Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Unleash the Beast
Unleash the Beast is Saxon's thirteenth studio album, released in 1997. It is the first studio album without Graham Oliver on guitar, replaced by Doug Scarratt, making it the first album to feature the band's current lineup. Biff Byford - vocals Doug Scarratt - guitar Paul Quinn - guitar Nibbs Carter - bass guitar Nigel Glockler - drumsProductionKalle Trapp - producer, mixing Saxon - producer Karo Studios, Germany - recording and mixing location Biff Byford - mixing "Unleash the Beast" is about a fictional story of stone gargoyles coming alive. "Circle of Light" follows a man who has an out-of-body experience and watches as surgeons bring him back to life. "The Thin Red Line" is about the Battle of Balaclava in the Crimean War. "Ministry of Fools" concerns the media and authority. "The Preacher" is about a preacher trying to convert someone to his religion. "Bloodletter" is about vampires. "Cut Out the Disease" is about treason between friends. "Absent Friends" is about the death of a close friend.
John'JJ' Jones "All Hell Breaking Loose" describes the passing of a hurricane
Live Innocence! is the second video album by the British heavy metal band Saxon, released in VHS and Laserdisc at the beginning of 1986. The tape contains footage of a concert held in Madrid, Spain in June 1985 during the Live Innocence Tour and two video clips used for the promotion of the studio album Innocence Is No Excuse.< "Back on the Streets" "Dallas 1 PM" "Devil Rides Out" "Everybody Up" "A Little Bit of What You Fancy" "Broken Heroes" "Play It Loud" "Shout It Out" "Crusader" "Medley" "Rockin' Again" Biff Byford - vocals Graham Oliver - guitar Paul Quinn - guitar Steve Dawson - bass Nigel Glockler - drumsProductionNoel Oliver - director James Elwart - producer Simon Hanhart - sound producer Chris Gabrin - director of video clips Henrietta Roper - producer of video clips
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czech "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1964, Kenneth Anger's experimental short film, Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
In 1964, The Moody Blues producer, Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates Queen's similar "Bohemian Rhapsody" vid
Forever Free (Saxon album)
Forever Free is the eleventh studio album by heavy metal band Saxon released in 1992. A UK version of the album features a cover of a biker Space Marine from the Warhammer 40,000 tabletop wargame. In 2013, Demon Music Group reissued the album digitally and on CD in the UK; this version included two bonus tracks taken from their 1996 double live album, The Eagle Has Landed – Part II. SaxonBiff Byford - vocals Paul Quinn - guitar Graham Oliver - guitar Nibbs Carter - bass guitar Nigel Glockler - drumsAdditional musiciansGigi Skokan, Nasco - programming, keyboardsProductionBiff Byford - producer Herwig Ursin - producer Rainer Hänsel - audio engineer Hey You Studios, Vienna - recording location Gems Studios Boston, England - recording location Mastered at Hey You Production, L. A. Studio City, Blairwoodroad - mastering location
Wheels of Steel
Wheels of Steel is the second studio album by the English heavy metal band Saxon. It was released in 1980 and reached Gold status in the UK. "747" is about a power cut that forced planes in New York to remain in ascent in 1965 with the power outage provoking a Scandinavian flight to detour to Kennedy airport in the dark. The title track is featured in the video games Grand Theft Auto: Episodes from Liberty City and Brütal Legend, it has been covered by L. A. Guns on their album Rips the Covers Off and bears a strong resemblance to the outro riff of "Rock'n' Roll Doctor" by Black Sabbath, although according to guitarist Graham Oliver the song was inspired by the Ted Nugent song "Cat Scratch Fever"; the album received positive reviews by critics and is today regarded as being a classic metal album helping to define the genre. Eduardo Rivadavia of AllMusic lists the album as "topping the heap of essential Saxon albums, pretty much hand in hand with its immediate successors, Strong Arm of the Law and Denim and Leather... setting the template for the band's most successful efforts".
Canadian reviewer Martin Popoff regards Wheels of Steel as a "qualified classic" and "one of two or three of building blocks". Sputnikmusic's Mike Stagno praises "the solid, consistent rhythms that produce the riffy, yet accessible tunes" and Biff Byford's "powerful singing", which make Wheels of Steel "perhaps not one of metal's best albums", but "still a worthwhile album."The album went on to achieve Gold status in the UK. It was their first album to enter the UK Albums Chart, peaking at #5, is their highest-charting album in the UK Albums Chart to date. All tracks written by Biff Byford, Paul Quinn, Graham Oliver, Steve Dawson and Pete Gill.2009 remaster bonus tracks 13-17 recorded live at Donington, 1980. SaxonBiff Byford - vocals Graham Oliver - guitar Paul Quinn - guitar Steve Dawson - bass guitar Pete Gill - drumsProductionPete Hinton - producer Will Reid Dick - engineer
Thunderbolt (Saxon album)
Thunderbolt is the twenty-second studio album by British heavy metal band Saxon, released on 2 February 2018. On 14 September 2016, the band revealed they had begun working on a new album through their Facebook account. A month frontman Biff Byford revealed they had written a song dedicated to Motörhead called "They Played Rock n Roll", following the death of frontman Lemmy on 28 December 2015, which ended the band's 40-year history; the song is stylistically similar and referenced their touring companionship on the 1979/1980 "Bomber" tour. In an interview alongside Airbourne frontman Joel O'Keeffe at 2017's Metal Hammer Golden Gods Awards, Byford confirmed that the album's title would be Thunderbolt and that the inspiration for it came from the gods of Greek mythology. Further details were revealed on various stops on their autumn tour of the Canada. In an interview at their Newton, New Jersey show on 22 September, he revealed that he'd finished recording his vocals on 20 September. In an interview at their Montreal, Canada show on 4 October, Byford revealed that long-time producer Andy Sneap had finished mixing the album the previous day and mentioned a release date of 21 January 2018.
On 7 November 2017, the band confirmed the title and revealed the release date of 2 February 2018, track list, artwork and a short UK/European tour alongside Diamond Head, with Magnum and Rock Goddess supporting on select UK dates. On 30 November 2017, the new video "Thunderbolt" was released. On 19 September 2018, the "Predator" video was released. All music composed by Doug Scarratt, Nigel Glockler, Paul Quinn, Nibbs Carter. Biff Byford – vocals Paul Quinn – guitars Doug Scarratt – guitars Nibbs Carter – bass Nigel Glockler – drumsAdditional MusiciansSeb Byford – backing vocals on "Thunderbolt" and "Speed Merchants" Tom Witts – backing vocals on "Thunderbolt" and "Speed Merchants" Caleb Quaye – backing vocals on "Thunderbolt" and "Speed Merchants" Corvin Bahn – keyboards on "Nosferatu" Johan Hegg – harsh vocals on "Predator"ProductionBilly Lee – photography Steph Byford – artwork Gestaltungskommando Buntmetall – layout, design Paul Raymond Gregory – cover art Andy Sneap – producer, mixing