Thelonious Sphere Monk was an American jazz pianist and composer. He had a unique improvisational style and made numerous contributions to the standard jazz repertoire, including "'Round Midnight", "Blue Monk", "Straight, No Chaser", "Ruby, My Dear", "In Walked Bud", "Well, You Needn't". Monk is the second-most-recorded jazz composer after Duke Ellington, remarkable as Ellington composed more than a thousand pieces, whereas Monk wrote about 70. Monk's compositions and improvisations feature dissonances and angular melodic twists and are consistent with his unorthodox approach to the piano, which combined a percussive attack with abrupt, dramatic use of switched key releases and hesitations, his style was not universally appreciated. Monk was renowned for a distinct look which included suits and sunglasses, he was noted for an idiosyncratic habit during performances: while other musicians continued playing, Monk stopped, stood up, danced for a few moments before returning to the piano. Monk is one of five jazz musicians to have been featured on the cover of Time magazine.
Thelonious Sphere Monk was born two years after his sister Marion on October 10, 1917, in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, was the son of Thelonious and Barbara Monk. His badly written birth certificate misspelled his first name as "Thelious" or "Thelius", it did not list his middle name, taken from his maternal grandfather, Sphere Batts. A brother, was born in January 1920. In 1922, the family moved to 243 West 63rd Street, in Manhattan, New York City. Monk started playing the piano at the age of six and was self-taught, he did not graduate. At 17, Monk toured with an evangelist, playing the church organ, in his late teens he began to find work playing jazz. In the early to mid-1940s, he was the house pianist at a Manhattan nightclub. Much of Monk's style was developed during his time at Minton's, when he participated in after-hours cutting contests, which featured many leading jazz soloists of the time. Monk's musical work at Minton's was crucial in the formulation of bebop, which would be furthered by other artists, including Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Christian, Kenny Clarke, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis.
Monk is believed to be the pianist featured on recordings Jerry Newman made around 1941 at the club. Monk's style at this time was described as "hard-swinging," with the addition of runs in the style of Art Tatum. Monk's stated influences included Duke Ellington, James P. Johnson, other early stride pianists. According to the documentary Thelonious Monk: Straight, No Chaser, Monk lived in the same neighborhood in New York City as Johnson and knew him as a teenager. Mary Lou Williams, who mentored Monk and his contemporaries, spoke of Monk's rich inventiveness in this period, how such invention was vital for musicians, since at the time it was common for fellow musicians to incorporate overheard musical ideas into their own works without giving due credit. "So, the boppers worked out a music, hard to steal. I'll say this for the'leeches,' though: they tried. I've seen them in Minton's scribbling on the tablecloth, and our own guys, I'm afraid, did not give Monk the credit he had coming. Why, they stole his idea of the beret and bop glasses."In 1944 Monk made his first studio recordings with the Coleman Hawkins Quartet.
Hawkins was one of the earliest established jazz musicians to promote Monk, the pianist returned the favor by inviting Hawkins to join him on a 1957 session with John Coltrane. In 1947, Ike Quebec introduced Monk to Lorraine Gordon and her first husband, Alfred Lion, the founder of Blue Note Records. From on, Gordon preached his genius to the jazz world with unrelenting passion. Shortly after meeting Gordon and Lion, Monk made his first recordings as the Coleman Hawkins Quartet leader for Blue Note, which showcased his talents as a composer of original melodies for improvisation. Monk married Nellie Smith the same year, on December 27, 1949 the couple had a son, T. S. Monk, who became a jazz drummer. A daughter, was born on September 5, 1953 and died of cancer in 1984. In her autobiography, Gordon spoke of the utter lack of interest in Monk's recordings, which translated to poor sales. "I went to Harlem and those record stores didn't want Monk or me. I'll never forget one particular owner, I can still see him and his store on Seventh Avenue and 125th Street.'He can't play lady, what are you doing up here?
