Nick Rivera Caminero, known by the stage name Nicky Jam, is a singer and songwriter. He is best known for the song El Perdón and Hasta el Amanecer, Rivera was born to a Puerto Rican father and a Dominican mother. He moved with his family to Barrio Obrero in Puerto Rico when he was ten years old and he has been in reggaeton since his youth. The name Nicky Jam was jokingly given to Rivera by a homeless man, riveras family was low-income and as a minor he performed illegal work in a grocery store in order to help support them, improvising while bagging groceries. One day a music executive noticed his talent and signed him, the album was not successful, but it did gain him recognition in the music industry, and warranted the attention of some music producers such as DJ Joe, DJ Playero and DJ Chiklin. After his first album, he continued working in the music industry, Daddy Yankee asked Rivera to work with him. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, they became friends and formed the unofficial Daddy Yankee and Nicky Jam duo and they created many commercially successful singles including Sabanas Blancas, Guayando and many others.
They worked together on the album Los Super Amigos in 2000, in 2001, Daddy Yankee released El Cartel II, Los Cangris, which Rivera took a small part in. Due to personal issues, they ended their friendship in 2004, Rivera continued working as a solo artist and created many commercially successful singles. In 2012, after years of splitting apart, they both recorded El Party Me Llama from the album Prestige and confirmed they had both settled their disagreements from years prior. Rivera released Haciendo Escante in 2001, and in 2004 released Vida Escante and he and Daddy Yankee separated due to many arguments and conflicts between the two thus resulting in a rivalry. His most recent studio album is The Black Carpet, released in 2007 and he released the successful singles Tu Primera Vez, Piensas en Mi, Juegos Prohibidos and, most notably, Voy A Beber. He worked with Daddy Yankee again, after eight years of not working together, Nicky Jam has appeared in many reggaeton albums, currently holding the record for most appearances on various artist albums, which was formerly held by Daddy Yankee.
His most recent album appearance is with Daddy Yankees album Prestige, in 2015, Nicky Jam won a Latin Grammy Award for Best Urban Performance. Hasta el Amanecer was released on January 15,2016 on U. S. radios, billboard called the song a sultry, sexy reggaetón track that contains the singers trademark catchy melodic hooks. Still a hopeless romantic, here Jam pines after a girl he met at the laundromat, the music video was viewed over 53 million times on YouTube after three weeks. Studio albums 1994. Distinto A Los Demás 2001, Haciendo Escante 2003, Salón de La Fama 2004, Vida Escante 2005, Vida Escante, Special Edition 2007, The Black Carpet 2017, Fenix Official website
Willard Carroll Will Smith Jr. is an American actor, producer and songwriter. In April 2007, Newsweek called him the most powerful actor in Hollywood, Smith has been nominated for five Golden Globe Awards and two Academy Awards, and has won four Grammy Awards. In the late 1980s, Smith achieved modest fame as a rapper under the name The Fresh Prince, in 1990, his popularity increased dramatically when he starred in the popular NBC television series The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, which ran for six seasons until 1996. After the series ended, Smith transitioned from television to film, Smith has been ranked as the most bankable star worldwide by Forbes. As of 2016, his films have grossed $7.5 billion at the box office. For his performances as boxer Muhammad Ali in Ali and stockbroker Chris Gardner in The Pursuit of Happyness, Smith received nominations for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Willard Carroll Smith Jr. was born on September 15,1968 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Caroline, a Philadelphia school board administrator and he grew up in West Philadelphias Wynnefield neighborhood, and was raised Baptist.
He has three siblings, sister Pamela, who is four years older, and twins Harry and Ellen, Smith attended Our Lady of Lourdes, a private Catholic elementary school in Philadelphia. His parents separated when he was 13, but did not actually divorce until around 2000, though widely reported, it is untrue that Smith turned down a scholarship to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he never applied to college because he wanted to rap. Smith says he was admitted to a program at MIT for high school students. According to Smith, My mother, who worked for the School Board of Philadelphia, had a friend who was the officer at MIT. I had pretty high SAT scores and they needed black kids, but I had no intention of going to college. The trio was known for performing humorous, radio-friendly songs, most notably Parents Just Dont Understand and they gained critical acclaim and won the first Grammy awarded in the Rap category. Smith spent money freely around 1988 and 1989 and underpaid his income taxes, the Internal Revenue Service eventually assessed a $2.8 million tax debt against Smith, took many of his possessions, and garnished his income.
