A percussion instrument is a musical instrument, sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice; the percussion section of an orchestra most contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals and tambourine. However, the section can contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens, or a blown conch shell. Percussive techniques can be applied to the human body, as in body percussion. On the other hand, keyboard instruments, such as the celesta, are not part of the percussion section, but keyboard percussion instruments such as the glockenspiel and xylophone are included. Percussion instruments are most divided into two classes: Pitched percussion instruments, which produce notes with an identifiable pitch, unpitched percussion instruments, which produce notes or sounds without an identifiable pitch. Percussion instruments may play not only rhythm, but melody and harmony.
Percussion is referred to as "the backbone" or "the heartbeat" of a musical ensemble working in close collaboration with bass instruments, when present. In jazz and other popular music ensembles, the pianist, bassist and sometimes the guitarist are referred to as the rhythm section. Most classical pieces written for full orchestra since the time of Haydn and Mozart are orchestrated to place emphasis on the strings and brass; however at least one pair of timpani is included, though they play continuously. Rather, they serve to provide additional accents. In the 18th and 19th centuries, other percussion instruments have been used, again sparingly; the use of percussion instruments became more frequent in the 20th century classical music. In every style of music, percussion plays a pivotal role. In military marching bands and pipes and drums, it is the beat of the bass drum that keeps the soldiers in step and at a regular speed, it is the snare that provides that crisp, decisive air to the tune of a regiment.
In classic jazz, one immediately thinks of the distinctive rhythm of the hi-hats or the ride cymbal when the word "swing" is spoken. In more recent popular music culture, it is impossible to name three or four rock, hip-hop, funk or soul charts or songs that do not have some sort of percussive beat keeping the tune in time; because of the diversity of percussive instruments, it is not uncommon to find large musical ensembles composed of percussion. Rhythm and harmony are all represented in these ensembles. Music for pitched percussion instruments can be notated on a staff with the same treble and bass clefs used by many non-percussive instruments. Music for percussive instruments without a definite pitch can be notated with a specialist rhythm or percussion-clef. Percussion instruments are classified by various criteria sometimes depending on their construction, ethnic origin, function within musical theory and orchestration, or their relative prevalence in common knowledge; the word "percussion" derives from Latin the terms: "percussio", "percussus".
As a noun in contemporary English, Wiktionary describes it as "the collision of two bodies to produce a sound." The term has application in medicine and weaponry, as in percussion cap. However, all known uses of percussion appear to share a similar lineage beginning with the original Latin: "percussus". In a musical context the percussion instruments may have been coined to describe a family of musical instruments including drums, metal plates, or blocks that musicians beat or struck to produce sound. Hornbostel–Sachs has no high-level section for percussion. Most percussion instruments are classified as membranophones; however the term percussion is instead used at lower-levels of the Hornbostel–Sachs hierarchy, including to identify instruments struck with either a non-sonorous object or against a non-sonorous object. This is opposed to concussion, which refers to instruments with two or more complementary sonorous parts that strike against each other and other meanings. For example: 111.1 Concussion idiophones or clappers, played in pairs and beaten against each other, such as zills and clapsticks.