The guy has two left hands."You just wait,' I'd say.'This man's a genius, you don't know anything.'"Due to Monk's reticence, Gordon became his mouthpiece to the public. In February 1948, she wrote to Ralph Ingersoll, the editor of the newspaper PM, described Monk as "a genius living here in the heart of New York, whom nobody knows"; as a result, one of PM's best writers visited Monk to do a feature on him, but Monk wouldn't speak to the reporter unless Gordon was in the room with him. In September of the sam
Standard Time, Vol. 3: The Resolution of Romance
Standard Time, Vol. 3: The Resolution of Romance is an album by Wynton Marsalis, released in 1990. The album reached peak positions of number 101 on the Billboard 200 and number 1 on the Billboard Top Jazz Albums chart. Wynton Marsalis – trumpet, vocals Ellis Marsalis Jr. – piano Reginald Veal – bass Herlin Riley – drums George Butler – executive producer Delfeayo Marsalis – producer Stanley Crouch – liner notes
Eric Lewis (pianist)
Eric Robert Lewis, popularly known as ELEW, is an American jazz pianist who has found cross-over success playing rock and pop music. He is known for his unconventional and physical playing style, which eschews a piano bench and includes reaching inside the piano lid to pull at the strings directly, as well as the creation that he calls "Rockjazz", a genre that "takes the improvisational aspect of jazz and'threads it through the eye of the needle of rock.'"Lewis began his career as a jazz purist, playing as a sideman for jazz artists like Wynton Marsalis, Cassandra Wilson, Elvin Jones, Jon Hendricks, Roy Hargrove as well as performing as a member of the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra. However, he became interested in rock music and embarked on a solo career as a crossover musician gaining recognition for his instrumental "Rockjazz" piano covers of mainstream rock hits like The Rolling Stones' "Paint It, Black" and The Killers' "Mr. Brightside", he released his first album of instrumental covers, entitled ELEW Rockjazz Vol. 1, on his own label, Ninjazz Entertainment, in March 2010.
His distinctive style has helped him to amass a large following of celebrity fans, including Barack and Michelle Obama, Leonardo DiCaprio, Donna Karan, Téa Leoni, David Duchovny, Hugh Jackman, Forest Whitaker, Gerard Butler. Throughout his career, he has performed with musicians such as Sting, The Roots, Natalie Cole, Esperanza Spalding. In the spring of 2011, he joined singer-songwriter Josh Groban as the opening act on the American leg of the singer's Straight to You Tour. Around the same time, he appeared as a contestant in an audition on the NBC reality series America's Got Talent, where he received a standing ovation from the crowd and positive scores from all three judges. Despite his positive reception, he dropped out of the competition in order to tour with Groban. In August 2012, he was featured on a Mike Stud remix of the Maroon 5 song "One More Night". On August 28, 2012, Lewis released his second solo album: ELEW Rockjazz Vol. 2. ELEW held in late 2015 an exclusive preview concert of his upcoming album And To The Republic with Jeff "Tain" Watts and Reginald Veal at Dizzy's Club Coca-Cola.
And To The Republic was released the following year in November 2016. Since its conception the album has been praised by some of the largest jazz outlets and publications in the world such as NPR's "Jazz Night In America" hosted by Christian McBride, Jazz-Times and All About Jazz. In summer 2016, ELEW was awarded The Novus Award at the Headquarters of the United Nations for contributing music and art to the world. Nowadays, you can find ELEW being "a highlight of the party" anywhere from Sundance's Film Festival, DJ'ing at various nightclubs, playing piano at ultra-exclusive private parties in "a $16 million penthouse at Art Basel", touring his latest album And To The Republic around the world to playing keyboard to a song written by the IBM super computer, Watson Lewis was born in Camden, New Jersey in 1973, where he studied piano as a child, he graduated from Overbrook High School in 1991 and received a Full Merit Scholarship to the Manhattan School of Music, where he graduated on the Deans List in 1995.
