used by several classical authors as a synonym for Bottiaea or all of Macedon. Important ancient towns in the area of present Imathia were Beroea; as a part of the Macedonia region, it was ruled by the kingdom of Macedonia, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire and from early 15th century by the Ottoman Empire. In 1913, as a result of the Second Balkan War, it became part of Greece.
During and after the Greco-Turkish War, several refugees from Turkey settled in Imathia. Part of the prefecture of Thessaloniki, Imathia became a prefecture in 1946, Veroia was selected as its capital. Agrotikoi Orizontes Elefthero Vima Epikaira Imathias Epta Imathias Imerisia Kerkida Laos Pliroforisi Macedonika Nea Wine and Vine Museum Archaeological Museum of Veroia Byzantine Museum of Veroia Folklore Museum of the Lyceum of Hellenic Women Veria F. C. - Veroia Pontioi Veria F. C. - Veroia Naoussa F. C. - Naousa Alexandria F. C. - Alexandria Emathus List of settlements in Imathia Former toponyms in Imathia Prefecture Asyrmato Mitropolitiko Dyktio Hmathias, The local wireless network Official website Veroia 11th Public School
This is the ancient Greek name of a small island off Naples, site of the Castel dell'Ovo. Megaris was a small but populous state of ancient Greece, west of Attica and north of Corinthia, whose inhabitants were adventurous seafarers, credited with deceitful propensities; the capital, was famous for white marble and fine clay. Mount Geraneia dominates the center of the region; the island of Salamis was under the control of Megara, before it was lost to Athens in the late 7th century BCE. The province of Megaris or Megarida was one of the provinces of the East Attica Prefecture, its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Aspropyrgos, Mandra-Eidyllia and Megara. It was abolished in 2006; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia, is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece, its capital is Livadeia, its largest city is Thebes. Boeotia was a region of ancient Greece, since before the 6th century BC. Boeotia lies to the north of the eastern part of the Gulf of Corinth, it has a short coastline on the Gulf of Euboea. It bordered on Megaris in the south, Attica in the southeast, Euboea in the northeast, Opuntian Locris in the north and Phocis in the west; the main mountain ranges of Boeotia are Mount Parnassus in the west, Mount Helicon in the southwest, Cithaeron in the south and Parnitha in the east. Its longest river, the Cephissus, flows in the central part, where most of the low-lying areas of Boeotia are found. Lake Copais was a large lake in the center of Boeotia, it was drained in the 19th century. Lake Yliki is a large lake near Thebes; the earliest inhabitants of Boeotia, associated with the city of Orchomenus, were called Minyans.
Pausanias mentions that Minyans established the maritime Ionian city of Teos, occupied the islands of Lemnos and Thera. The Argonauts were sometimes referred to as Minyans. According to legend the citizens of Thebes paid an annual tribute to their king Erginus; the Minyans may have been proto-Greek speakers, but although most scholars today agree that the Mycenean Greeks descended from the Minyans of the Middle Helladic period, they believe that the progenitors and founders of Minyan culture were an autochthonous group. The early wealth and power of Boeotia is shown by the reputation and visible Mycenean remains of several of its cities Orchomenus and Thebes; the origin of the name "Boeotians" may lie in the mountain Boeon in Epirus. Some toponyms and the common Aeolic dialect indicate that the Boeotians were related to the Thessalians. Traditionally, the Boeotians are said to have occupied Thessaly, the largest fertile plain in Greece, to have been dispossessed by the north-western Thessalians two generations after the Fall of Troy.
They moved south and settled in another rich plain, while others filtered across the Aegean and settled on Lesbos and in Aeolis in Asia Minor. Others are said to have stayed in Thessaly, withdrawing into the hill country and becoming the perioikoi. Though far from Anthela, which lay on the coast of Malis south of Thessaly in the locality of Thermopylae, Boeotia was an early member of the oldest religious Amphictyonic League because her people had lived in Thessaly. Many ancient Greek legends are set in this region; the older myths took their final form during the Mycenean age when the Mycenean Greeks established themselves in Boeotia and the city of Thebes became an important centre. Many of them are related to the myths of Argos, others indicate connections with Phoenicia, where the Mycenean Greeks and the Euboean Greeks established trading posts. Important legends related to Boeotia include: Eros, worshiped by a fertility cult in Thespiae The Muses of Mount Helicon Ogyges and the Ogygian deluge Cadmus, said to have founded Thebes and brought the alphabet to Greece Dionysus and Semele Narcissus Heracles, born in Thebes The Theban Cycle, including the myths of Oedipus and the Sphinx, the Seven against Thebes Antiope and her sons Amphion and Zethus Niobe Orion, born in Boeotia and said to have fathered 50 sons with a local river god's daughters.
