The ARIA Charts are the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association. The charts are a record of the highest selling albums in various genres in Australia. ARIA became the official Australian music chart in June 1988, succeeding the Kent Music Report, Australia's national charts since 1974; the Go-Set charts were Australia's first national singles and albums charts published from 5 October 1966 until 24 August 1974. Succeeding Go-Set, the Kent Music Report began issuing the national top 100 charts in Australia from May 1974; the compiler, David Kent published Australia's national charts from 1940–1974 in a retrospective fashion using state based data. In mid 1983, the Australian Recording Industry Association commenced licensing the Kent Music Report chart; the first printed national top 50 chart available in record stores, branded the Countdown chart, was dated the week ending 10 July 1983. ARIA began compiling its own charts in-house from the chart survey dated 13 June 1988, corresponding with the printed top 50 chart dated week ending 26 June 1988.
Various artists compilation albums were included in the albums chart, as they had been on the Kent Report chart, until 2 July 1989, when a separate Compilations chart was created. The ARIA Report, detailing the top 100 singles and albums charts, was first available via subscription in January 1990; the printed top 50 chart ceased publication in June 1998, but resumed publication in the year. The printed top 50 chart again ceased publication at the end of 2000; the ARIA charts are based on data collected from digital retailers in Australia. Data of physical sales come from retailers such as Sanity and JB Hi-Fi, while data of digital sales come from online retailers such as iTunes. Since 17 February 1997, all physical sales data contributing towards the chart has been recorded electronically at point of sale. In March 1991, "Do the Bartman" by The Simpsons was the first single to reach #1 in Australia, not available on 7 inch vinyl, but cassingle only. Starting from 8 October 2006, due to low physical single sales at the time, the ARIA singles chart included online data as well as physical sales.
In 2006, it was announced that the Brazin retailing group, comprising major retailers HMV, Sanity and Virgin music/DVD stores would no longer contribute sales data to the ARIA charts. However, after a five-month absence, Brazin re-commenced contributing sales figures to the ARIA Charts on 26 November 2006; the ARIA website publishes the top 50 singles and albums charts, top 40 digital tracks chart, top 20 dance singles chart. The ARIA Report is available via paid e-mail subscription each week; these reports are uploaded to the Pandora Archive periodically. On 5 February 2006, the ARIA Chart Show was a radio program launched on the Nova network and broadcast throughout Australia, playing the official ARIA top 50 singles; the live music program was hosted by Jabba each Sunday afternoon at 3:00pm. From 1 June 2013 to 3 September 2016, the Take 40 Australia radio program broadcast the official ARIA top 40 singles on Saturday afternoons from 2:00 pm to 6:00 pm, on each state's Hit Network-owned radio station.
The show was aired before the top 50 chart, dated for the following Monday, is published on the ARIA website at 6:00 pm. The charts were published online at 6:00 pm each Sunday. ARIA Top 100 Singles Chart ARIA Top 100 Albums Chart ARIA Top 100 Physical Albums Chart ARIA Top 50 Digital Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Digital Albums Chart ARIA Top 50 Streaming Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Club Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Catalogue Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Urban Singles Chart ARIA Top 40 Urban Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Country Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Music DVDs Chart ARIA Top 25 Dance Singles Chart ARIA Top 25 Dance Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Australian Artist Singles Chart ARIA Top 20 Australian Artist Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Compilation Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Jazz & Blues Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Classical/Crossover Albums Chart ARIA Top 10 Core Classical Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Hitseekers Singles Chart ARIA Top 20 Hitseekers Albums Chart Yearly Top 100 End of Year charts profiling the year in music End of Decade Top 100 charts profiling the decade in music Pre-2000: 2000 to present: 2006 to present: Pre-2000: 2000 to present: 2016 to present: Music of Australia List of Australian chart achievements and milestones Official website Top 50 chart archives from June 1988 at australian-charts.com Top 100 chart archives from January 2001 at Pandora Archive
Australian Recording Industry Association
The Australian Recording Industry Association is a trade group representing the Australian recording industry, established in 1983 by six major record companies, EMI, Festival, CBS, RCA, WEA and Universal replacing the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers, formed in 1956. It oversees the collection and distribution of music licenses and royalties; the association has more than 100 members, including small labels run by one to five people, medium size organisations and large companies with international affiliates. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. In 1956, the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers was formed by Australia's major record companies, it was replaced in 1983 by the Australian Recording Industry Association, established by the six major record companies operating in Australia, EMI, Festival Records, CBS, RCA, WEA and Polygram.