He began touring with Wynton Marsalis and Cassandra Wilson. Becoming disillusioned with the jazz world after a solo record deal failed to materialize, Lewis struck out on his own to find success, it was around this time that he heard his first rock album, Linkin Park's Meteora, which made a profound impression on his musical sensibilities. Taking the stage name "ELEW", he set about creating a musical style that blended instrumental jazz with his newfound passion for rock and pop, he named the unique product "Rockjazz". Adjusting his stage presence accordingly, he grew an afro and adopted a distinctive style of dress, wearing armored vambraces over tailored suits, he discarded his piano bench and began to play standing in front of his instrument, reaching inside to grab and the strings and beating on its wooden case like a percussion instrument. His first taste of mainstream recognition came when he played two songs, a cover of Evanescence's "Going Under" and an original composition, as a featured speaker at the Long Beach TED Conference in 2009.
While the videos of these performances on the TED Conference website and YouTube channel began to gain Lewis attention in the online world, including a write-up in The Guardian, his appearance drew the interest of one TED conference attendee in particular: fashion designer Donna Karan, who asked the pianist to compose an original piece inspired by her fall 2009 collection and play it live on the runway at her next New York City fashion show. White House Social Secretary Desiree Rogers happened to be attending the Donna Karan fashion Show at which Lewis performed, she invited him to play in the East Room of the White House for the President and the First Lady. In March 2010, Lewis released his first album as ELEW on the independent label he founded that same year: Ninjazz Entertainment. Entitled ELEW Rockjazz Vol. 1, his debut solo LP features thirteen covers of rock and pop songs by artists such as Coldplay, The Knife, Radiohead. The music video for his cover of Nirvana's "Smells Like Teen Spirit" was directed by Japanese film-maker Ryuhei Kitamura, the director of such films as Midnight Meat Train, Godzilla: Final Wars, Azumi.
In 2011, singer-songwriter Josh Groban saw a video of Lewis playing on YouTube and asked the pianist to be the opening act for the American section of his 2011 Straight to You Tour, consisting of sixty appearances across the United States at arenas including the STAPLES Center and Madison Square Garden. In the spring of 2011, Lewis participated in the New York Auditio
Uptown Ruler: Soul Gestures in Southern Blue, Vol. 2
Uptown Ruler: Soul Gestures in Southern Blue, Vol. 2 is an album by Wynton Marsalis, released in 1991. It is part two of the three-part blues cycle recorded by his quintet. All tracks written by Wynton Marsalis except. Wynton Marsalis – trumpet Reginald Veal – double bass, trombone Marcus Roberts – piano, alto saxophone Todd Williams – tenor saxophone Herlin Riley – double bass, drumsProduction George Butler – executive producer Steven Epstein – producer Stanley Crouch – liner notes
Branford Marsalis is an American saxophonist and bandleader. While known for his work in jazz as the leader of the Branford Marsalis Quartet, he performs as a soloist with classical ensembles and has led the group Buckshot LeFonque. Marsalis was born in Breaux Bridge, the son of Dolores, a jazz singer and substitute teacher, Ellis Louis Marsalis, Jr. a pianist and music professor. His brothers Jason Marsalis, Wynton Marsalis, Delfeayo Marsalis are jazz musicians. In mid-1980, while still a Berklee College of Music student, Marsalis toured Europe playing alto and baritone saxophone in a large ensemble led by drummer Art Blakey. Other big band experiences with Lionel Hampton and Clark Terry followed over the next year, by the end of 1981 Marsalis, on alto saxophone, had joined his brother Wynton in Blakey's Jazz Messengers. Other performances with his brother, including a 1981 Japanese tour with Herbie Hancock, led to the formation of his brother Wynton's first quintet, where Marsalis shifted his emphasis to soprano and tenor saxophones.