Many of these legends were used in plays by the tragic Greek poets, Aeschylus and Euripides: Aeschylus's Seven Against Thebes Sophocles's Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone, known as the Theban plays Euripides's Bacchae, Phoenician Women and HeraclesThey were used in lost plays such as Aeschylus's Niobe and Euripides's Antiope. Boeotia was notable for the ancient oracular shrine of Trophonius at Lebadea. Graea, an ancient city in Boeotia, is sometimes thought to be the origin of the Latin word Graecus, from which English derives the words Greece and Greeks; the major poets Hesiod and Pindar were Boeotians. Boeotia had significant political importance, owing to its position on the north shore of the Gulf of Corinth, the strategic strength of its frontiers, the ease of communication within its extensive area. On the other hand, the lack of good harbours hindered its maritime development; the importance of the legendary Minyae has been confirmed by archaeological remains. The Boeotian population entered the land from the north before the Dorian invasion.
With the exception of the Minyae, the original peoples were soon absorbed by these immigrants, the Boeotians henceforth appear as a homogeneous nation. Aeolic Greek was spoken in Boeotia. In historical times, the leading city of Boeotia was Thebes, whose central position and military strength made it a suitable capital, it was the constant ambition of the Thebans to absorb the other townships into a single state, just as Athens had annexed the Attic communities. But the outlying cities resisted this policy, only allowed the formation of a loose federation, religious. While the Boeotians, unlike the Arcadians acted as a united whole against foreign enemies, the constant struggle between the cities was a serious check on the nation's development. Boeotia hardly figures in history before the late 6th century BC. Previous to this, its people are chiefly known as the makers of a type of geometric pottery, similar to
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece; the capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065. Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits, it was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation, the earliest known civilisation in Europe. The palace of Knossos lies in Crete; the island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible. It was known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu suggesting a similar Minoan name for the island; the current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words ke-re-te, ke-re-si-jo, "Cretan".
In Ancient Greek, the name Crete first appears in Homer's Odyssey. Its etymology is unknown. One proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luwian word, *kursatta. In Latin, it became Creta; the original Arabic name of Crete was Iqrīṭiš, but after the Emirate of Crete's establishment of its new capital at ربض الخندق Rabḍ al-Ḫandaq, both the city and the island became known as Χάνδαξ or Χάνδακας, which gave Latin and Venetian Candia, from which were derived French Candie and English Candy or Candia. Under Ottoman rule, in Ottoman Turkish, Crete was called Girit. Crete is the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, it is located in the southern part of the Aegean Sea separating the Aegean from the Libyan Sea. The island has an elongated shape: it spans 260 km from east to west, is 60 km at its widest point, narrows to as little as 12 km. Crete covers an area of 8,336 km2, with a coastline of 1,046 km, it lies 160 km south of the Greek mainland. Crete is mountainous, its character is defined by a high mountain range crossing from west to east, formed by three different groups of mountains: The White Mountains or Lefka Ori 2,454 m The Idi Range (Psiloritis 35.18°N 24.82°E / 35.18.
The island has a number of gorges, such as the Samariá Gorge, Imbros Gorge, Kourtaliotiko Gorge, Ha Gorge, Platania Gorge, the Gorge of the Dead and Richtis Gorge and waterfall at Exo Mouliana in Sitia. The rivers of Crete include the Ieropotamos River, the Koiliaris, the Anapodiaris, the Almiros, the Giofyros, Megas Potamos. There are only two freshwater lakes in Crete: Lake Kournas and Lake Agia, which are both in Chania regional unit. Lake Voulismeni at the coast, at Aghios Nikolaos, was a freshwater lake but is now connected to the sea, in Lasithi. Lakes that were created by dams exist in Crete. There are three: the lake of Aposelemis Dam, the lake of Potamos Dam, the lake of Mpramiana Dam. A large number of islands and rocks hug the coast of Crete. Many are visited by tourists, some are only visited by biologists; some are environmentally protected. A small sample of the islands includes: Gramvousa the pirate island opposite the Balo lagoon Elafonisi, which commemorates a shipwreck and an Ottoman massacre Chrysi island, which hosts the largest natural Lebanon cedar forest in Europe Paximadia island where the god Apollo and the goddess Artemis were born The Venetian fort and leper colony at Spinalonga opposite the beach and shallow waters of Elounda Dionysades islands which are in an environmentally protected region together the Palm Beach Forest of Vai in the municipality of Sitia, LasithiOff the south coast, the island of Gavdos is located 26 nautical miles south of Hora Sfakion and is the southernmost point of Europe.