111.2 Percussion idiophones, includes many percussion instruments played with the hand or by a percussion mallet, such as the hang and the xylophone, but not drums and only some cymbals. 21 Struck drums, includes most types of drum, such as the timpani, snare drum, tom-tom. (Included in most drum sets or 412.12 Percussion reeds, a class of wind instrument unrelated to percussion in the more common sense There are many instruments that have some claim to being percussion, but are classified otherwise: Keyboard instruments such as the celesta and piano. Stringed instruments played with beaters such as the hammered dulcimer. Unpitched whistles and similar instruments, such as the pea whistle and Acme siren. Percussion instruments are sometimes classified as "pitched" or "unpitched". While valid, this classification is seen as inadequate. Rather, it may be more informative to describe percussion instruments in regards to one or more of the following four paradigms: Many texts, including Teaching Percussion by Gary Cook of the University of Arizona, begin by studying the physica
Charles Hardin Holley, known as Buddy Holly, was an American musician, singer-songwriter and record producer, a central and pioneering figure of mid-1950s rock and roll. He was born in Lubbock, Texas, to a musical family during the Great Depression, learned to play guitar and sing alongside his siblings, his style was influenced by gospel music, country music, rhythm and blues acts, he performed in Lubbock with his friends from high school. He made his first appearance on local television in 1952, the following year he formed the group "Buddy and Bob" with his friend Bob Montgomery. In 1955, after opening for Elvis Presley, he decided to pursue a career in music, he opened for Presley three times that year. In October that year, when he opened for Bill Haley & His Comets, he was spotted by Nashville scout Eddie Crandall, who helped him get a contract with Decca Records. Holly's recording sessions at Decca were produced by Owen Bradley, who had become famous for producing orchestrated country hits for stars like Patsy Cline.
Unhappy with Bradley's musical style and control in the studio, Holly went to producer Norman Petty in Clovis, New Mexico, recorded a demo of "That'll Be the Day", among other songs. Petty became the band's manager and sent the demo to Brunswick Records, which released it as a single credited to "The Crickets", which became the name of Holly's band. In September 1957, as the band toured, "That'll Be the Day" topped the UK singles charts, its success was followed in October by another major hit, "Peggy Sue". The album Chirping Crickets, released in November 1957, reached number five on the UK Albums Chart. Holly made his second appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show in January 1958 and soon after, toured Australia and the UK. In early 1959, he assembled a new band, consisting of future country music star Waylon Jennings, famed session musician Tommy Allsup, Carl Bunch, embarked on a tour of the midwestern U. S. After a show in Clear Lake, Iowa, he chartered an airplane to travel to his next show, in Moorhead, Minnesota.
Soon after takeoff, the plane crashed, killing Holly, Ritchie Valens, The Big Bopper, pilot Roger Peterson in a tragedy referred to by Don McLean as "The Day the Music Died". During his short career, Holly wrote and produced his own material, he is regarded as the artist who defined the traditional rock-and-roll lineup of two guitars and drums. He was a major influence on popular music artists, including Bob Dylan, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Eric Clapton, Elton John, he was among the first artists inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in 1986. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 13 in its list of "100 Greatest Artists". Holly was born Charles Hardin Holley on September 7, 1936, in Texas. O." Holley and Ella Pauline Drake. His elder siblings were Larry and Patricia Lou. Buddy Holly was of English and Welsh descent but had small amounts of Native American ancestry as well. From early childhood, he was nicknamed "Buddy". During the Great Depression, the Holleys moved residence within Lubbock.
O. changed jobs several times. Buddy Holly was baptized a Baptist, the family were members of the Tabernacle Baptist Church; the Holleys had an interest in music. O. were able to sing. The elder Holley brothers performed in local talent shows. Since he could not play it, his brother Larry greased the strings; the brothers won the contest. During World War II, Larry and Travis were called to military service. Upon his return, Larry brought with him a guitar he had bought from a shipmate while serving in the Pacific. At age 11, Buddy abandoned them after nine months, he switched to the guitar after he saw a classmate singing on the school bus. Buddy's parents bought him a steel guitar, but he insisted that he wanted a guitar like his brother's, his parents bought the guitar from a pawnshop, Travis taught him to play it. During his early childhood, Holley was influenced by the music of Hank Williams, Jimmie Rodgers, Hank Snow, Bob Wills, the Carter Family. At Roscoe Wilson Elementary, he became friends with Bob Montgomery, the two played together, practicing with songs by the Louvin Brothers and Johnnie & Jack.