It included smaller record companies representing independent acts/labels and has over 100 members. By 1997, the six major labels provided 90% of all recordings made in Australia. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. Australian TV pop music show Countdown presented its own annual awards ceremony, Countdown Music and Video Awards, co-produced by Carolyn James during 1981–1984 in collaboration with ARIA. ARIA provided peer voting for some awards, while Countdown provided coupons in the related Countdown Magazine for viewers to vote for populist awards. At the 1985 Countdown awards ceremony, held on 14 April 1986, fans of INXS and Uncanny X-Men scuffled during the broadcast and as a result ARIA decided to hold their own awards. Since 2 March 1987, ARIA administered its own peer-voted ARIA Music Awards, to "recognise excellence and innovation in all genres of Australian music" with an annual ceremony.
Included in the same awards ceremonies, it established the ARIA Hall of Fame in 1988 and has held separate annual ceremonies since 2005. The ARIA Hall of Fame "honours Australian musicians' achievements have had a significant impact in Australia or around the world". In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association announced its own legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 February 2005, the homes of two Sharman Networks executives and the offices of Sharman Networks in Australia were raided under a court order by ARIA to gather evidence for the trial. In 2006, ARIA formed sponsorship deals with Motorola and Nova and changed the appearance and conduct of the charting. Motorola took naming-rights sponsorship seeing the charts referred to in the media as the Motorola ARIA Charts. ARIA, have commented that as part of the same marketing printed charts would be reintroduced into media retailing shops and their website would be redesigned.
As part of the deal Nova began broadcasting the charted singles in reverse order on a Sunday afternoon show before it was released on the ARIA charts website. The ARIA Charts is the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association; the charts are a record of albums in various genres. All charts are compiled from data of both digital sales from retailers in Australia. A music single or album qualifies for a platinum certification if it exceeds 70,000 copies shipped to retailers and a gold certification for 35,000 copies shipped; the diamond certification was created for albums in November 2015 to mark 500,000 sales/shipments. For music DVDs, a gold accreditation represented 7,500 copies shipped, with a platinum accreditation representing 15,000 units shipped. Prior to ARIA taking on the role of certification authority in 1983, the music industry used the following certification levels: The ARIA No. 1 Chart Awards were established in 2002 to recognise Australian recording artists, who reached number one on the ARIA albums and music DVDs charts.
The ARIA Music Awards is an annual series of awards nights celebrating the Australian music industry. The event has been held annually since 1987. Like most recording industry associations, ARIA has been criticised for fighting copyright infringement matters aggressively, although in Australia this has taken the form of aggressive advertising campaigns in cinemas directly preceding movies; this criticism is stauncher in Australia due to the absence of an equivalent Digital Millennium Copyright Act or state crimes acts which establish copyright infringement as a crime. In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association took legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 Febr
Bernard Patrick "Doc" Neeson OAM was an Australian singer-songwriter and musician. He was the front man for the hard rock band The Angels from its formation in February 1976 to their disbandment in December 1999. For the group Neeson was the main lyricist with brothers and Rick Brewster, as the music composers, their top 20 studio albums on the Australian Kent Music Report Albums Chart are Face to Face, No Exit, Dark Room, Night Attack, Watch the Red, Two Minute Warning and Howling. Their number-one album, Beyond Salvation, on the ARIA Albums Chart appeared in February 1990 and was followed by another top 20 album, Red Back Fever; the group's top 20 singles on the related Australian charts are "No Secrets", "Into the Heat", "Never so Live", "We Gotta Get out of This Place", "Am I Ever Gonna See Your Face Again", "Let the Night Roll On" and "Dogs Are Talking". On 20 October 1998, at the ARIA Awards the group were inducted into the Hall of Fame. In early December 1999, three weeks prior to his performance at the Tour of Duty - Concert for the Troops in East Timor, Neeson had a car accident on the Sydney M4 motorway.