Smith was nearly bankrupt in 1990, when the NBC television network signed him to a contract and built a sitcom, The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, the show was successful and began his acting career. Will Smith set for himself the goal of becoming the biggest movie star in the world, Smiths first major roles were in the drama Six Degrees of Separation and the action film Bad Boys in which he starred opposite Martin Lawrence. In 1996, Smith starred as part of an ensemble cast in Roland Emmerichs Independence Day, the film was a massive blockbuster, becoming the second highest-grossing film in history at the time and establishing Smith as a prime box office draw. In the summer of 1997 he starred alongside Tommy Lee Jones in the summer hit Men in Black playing Agent J, in 1998, Smith starred with Gene Hackman in Enemy of the State
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship.
On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, literature and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.
The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri
His main playing position is as an attacking midfielder or forward. He won the FIFA World Player of the Year award in 2004 and 2005, renowned for his technique, dribbling, overhead kicks, no-look passes and free kicks, Ronaldinho is regarded to be one of the best players of his generation. Ronaldo went by his first name upon his move to Europe, thereby allowing Ronaldinho to drop the Gaúcho, Ronaldinho has played 97 matches and scored 33 goals for the Brazil national team. He was a part of the 2002 FIFA World Cup-winning team in Korea and Japan, starring alongside Ronaldo and Rivaldo in an attacking trio. At club level, Ronaldinho played first for the Brazilian club Grêmio before spending the bulk of his career with European clubs Paris Saint-Germain, Barcelona and he returned to Brazil to play for Flamengo and Atlético Mineiro before moving to Mexico to play for Querétaro. Ronaldinho was named in the FIFA100, a list of the worlds greatest living players compiled by Pelé, Ronaldo de Assis Moreira was born 21 March 1980 in the city of Porto Alegre, the state capital of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
His mother, Dona Miguelina Elói Assis dos Santos, is a former salesperson who studied to become a nurse and his father, João de Assis Moreira, was a shipyard worker and footballer for local club Esporte Clube Cruzeiro. He suffered a heart attack in the family swimming pool when Ronaldo was eight. Today, Roberto acts as his manager, while his sister Deisi works as his press coordinator. Ronaldos football skills began to blossom at the age of eight, and he was first given the nickname Ronaldinho because he was often the youngest and he developed an interest in futsal and beach football, which expanded to organized football. His first brush with the media came at the age of 13, Ronaldinho was identified as a rising star at the 1997 U-17 World Championship in Egypt, in which he scored two goals on penalty kicks. Growing up, his idols included the World Cup winning stars, Diego Maradona, Romário, Ronaldinho is the father of a son, João, born on 25 February 2005 to Brazilian dancer Janaína Mendes and named after his late father.
He gained Spanish citizenship in 2007, Ronaldinhos career began with the Grêmio youth squad. He made his senior debut during the 1998 Copa Libertadores. Ronaldinho achieved further success with Grêmio, winning the inaugural Copa Sul-Minas and he considered playing on loan with Scottish Premier League side St Mirren, which never happened due to his involvement in a fake passport scandal in Brazil. In 2001, Ronaldinho signed a contract with French club Paris Saint-Germain in a €5 million transfer. Upon his arrival in Paris, Ronaldinho was given the number 21 shirt and inserted into a lineup that included fellow Brazilian Aloísio, midfielder Jay-Jay Okocha, Ronaldinho made his league debut for the club on 4 August 2001, appearing as a substitute in a 1–1 draw with Auxerre. Ronaldinho spent the majority of the first few months of the 2001–02 season alternated between the bench and starters role
2018 FIFA World Cup
The 2018 FIFA World Cup will be the 21st FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament contested by the mens national teams of the member associations of FIFA. It is scheduled to take place in Russia from 14 June to 15 July 2018, the final tournament will involve 32 national teams, which include 31 teams determined through qualifying competitions and the automatically qualified host team. A total of 64 matches will be played in 12 venues located in 11 cities, the final will take place on 15 July in Moscow at the Luzhniki Stadium. The winners will qualify for the 2021 FIFA Confederations Cup, the bidding procedure to host the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cups began in January 2009, and national associations had until 2 February 2009 to register their interest. During the bidding process, the three remaining non-UEFA nations gradually withdrew from the 2018 bids, and the UEFA nations were thus ruled out of the 2022 bid. As such, there were four bids for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, Russia, Netherlands/Belgium.