Crete straddles two climatic zones, the Mediterranean and the North African falling within the former. As such, the climate in Crete is Mediterranean; the atmosphere can be quite humid, depending on the proximity to the sea, while winter is mild. Snowfall is rare in the low-lying areas. While some mountain tops are snow-capped for most of the year, near the coast snow only stays on the ground for a few minutes or hours. However, a exceptional cold snap swept the island in February 2004, during which period the whole island was blanketed with snow. During the Cretan summer, average temperatures reach the high 20s-low 30s Celsius, with maxima touching the upper 30s-mid 40s; the south coast, including the Mesara Pla
Naousa The Heroic City of Naousa is a city in the Imathia regional unit of Macedonia, Greece with a population of 21,139. An industrial center since the 19th century, for most of the 20th century the history of Naousa was intertwined with that of the Lanaras family, local industrialists who, at the height of their influence, employed half of Naousa's population in their textile factories; the Lanaras family built hospitals, social centers etc. while streets of Naousa were named after family members. In the 1990s and 2000s however, most of the local factories closed, leaving Naousa with a serious unemployment problem; the municipality Naousa was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Anthemia Eirinoupoli NaousaThe municipality has an area of 425.491 km2, the municipal unit 300.891 km2. The province of Naousa was one of the provinces of Imathia, it had the same territory as the present municipality. It was abolished in 2006.
The city is situated in ancient Emathia west of the ancient Macedonian town of Mieza and the site of ancient School of Aristotle. The area, according to Herodotus, was. In the current position of the city, the Romans established the colony of Nova Augusta; the name changed through the centuries to Niagusta and Niaousa, until it became today's Naousa. It was known as "Ağustos" during Ottoman rule. In 1705, an armatolos named. In 1822, during the Greek War of Independence, the fighting in Central Macedonia against the Turks came to a dramatic finale in Naousa. Abdul Abud, the Pasha of Thessaloniki, arrived on 14 March at the head of a 16,000 strong force and 12 cannons; the Greeks defended Naousa with a force of 4,000 under Anastasios Karatasos, Dimitrios Karatasos, Aggelis Gatsos and Philippos, the son of Zafeirakis Theodosiou, under the overall command of Zafeirakis Theodosiou and Anastasios Karatasos. The Turks attempted to take the town of Naousa on 16 March, again on 18 and 19 March, without success.
On 24 March the Turks began a bombardment of the city walls. After requests for the town's surrender were dismissed by the Greeks, the Turks charged the Gate of St George on Good Friday, 31 March; the Turkish attack failed but on 6 April, after receiving fresh reinforcements of some 3,000 men, the Turkish army overcame the Greek resistance and entered the city. In an infamous incident, as the rebels were abandoning the town, some of the women left behind committed suicide by falling down a cliff over the small river Arapitsa. Zafeirakis Theodosiou was killed; the other Greek leaders retreated southwards. Abdul Abud laid; the fall and massacre of Naousa marked the end of the Greek Revolution in Central Macedonia. Naousa has a large population of Aromanians known as Vlachs, a small Romani population. Naousa is located in Northwestern Imathia, 22 kilometers north of Veroia and 90 kilometers east of Thessaloniki, the biggest city in Northern Greece; the city lies on the eastern foothills of Vermio Mountains, one of the biggest mountain ranges in Greece, west to the plain of Kambania.
Naousa is today the largest forest-owning municipality in the country being surrounded by orchards, producing peaches, apples and other fruits, while the jam brand name Naousa is well-known all over Greece. Naousa is known for its parks and for its ski resorts. Due to its location, altitude can raise by as much as 150m between the lowest and highest parts of the city, it reaches nearly 550m in the Park of Saint Nicholas. Naousa is home of one of the three female named Greek rivers, together with Neda in Peloponnesus and Erkyna in Livadia. Naousa has a humid subtropical climate in the Köppen climate classification but due to its inland location and elevation, is more continental than that found in most Greek cities, it is influenced by the mountains which rise up to the west, by the plain of Kambania to the east. On one hand, the mountains shelter the area from cold winds blowing from the north and west down the Balkan Peninsula and from hot southwest winds, creating a non-extreme microclimate.
On the other they create föhn winds, which draw in damp air from the Aegean coast. The annual precipitation of Naousa is lower than in western Greece, but it is one of the highest in the Macedonia region, measuring around 710 mm per year. Winters can be cold and Vermio mountains are home to two of the most famous skiing resorts in Greece, Seli and 3-5 Pigadia. In the city, snowfall is not uncommon and measurable amounts of snow can remain on the ground for several days. Downtown Naousa experiences milder winter temperatures than the suburbs where temperatures can drop many degrees below zero. Recent years have been a lot warmer and the 2007 European heat wave saw Naousa reaching 40°C for the first time in recent memory, with an absolute maximum of 41.3°C in July 25th. In January 8th, 2017, temperature dropped to -10.5°C, a 10-year low. Naoussa is served by Naousa railway station on the Thessaloniki-Florina line. Inaugurated in 1894, it connects the rest of Northern Greece. Since 2009, it is served by the suburban services to Edessa.
Skiing club EOS Naousas is the oldest of the city's sporting clubs, havi