On 10 January 2013, Neeson's Facebook page announced that he had been diagnosed with a brain tumour and would undergo immediate treatment. He died of the tumour on 4 June 2014, aged 67. Bernard Patrick Neeson was born on 4 January 1947 in Northern Ireland, his father, Bernard James Neeson, was a British Army soldier, his mother was Kathleen née Corrigan. Neeson was the eldest of six children, they were raised as Catholics although the family lived in a predominantly Protestant area of Belfast. He attended boarding school at Terenure College in Dublin; the family emigrated to Adelaide aboard SS Strathnaver. They settled in the suburb of Elizabeth and he attended St Paul's College; as a teenager he had promoted dances and in mid-1967 he advised an Adelaide group, Down the Line: "Y'know, you should change the name to something short and punchy like Zoot". After completing secondary education, Neeson entered an Adelaide teachers college, "my first career option was to become a teacher never thought of having a career as a musician".
Before completing his course Neeson was conscripted for national service into the Australian army during the Vietnam War. He served as an education corps sergeant in New Guinea for eighteen months in the late 1960s, he subsequently attended Flinders University, completed degrees in film and drama, intended to become a film director. While a student at Flinders University, Neeson as'Doc Talbot' became a member of an acoustic blues group, Moonshine Jug and String Band, on vocals and guitar; that group had started in Adelaide in 1970 with brothers, Rick Brewster on guitar, washboard and backing vocals. Neeson had been a member of The Innocents and when he joined the Brewsters they had Craig Holden on guitar, Bob Petchell on banjo, Pete Thorpe on bass guitar and backing vocals. Moonshine Jug and String Band recorded a four-track extended play, Keep You on the Move, in 1973, which had local success on the Adelaide charts, rising to No. 5. They followed in the next year, their material appeared on the Sphere Organization label, owned by the group's manager, John Woodruff.
Another four-track EP, Moonshine Jug and String Band, appeared in 1974. By 1974 the group had discarded their acoustic blues sound and instrumentation to become The Keystone Angels playing electric instruments for 1950s style rock and roll, R&B on the pub circuit; the line-up with Doc Neeson on guitar and vocals were: John Brewster on lead vocals and guitar. During that year they backed Chuck Berry, on his Australian tour. In late January 1975 the group performed at the final Sunbury Pop Festival, where they received a standing ovation. During that year they issued a lone single, "Keep on Dancing", on Sphere, which had Neeson on guitar while John provided lead vocals; the Keystone Angels supported AC/DC on a regional tour of South Australia and were signed to the group's label, Albert Productions. In February 1976 The Keystone Angels relocated to Sydney, they had "toughened sound into a unique brand of beefy hard rock". Upon the advice of in-house producers, Vanda & Young, they shortened their name to The Angels.
The line-up, with Neeson as lead singer, bass guitarist and front man, was the Brewster brothers and King. Their debut single, "Am I Ever Gonna See Your Face Again", was issued in March 1976 on EMI/Albert; the track was composed by Neeson with the Brewsters, Neeson described writing the lyrics, which had started as a "ballad about connecting with loss" after a university mate's girlfriend had been killed in a motorbike accident. In 1978 an audience in Mt Isa responded to the question posed in the song's title with "no way, get fucked, fuck off". Neeson described how this response was copied at other venues and became an important part of their performances: "...when the band first started, we were trying to write songs for Australian audiences. In August King was replaced by Graham "Buzz" Bidstrup on drums; the group's choice for lead vocals was either Neeson's "gruff shout" or John Brewster's "clear tones". Neeson recalled "Our drummer, Buzz Bidstrup, said
The Angels (Australian band)
The Angels are an Australian rock band which formed in Taperoo, a small beach side suburb in Adelaide in 1974 as The Keystone Angels by John Brewster on rhythm guitar and vocals, his brother Rick Brewster on lead guitar and vocals, Bernard "Doc" Neeson on lead vocals and guitar. They were joined by Graham "Buzz" Bidstrup on drums and vocals, Chris Bailey on bass guitar and vocals. In 1981 Bidstrup was replaced on drums by Brent Eccles, their studio albums on the Kent Music Report Albums Chart top 10 are No Exit, Dark Room, Night Attack, Two Minute Warning and Beyond Salvation. Their top 20 singles are "No Secrets", "Into the Heat", "We Gotta Get out of This Place", "Am I Ever Gonna See Your Face Again", "Let the Night Roll On" and "Dogs Are Talking". In the international market, to avoid legal problems with named acts, their records have been released under the names, Angel City and The Angels from Angel City; the Angels have been cited by Guns N' Roses, Seattle grunge bands Pearl Jam and Nirvana, as having influenced their music.