They both listened to the radio programs Grand Ole Opry on WSM, Louisiana Hayride on KWKH, Big D Jamboree. At the same time, Holley played with other musicians he met in high school, including Sonny Curtis and Jerry Allison. In 1952, Holley and Jack Neal participated as a duo billed as "Buddy and Jack" in a talent contest on a local television show. After Neal left, he was replaced by Montgomery and they were billed as "Buddy and Bob"; the two soon started performing on the Sunday Party show on KDAV in 1953 and performed live gigs in Lubbock. At that time, Holley was influenced by late-night radio stations that played blues and rhythm and blues. Holley would sit in his car with Curtis and tune to distant radio stations that could only be received at night, when local transmissions ceased. Holley modified his music by blending his earlier country and western influence with R & B. By 1955, after graduating from high school, Holley decided to pursue a full-time career in music, he was further encouraged after seeing Elvis Presley performing live in Lubbock, whose act was booked by Pappy Dave Stone of KDAV.
In February, Holley opened for Presley at the Fair Park Coliseum
Cabaret of Souls
Cabaret of Souls is an album released by Richard Thompson on 10 October 2012 on Beeswing Records. It was recorded at Bruce Ryan Soundstage at Idyllwild Arts Academy Idyllwild in May 2011; this album grew out of a small project, planned for 2009 convention of the International Society of Bassists. The society wished to honour Thompson's friend and frequent collaborator Danny Thompson, commissioned Richard Thompson to write a piece to be performed at the convention and which would highlight Danny Thompson's skills. What Richard Thompson delivered was a collection of thematically linked songs with narration in between the songs; the theme is a "talent contest" in the afterlife between the souls of deceased people. Each soul sings a song revealing key elements of their lives, including vanity. After each performance by a soul the Keeper Of Souls and his assistants speak in reply. After the initial performance at State College, the suite was performed intermittently in 2010 before Richard Thompson decided to record it in the studio in 2011.
Danny Thompson was not available for these sessions, so David Piltch took the bass playing role. The album was not made available in retail stores, it could be purchased at live shows. A handful of shows at the Santa Monica Performing Arts Center supported the album release. All songs written by Richard Thompson: "Prelude" "Overture" "Song Of The Keepers" "Whipping On" "The Linnett" "I Really Do Love A Waltz" "I Must Lie Down" "Gluttony Considered" "Clive Smythe" "The Critic Critiqued" "I Get Younger" "The Parchment Grows Thin" "Auldie Riggs" "Auldie Riggs' Dance" "Mr. Riggs Appreciated" "Her Eyes not Mine" "From The Inside Out" "Breaking Down The Walls" "Will You Wash Away The Blood" "My Dave" "The Gangster's Moll" "Run Judas Run" "It Came With A Whisper" "I Want The World" "She Had It All" "Bosom Of The Lord" "Hot Place For Hypocrites" "One More Breath" "The Keeper Regrets And Reflects" "Whipping Off" MusicalRichard Thompson - vocals, acoustic guitar Pete Zorn - flute, vocals Debra Dobkin - Percussion, vocals David Piltch - Double Bass Judith Owen - Vocals Harry Shearer - Vocals, narration Peter Askim - Conductor The Idyllwild Arts Academy OrchestraTechnicalSimon Tassano - editing and mixing Matthew Neth - recording engineer Jason Cropper - assistant engineer
Sir Raymond Douglas Davies, is an English singer and musician. He is the lead singer, rhythm guitarist and main songwriter for the Kinks, which he leads with his younger brother, Dave, he has acted and produced shows for theatre and television. He is referred to as "the godfather of Britpop". After the dissolution of the Kinks in 1996, Davies embarked on a solo career. Davies was born at Fortis Green, north London, England, he is the seventh of eight children born to working-class parents, including six older sisters and younger brother Dave Davies. Ray's father, Frederick Davies was a slaughterhouse worker of Welsh descent, he was considered a ladies' man. His own father, was a slaughterman, in the Rhondda Valley, Wales. Ray's mother is of Irish descent. Fred moved to London as a young man, where he took up his father's occupation and married a Londoner, Anne Willmore. Anne came from a "sprawling family", she in turn gave birth to one, she could be crude and forceful. When Ray was still a small child, one of his older sisters became a star of the dance halls, soon had a child out of wedlock by an African man - an illegal immigrant who subsequently disappeared from her life.