The twenty-two-member FIFA Executive Committee convened in Zürich on 2 December 2010 to vote to select the hosts of both tournaments, Russia won the right to be the 2018 host in the second round of voting. The Spain/Portugal bid came second, and that from Belgium/Netherlands third, Englands bid to host its second tournament fell at the first hurdle. For the branding, a typeface called Dusha was created by Portuguese design agency Brandia Central in 2014, apart from Russia, who qualified automatically for the tournament as the hosts, all FIFA member associations were eligible to enter the qualification process. On 12 March 2015, prior to the start of qualification, Indonesia were suspended and expelled before playing a single qualifying match, as part of punishment for government interference in the Football Association of Indonesia. The qualifying draw took place at the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, qualifying matches for AFC and CONCACAF started in March 2015, prior to the qualifying draw.
The allocation of slots for each confederation was decided to be unchanged by the FIFA Executive Committee on 30 May 2015 in Zürich, on 13 May 2016, Gibraltar and Kosovo became FIFA members and eligible for the World Cup qualifying. In October 2013, UEFA President Michel Platini proposed that the World Cup finals should be expanded from 32 to 40 teams starting from 2018, the format would have been the same, but in groups of five instead of four. This was in response to FIFA President Sepp Blatters comments that Africa and Asia deserved more spots in the World Cup finals at the expense of European and South American teams. Russia proposed the following host cities, Kazan, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov-on-Don, Saint Petersburg, Saransk, Volgograd and Yekaterinburg. All the cities are in or just outside European Russia to reduce time for the teams in the huge country. The bid evaluation report stated, The Russian bid proposes 13 host cities and 16 stadiums, three of the 16 stadiums would be renovated, and 13 would be newly constructed.
In October 2011 Russia decreased the number of stadiums from 16 to 14, the final choice of host cities was announced on 29 September 2012
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performers music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has many roles during the recording process, the roles of a producer vary. The producer may perform these roles himself, or help select the engineer, the producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record companies budget. A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording. Producers often take on an entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, contracts. In the 2010s, the industry has two kinds of producers with different roles, executive producer and music producer. Executive producers oversee project finances while music producers oversee the process of recording songs or albums. In most cases the producer is a competent arranger, composer. The producer will liaise with the engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording.
Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record, indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation actually is music director. The music producers job is to create and mold a piece of music, at the beginning of record industry, producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1950s and 1960s due to technological developments, the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously, all of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio and the performance had to be recorded. As well, for a song that used 20 instruments, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. Examples include the rock sound effects of the 1960s, e. g. playing back the sound of recorded instruments backwards or clanging the tape to produce unique sound effects.
These new instruments were electric or electronic, and thus they used instrument amplifiers, new technologies like multitracking changed the goal of recording, A producer could blend together multiple takes and edit together different sections to create the desired sound. For example, in jazz fusion Bandleader-composer Miles Davis album Bitches Brew, producers like Phil Spector and George Martin were soon creating recordings that were, in practical terms, almost impossible to realise in live performance. Producers became creative figures in the studio, other examples of such engineers includes Joe Meek, Teo Macero, Brian Wilson, and Biddu
By the estimation in year 2000, there were between 1,584,000 and 1,733,600 Albanians in Kosovo or 88% of population, as of today their population is 92, 93%. They speak Gheg Albanian, more specifically the Northwestern and Northeastern Gheg variants, Kosovar Albanians are ethnic Albanians with ancestry or descent in the region, regardless of whether they live in Kosovo. Kosovo Albanians belong to the ethnic Albanian sub-group of Ghegs, who inhabit the north of Albania, north of the Shkumbin river, southern Serbia, toponyms such as Arbanaška and Đjake shows an Albanian presence in the Toplica and Southern Morava regions since the Late Middle Ages. The migrating parts of tribes maintained a tribal outlook and household structure, historian Noel Malcolm has criticized the Urošević study, as it focused on Eastern Kosovo, while omitting Western Kosovo to reach those conclusions. Kosovo was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1455 to 1912, at first as part of the eyalet of Rumelia, during this time, Islam was introduced to the population.