Neeson left the group in 1999 due to spinal injuries sustained in a car accident and they disbanded in the following year. Subsequently, competing versions of the group performed using the Angels name, until April 2008 when the original 1970s line-up reformed for a series of tours until 2011, when Neeson left again. Alternative versions continued with new members; the Angels were inducted into the ARIA Hall of Fame in October 1998 with the line-up of Bailey and Rick Brewster and Neeson. Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, declared that "The Angels had a profound effect on the Australian live music scene of the late 1970s/early 1980s. Helped redefine the Australian pub rock tradition... brand of no-frills, hard-driving boogie rock attracted pub goers in unprecedented numbers. In turn, The Angels' shows raised the standard expected of live music. After 20 years on the road, the band showed little sign of easing up on the hard rock fever." Chris Bailey died on 4 April 2013, aged 62, after being diagnosed with throat cancer.
Doc Neeson died on 4 June 2014, aged 67, of a brain tumour. In November 1970 future member of the Angels, John Brewster on guitar, harp, backing vocals and washboard, his brother Rick on violin, jug, backing vocals and percussion formed the Moonshine Jug and String Band, an acoustic ensemble, in Adelaide. Fellow members were Craig Holden on guitar, Bob Petchell on banjo and harp, Pete Thorpe on tea chest bass, bass guitar, wash tub and backing vocals. In 1971 they were joined by Belfast-born immigrant, Bernard "Doc" Neeson, on guitar and lead vocals, an arts student and former Army sergeant, who performed locally as Doc Talbot; the folk band gigged at local university cafes. Holden left in 1972. In 1973 Spencer Tregloan joined Moonshine Jug and String Band on banjo, jug and backing vocals, they released their debut four-track extended play, Keep You on the Move, which made the top 5 in Adelaide. It contained a cover version of Canned Heat's "On the Road Again" and three original tracks: one written by John, one by John and Rick, one by Neeson.
It was followed in 1974 by a single, "That's All Right with Me". Both releases were on the Sphere Organisation label owned by John Woodruff, who became the Angels' talent manager for two decades. In 2015 the group were inducted into the Adelaide Music Collective Hall of Fame. In mid-1974 Moonshine Jug and String Band changed their name to the Keystone Angels, with the line up of John Brewster on lead vocals and bass guitar, Rick on guitar, Neeson on bass guitar and vocals, Peter Christopolous on drums and Laurie Lever on keyboards, they began playing 1950s rock and roll on the pub circuit. Rick recalled "There was a cult following with The Jug Band but if we wanted any real success we had to start an electric band. So we threw ourselves in the deep end. I went from playing washboard to playing lead guitar. I hadn't played an electric guitar before then!"During July and August 1974 they ran a series of ads in Go-Set, the national teen pop music magazine, announcing that "The Keystone Angles are coming".
Lever left during that year. In January 1975 the remaining members performed, as a four-piece, at the Sunbury Pop Festival they supported AC/DC during a South Australian tour, that year they were the backing band for Chuck Berry; the Keystone Angels issued a sole single, "Keep on Dancin'", on Sphere during that year. In 1976 the Angels signed a recording deal with the Albert Productions label, upon the recommendation of Bon Scott and Malcolm Young; the group dropped "Keystone" from their name and became the Angels, relocated to Sydney with the line-up of Neeson on lead vocals and bass guitar, King on drums, Rick on lead guitar and John Brewster on lead vocals and rhythm guitar. According to Ian McFarlane, an Australian musicologist, the group "had toughened its sound into a unique brand of beefy hard rock."The Angels' first single, "Am I Ever Gonna See Your Face Again", was released in April 1976, produced by Vanda & Young. It was co-written by the Neeson, they made their TV debut on Countdown.
In August King was replaced by Graham "Buzz Throckman" Bidstrup on drums. In January 1977 Chris Bailey joined on bass guitar, which allowed Neeson to concentrate on lead vocals. Bailey had been a member of Mount Lofty Rangers, with Bon Scott
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i