The child, a daughter, was raised by Ray's mother. Ray attended William Grimshaw Secondary Modern School. Davies was an art student at Hornsey College of Art in London in 1962–63. In late 1962 he became interested in music. Gomelsky arranged for Davies to play at his Piccadilly Club with the Dave Hunt Rhythm & Blues Band, on New Year's Eve the Ray Davies Quartet opened for Cyril Stapleton at the Lyceum Ballroom. A few days he became the permanent guitarist for the Dave Hunt Band, an engagement that would only last about six weeks; the band were the house band at Gomelsky's new venture, the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond-upon-Thames. Davies joined the Hamilton King Band until June 1963. After the Kinks obtained a recording contract in early 1964, Davies emerged as the chief songwriter and de facto leader of the band after the band's breakthrough success with his early composition "You Really Got Me", released as the band's third single in August of that year. Davies led the Kinks through a period of musical experimentation between 1966 and 1975, with notable artistic achievements and commercial success.
The Kinks' early recordings of 1964 ranged from covers of R&B standards like "Long Tall Sally" and "Got Love If You Want It" to the chiming, melodic beat music of Ray Davies' earliest original compositions for the band, "You Still Want Me" and "Something Better Beginning", to the more influential proto-metal, power chord-based hard rock of the band's first two hit singles, "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and All of the Night". However, by 1965, this raucous, hard-driving early style had given way to the softer and more introspective sound of "Tired of Waiting for You", "Nothin' in the World Can Stop Me Worryin"Bout That Girl", "Set Me Free", "I Go to Sleep" and "Ring the Bells". With the eerie, droning "See My Friends"—inspired by the untimely death of the Davies brothers' older sister Rene in June 1957—the band began to show signs of expanding their musical palette further. A rare foray into early psychedelic rock, "See My Friends" is credited by Jonathan Bellman as the first Western pop song to integrate Indian raga sounds—released six months before the Beatles' "Norwegian Wood".
Beginning with "A Well Respected Man" and "Where Have All the Good Times Gone", Davies' lyrics assumed a new sociological character. He began to explore the aspirations and frustrations of common working-class people, with particular emphasis on the psychological effects of the British class system. Face to Face, the first Kinks album composed of original material, was a creative breakthrough; as the band began to experiment with theatrical sound effects and baroque musical arrangements, Davies' songwriting acquired its distinctive elements of narrative and wry social commentary. His topical songs took aim at the complacency and indolence of wealthy playboys and the upper class, the heedless ostentation of a self-indulgent spendthrift nouveau riche, the mercenary nature of the music business itself. By late 1966, Davies was addressing the bleakness of life at the lower end of the social spectrum: released together as the complementary A-B sides of a single, "Dead End Street" and "Big Black Smoke" were powerful neo-Dickensian sketches of urban poverty.
Other songs like "Situation Vacant" and "Shangri-La" hinted at the helpless sense of insecurity and emptiness underlying the materialistic values adopted by the English working class. In a similar vein, "Dedicated Follower of Fashion" wittily satirized the consumerism and celebrity worship of Carnaby Street and'Swinging London', while "David Watts" humorously expressed the wounded fee
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
The Hammersmith Palais de Danse, in its last years named Hammersmith Palais, was a dance hall and entertainment venue in Hammersmith, England that operated from 1919 until 2007. It was the first palais de danse. In 2009, it was named by the Brecon Jazz Festival as one of twelve venues which had made the most important contributions to jazz music in the United Kingdom; the Palais occupied a large site on the A219 at 242 Shepherd's Bush Road, London W6, near the circular system under the A4 Hammersmith flyover. The area has two London Underground stations, a bus station, the road network at Hammersmith Broadway. Built in 1910 on a site occupied by a tram shed for London United Tramways, the Brook Green Roller Skating Rink, closed since 1915, was acquired at the end of the First World War by North American entrepreneurs Howard Booker and Frank Mitchell, to convert it into a place to host ballroom dancing and various kinds of dance bands, among which were the new jazz bands; the first incarnation of the Palais was the work of architect Bertie Crewe.