He continued to work with Wynton until 1985, a period that saw the release of his own first recording, Scenes in the City, as well as guest appearances with other artists including Miles Davis and Dizzy Gillespie In 1985, he joined Sting and bassist of rock band the Police, on his first solo project, The Dream of the Blue Turtles, alongside jazz and session musicians Omar Hakim on drums, Darryl Jones on the bass and Kenny Kirkland on keyboards. He became a regular in Sting's line-up both in the studio and live up until the release of Brand New Day in 1999. In 1994, Marsalis appeared on the Red Hot Organization's compilation CD, Stolen Moments: Red Hot + Cool; the album, meant to raise awareness of the AIDS epidemic in African American society, was named Album of the Year by Time. In 1988, Marsalis co-starred in the Spike Lee film School Daze rendering several horn-blowing interludes for the music in the film, his witty comments have pegged him to many memorable one-liners in the film. From 1992 to 1995, Branford was the leader of the Tonight Show Band on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno.
He turned down the offer, but reconsidered and accepted the position. He was succeeded as bandleader by guitarist Kevin Eubanks. Between 1990 and 1994, Branford played with the Grateful Dead several times. With original member Jeff "Tain" Watts on drums, bassist Eric Revis replaced Hurst in 1997, while pianist Joey Calderazzo became a member after Kirkland's death the following year; the Branford Marsalis Quartet has toured and recorded extensively, receiving a Grammy in 2001 for the album Contemporary Jazz. For two decades Marsalis was associated with Columbia, where he served as creative consultant and producer for jazz recordings between 1997 and 2001, including signing saxophonist David S. Ware for two albums. In 2002, Marsalis founded Marsalis Music, its catalogue includes Claudia Acuña, Harry Connick Jr. Doug Wamble, Miguel Zenón, in addition to albums by members of the Marsalis family. Marsalis has become involved in college education, with appointments at Michigan State, San Francisco State, North Carolina Central University.
After Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Marsalis and Harry Connick, Jr. working with the local Habitat for Humanity, created Musicians Village in New Orleans, with the Ellis Marsalis Center for Music the centerpiece. In 2012, Marsalis and Connick received the S. Roger Horchow Award for Greatest Public Service by a Private Citizen, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards. In September 2006, Branford Marsalis was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Music from Berklee College of Music. During his acceptance ceremony, he was honored with a tribute performance featuring music from throughout his career. Under the direction of conductor Gil Jardim, Branford Marsalis and members of the Philharmonia Brasileira toured the United States in the fall of 2008, performing works by Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos, arranged for solo saxophone and orchestra; this project commemorated. Branford Marsalis and the members of his quartet joined the North Carolina Symphony for American Spectrum, released in February 2009 by Sweden's BIS Records.
The album showcases Marsalis and the orchestra performing a range of American music by Michael Daugherty, John Williams, Ned Rorem and Christopher Rouse, while being conducted by Grant Llewellyn. Marsalis was nominated for and won a 2010 Drama Desk Award in the category "Outstanding Music in a Play" and was nominated for a 2010 Tony Award in the category of "Best Original Score Written for the Theatre" for his participation in the Broadway revival of August Wilson's Fences. On July 14, 2010, Marsalis made his debut with the New York Philharmonic on Central Park's Great Lawn. Led by conductor Andrey Boreyko and the New York Philharmonic performed Glazunov's "Concerto for Alto Saxophone" and Schuloff's "Hot-Sonate for Alto Saxophone and Orchestra." Boreyko and the Philharmonic performed the same program again in Vail, CO that month and four more times at Avery Fisher Hall in New York, NY the following February. Marsalis, with his father and brothers, were group recipients of the 2011 NEA Jazz Masters Award.
In June 2011, after working together for over 10 years in a band setting, Branford Marsalis and Joey Calderazzo released their first duo album titled Songs of Mirth and Melancholy, on Branford's label, Marsalis Music. Their world premiere performance was on June 29, 2011 in Koerner Hall at the 2011 TD Toronto Jazz Festival. In 2012, Branford Marsalis released Four MFs Playin' Tunes on deluxe 180-gram high defi
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i