Today, Sunni Islam is the predominant religion of Kosovo Albanians, the Ottoman term Arnavudluk meaning Albania was used in Ottoman state records for areas such as southern Serbia and Kosovo. A large number of Albanians alongside smaller numbers of urban Turks were expelled and/or fled from what is now contemporary southern Serbia during the Serbian–Ottoman War. Many settled in Kosovo, where they and their descendants are known as muhaxhir, during the late Ottoman period, ethno-national Albanian identity as expressed in contemporary times did not exist amongst the wider Kosovo Albanian-speaking population. Instead collective identities were based upon either socio-professional, socio-economic, hundreds of Albanian leaders gathered in Prizren and opposed the Serbian and Montenegrin jurisdiction. Serbia complained to the Western Powers that the territories were not being held because the Ottomans were hesitating to do that. Western Powers put pressure to the Ottomans and in 1881, the Ottoman Army started the fighting against Albanians, the Prizren League created a Provisional Government with a President, Prime Minister and Ministries of War and Foreign Ministry.
After three years of war, the Albanians were defeated, many of the leaders were executed and imprisoned. In 1910, an Albanian uprising spread from Pristina and lasted until the Ottoman Sultans visit to Kosovo in June 1911, the aim of the League of Prizren was to unite the four Albanian-inhabited Vilayets by merging the majority of Albanian inhabitants within the Ottoman Empire into one Albanian vilayet. Colonist Serb families moved into Kosovo, while the Albanian population was decreased, as a result, the proportion of Albanians in Kosovo declined from 75 percent at the time of the invasion to slightly more than 65% percent by 1941. The 1918–1929 period under the Kingdom of the Serbs, Kosovo was split into four counties—three being a part of official Serbia, Zvečan, Kosovo and southern Metohija, and one in Montenegro, northern Metohija. However, the new system since 26 April 1922 split Kosovo among three Regions in the Kingdom, Kosovo and Zeta. In 1929 the Kingdom was transformed into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the territories of Kosovo were split among the Banate of Zeta, the Banate of Morava and the Banate of Vardar.
The Kingdom lasted until the World War II Axis invasion of April 1941, prior to the surrender of Fascist Italy in 1943, the German forces took over direct control of the region
Dutch Top 40
The Dutch Top 40 is a weekly music chart compiled by Stichting Nederlandse Top 40. It started as a program titled Veronica Top 40, on the offshore station Radio Veronica in 1965. It remained The Veronica Top 40 until 1974, when the station was forced to stop broadcasting, joost den Draaijer was the initiator of the top 40 in the Netherlands. On January 2,1965, the first Top 40 was compiled, in 1974, the Stichting Nederlandse Top 40 bought the Top 40 and named it De Nederlandse Top 40. Currently, Radio 538 is airing the Dutch Top 40 on radio, jeroen Nieuwenhuize presents the program every Friday afternoon from 14.00 until 18.00. As of February 2014 the chart is a combination of airplay, the more often a song gets played on the radio, the higher its place in the Top 40. For year end chart positions, #1 position gets 40 points and this way you just count up all numbers and sort them from most points till least points. There is a set of rules, of some have existed since 1972. Some of these have been criticised as a hindrance, singles must remain minimal two weeks in the chart.
If a single officially no longer belongs in the top 40, Missy Elliotts Lose Control, Remained two weeks on #40 in the chart, because it did not sell enough and wasnt played enough on the radio. Singles that highly change position upwards are noted as having superstip status and these singles are not allowed to fall down in chart position the following week. Recent example, Guus Meeuwis Ik Wil Dat Ons Land Juicht, The song entered the chart at #11, the following week it was meant to drop in chart position, but remained on the #5 position. The following two weeks, it went from #5 to #39, because of this rule, this single is the biggest fall down in the Dutch Top 40. However this is not always the case, sometimes singles with a superstip do drop for some reason Re-entry only takes place when the single re-enters within the top 30, if differently, these re-entried singles are ignored. Example, Racoon recently re-entered the Dutch Top 40 at #31 though with the song Love You More, singles with double A-side are noted separately in the top 40, due the different number of airplay the two songs get.
Example, Robbie Williams first single off his 2005 album Intensive Care was Tripping with the B-side being Make Me Pure, while Tripping topped the chart by peaking at #1, Make Me Pure peaked at #15 in the Top 40. This is a listing of significant achievements and milestones based upon the Dutch Top 40 charts. & Pharrell Williams — Blurred Lines Avicii — Wake Me Up Clean Bandit featuring Jess Glynne — Rather Be OMI — Cheerleader 10 weeks Heintje — Ich bau dir ein Schloß4 Non Blondes — Whats Up