Its Chinese-style decoration featured lacquered columns, fretwork and a pagoda roof with silk lanterns. In the centre of the expensive sprung dance floor, made of Canadian maple, was a model mountain with a replica Chinese village and a fountain. At each end thereof, was a low-rise bandstand encased in glass, to allow two bands to play alternate numbers for the dancers; the venue, which featured a restaurant and a café, was considered at the time to be the largest and most luxurious establishment of its kind in Europe. The Hammersmith Palais de Danse opening night took place on 28 November 1919. Nick LaRocca's Original Dixieland Jazz Band, on tour from America, played at the Palais from that night until June 1920. Many of the famous jazz stars of the day would appear in concert there, including American jazz singer Adelaide Hall, who performed at the venue during the week from 27 March to 2 April 1939, accompanied by Fela Sowande and his Florida Club Orchestra. During the Great Depression, while dance halls saw a reduction in attendance, ice skating, came into fashion and replaced dancing as the most popular leisure activity.
As a result, the Palais site was converted into an ice rink, opened on 30 December 1929, with the original London Lions ice hockey team using it as a base. However, this skate craze proved short-lived, by late 1934 the rink was reverted to a dance hall. A new maple dance floor at a cost of £5,000 was installed in the venue. In 1959, Joe Loss and his Orchestra, with singers Rose Brennan, Ross MacManus and Larry Gretton, became the resident dance band at the Palais. For the next decade, they were a regular feature every night, except on Monday's "Record Night" when only recorded music was played and no alcohol was served from the bar. In 1960, the Mecca organisation acquired the Palais. Other house bands during the 1960s and 1970s included Andy Ross, Ken Mackintosh, Tony Evans, Zodiac. On many Saturday nights, in excess of 2,000 people would visit the venue. One of the features was a huge revolving stage with a band on each side; the Hammersmith Palais remained a popular dance venue from its start to the late 1980s, from on hosting live music gigs, but dance nights and private events.
The venue accommodated the popular School-Disco club night, which subsequently moved to the London Forum in Kentish Town. Promoters Onyx Promotions championed Brit-Asian bands and DJs including: DCS, Juggy D, Panjabi Hit Squad, Premi, RDB, Rishi Rich and Xzecutive/San-j Sanj; the Students' Union at Imperial College School of Medicine hired the Palais as a venue for student nights. The Palais played host to countless artists. Bands such as PiL, the Cramps and Soft Cell, who played their "farewell" concerts there in January 1984, made the venue popular for London gig-goers. From 1999 to 2003, the Palais was owned by the Po Na Na Group, which converted it into a themed nightclub called Po Na Na Hammersmith. On 20 March 2007, despite its importance to Britain's cultural history, the Hammersmith Palais was condemned for demolition. Among the artists playing the last concerts at the venue were Kasabian and Jamie T. On 31 March 2007, the unnamed Damon Albarn-fronted band informally known as the Good, the Bad & the Queen, did a show, promoted as the official send-off for the legendary place.
However, scheduled before it was known that the building was to be sold, on 1 April 2007 there was a performance by Mark E. Smith's the Fall, which in turn was intended to be the last night of the Palais. A recording and a video of it would be subsequently released as the live album Last Night at The Palais, but the last gig at the Hammersmith Palais took place on 3 May 2007 by Groove Armada to launch their album Soundboy Rock. Film producer and director Richard Weller made a documentary for BBC Television about the venue's history, titled Last Man at the Palais, it was first screened on BBC Four on Christmas Eve 2007. Near the end of the film, ballroom dancer Lyndon Wainwright performs "The Last Waltz" on the dance floor of the Palais. Following its closure as a music venue, proposals for the site included use as an office and restaurant complex, or a students' hall of residence. Hammersmith and Fulham London Borough Council had been expected to rule on the proposed demolition and development in November 2009.
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat