São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
Optical disc packaging
Optical disc packaging is the packaging that accompanies CDs, DVDs, other formats of optical discs. Most packaging is rigid or semi-rigid and designed to protect the media from scratches and other types of exposure damage. A jewel CD case is a compact disc case, used since the compact disc was first released in 1982, it is a three-piece plastic case, measuring 142 by 125 by 10 millimetres, a volume of 177.5 cubic centimetres, which contains a compact disc along with the liner notes and a back card. Two opposing transparent halves are hinged together to form the casing, the back half holding a media tray that grips the disc by its hole. All three parts are made of injection-moulded polystyrene; the front lid contains four, or six tabs to keep any liner notes in place. The liner notes will be a 120 by 120 millimetres booklet, or a single 242 by 120 millimetres leaf folded in half. In addition, there is a back card, 150 by 118 millimetres, underneath the media tray and visible through the clear back listing the track names, copyright data and other information.
The back card is folded into a flattened "U" shape, with the sides being visible along the ends of the case. The ends have the name of the release and the artist, label or catalogue information printed on them, are designed to be visible when the case is stored vertically,'book-style', on shelves; the back media tray snaps into the back cover, is responsible for securing the disk. The center is a circular hub of teeth; this suspends the disk in the middle of the container, preventing the recording surface from being scratched. The media tray was constructed of a flexible black polystyrene, but many newer trays use a more fragile transparent polystyrene; this allows the reverse of the back card, used for additional artwork, to be visible. This format did not become common until the mid-1990s; the jewel case is the standard case used by the majority of manufacturers and it is the most common type of case found in record and movie stores. Jewel cases are used for DVDs, but not for those that contain major film releases.
Blank Blu-ray Disc media is most sold in standard-width jewel cases. According to Philips, the name "jewel case" reflects either the high quality of the case design compared to initial attempts, or its appearance. According to one publication, initial attempts at packaging CDs were unsatisfactory; when the new design, by Peter Doodson, was found to be "virtually perfect" it was dubbed the "jewel case". Another publication quotes Doodson describing that he "specified polished ribs as they pick up the light and shine" and states that the resulting appearance led to the name. Endurance: The CD jewel case has a tight and firm grip of the CD because of the tray's "teeth" or "lock"; because of this if the CD jewel case is turned upside-down, left, or right, the CD is held in place. Flimsier cases may cause the CD to become loose, or fall out. Since the jewel case is made of plastic, it is sturdier compared to cardboard, paper, or foams; when pressure is applied to the CD jewel case, the case will break first before the CD.
If the case is made of thin cardboard, there is a greater chance that the CD would break or get damaged because the weight is directed onto it. Storage: The type of material of the CD jewel case allows storage of CDs for decades without ruining the CDs; the same is not as true with other cases, since paper can stick to the CDs due to air and other factors. The CD jewel case may be preferred because it offers orderliness on a shelf. Since the CD jewel case has existed for decades, there are many CD shelves and other products in the market that are made for CD jewel cases. Room for accessories: The CD jewel case is designed to carry a booklet, as well as to have panel inserts; these may be used to display album artwork, photos, thank-yous, biography, etc. Cost-effectiveness: Because the CD jewel case is the standard, most-commonly used CD case, it is much cheaper; the price of the CD jewel case ranges from $0.75 to $0.95. That is a few cents cheaper than other CD wallets. However, if large quantities of cases are needed, the price difference may be hundreds or thousands of US dollars.
There are a number of shortcomings with the jewel case. The case is hinged on two brittle plastic arms, which break if the case receives shock or stress due to being dropped; the teeth of the hub holding the disc are prone to failure by snapping. There is a problem with the tabs; when replacing the booklet, it can get snagged and rip. As noted above, some CD releases have only two tabs, which allows the booklet to be more removed and replaced. Replacement jewel cases can be purchased, to replace those that have broken plastic arms or hub teeth. Double disc albums can either be packaged in standard-thickness jewel cases with hinged media trays which can be lifted to reveal the second disc or in a "double jewel case", sometimes called a multi-CD jewel case, "fatbox", or "Bookbox", larger than two normal jewel cases stacked on top of each other, can hold 2 to 6 CDs. Double jewel cases do not fit in some CD racks.
Band (rock and pop)
A rock band or pop band is a small musical ensemble which performs rock music, pop music or a related genre. The four-piece band is the most common configuration in pop music. Before the development of the electronic keyboard, the configuration was two guitarists, a bassist, a drummer. Another common formation is a vocalist who does not play an instrument, electric guitarist, bass guitarist, a drummer. Instrumentally, these bands can be considered as trios; the smallest ensemble, used in rock music is the trio format. Two-member rock and pop bands are rare, because of the difficulty in providing all of the musical elements which are part of the rock or pop sound. In a hard rock or blues-rock band, or heavy metal rock group, a "power trio" format is used, which consists of an electric guitar player, an electric bass guitar player and a drummer, one or more of these musicians sing; some well-known power trios with the guitarist on lead vocals are the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble, the Jam, ZZ Top, Green Day, while power trios with the bass guitarist on lead vocals include Cream, The Police and Motörhead.
Two-member rock and pop bands are rare, because of the difficulty in providing all of the musical elements which are part of the rock or pop sound. Two-member rock and pop bands omit one of these musical elements. In many cases, two-member bands will omit a drummer, since guitars, bass guitars, keyboards can all be used to provide a rhythmic pulse. Examples of two-member bands are The White Stripes, Pet Shop Boys, Flight of the Conchords, the Ting Tings, Hall & Oates, Twenty One Pilots and T. Rex; when electronic sequencers became available in the 1980s, this made it easier for two-member bands to add in musical elements that the two band members were not able to perform. Sequencers allowed bands to pre-program some elements of their performance, such as an electronic drum part and a synth bass line. Two-member pop music bands such as Soft Cell and Yazoo used pre-programmed sequencers. Other pop bands from the 1980s which were ostensibly fronted by two performers, such as Wham!, Eurythmics and Tears for Fears, were not two-piece ensembles, because other instrumental musicians were used "behind the scenes" to fill out the sound.
Modern bands that use this format include Ninja Sex Death Grips. Two-piece bands in rock music are quite rare. However, starting in the 2000s, blues-influenced rock bands such as the White Stripes and the Black Keys utilized a guitar-and-drums scheme. Death from Above 1979 featured a bass guitarist. Tenacious D is a two-guitar band. Ratatat are a two-guitar band. W. A. S. P. Guitarist Doug Blair is known for his work in the two-piece progressive rock band signal2noise, where he acts as the lead guitarist and bassist at the same time, thanks to a special custom instrument he invented. Heisenflei of Los Angeles duo the Pity Party plays drums and sings simultaneously. Royal Blood is a two-piece band that drums along with electronic effects; the smallest ensemble, used in rock music is the trio format. In a hard rock or blues-rock band, or heavy metal rock group, a "power trio" format is used, which consists of an electric guitar player, an electric bass guitar player and a drummer, one or more of these musicians sing.
Some well-known power trios with the guitarist on lead vocals are Campsite 85, Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble and Muse. A handful of others with the bassist on vocals include Thin Lizzy, Rush, Motörhead, the Police and Cream; some power trios feature two lead vocalists. For example, in the band Blink-182 vocals are split between bassist Mark Hoppus and guitarist Matt Skiba, or in the band Dinosaur Jr. guitarist J. Mascis is the primary songwriter and vocalist, but bassist Lou Barlow writes some songs and sings as well. An alternative to the power trio are organ trios formed with an electric guitarist, a drummer and a keyboardist. Although organ trios are most associated with 1950s and 1960s jazz organ trio groups such as those led by organist Jimmy Smith, there are organ trios in rock-oriented styles, such as jazz-rock fusion and Grateful Dead-influenced jam bands, for instance Medeski Martin & Wood. In organ trios, the keyboard player plays a Hammond organ or similar instrument, which permits the keyboard player to perform bass lines and lead lines.
A variant of the organ trio are trios formed with an electric bassist, a drummer and an electronic keyboardist such as the progressive rock band Emerson, Lake & Palmer. A power trio with the guitarist on lead vocals is a popular record company lineup, as the guitarist and singer will be the songwriter. Therefore, the label only has to present one "face" to the public; the backing band may or may not be featured in publici
Grunge is a rock music genre and subculture that emerged during the mid-1980s in the Pacific Northwest U. S. state of Washington in Seattle and nearby towns. The early grunge movement revolved around Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop and the region's underground music scene. By the early 1990s its popularity had spread, with grunge bands appearing in California emerging in other parts of the United States and in Australia, building strong followings and signing major record deals. Grunge was commercially successful in the early to mid-1990s, due to releases such as Nirvana's Nevermind, Pearl Jam's Ten, Soundgarden's Badmotorfinger and Alice in Chains' Dirt; the success of these bands boosted the popularity of alternative rock and made grunge the most popular form of rock music at the time Although most grunge bands had disbanded or faded from view by the late 1990s, they influenced modern rock music, as their lyrics brought conscious issues into pop culture and added introspection and an exploration of what it means to be true to oneself.
Grunge was an influence on genres such as post-grunge and nu metal. Grunge fuses elements of punk rock and heavy metal, featuring the distorted electric guitar sound used in both genres, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. Like these genres, grunge uses electric guitar, bass guitar, a drummer and a singer. Grunge incorporates influences from indie rock bands such as Sonic Youth. Lyrics are angst-filled and introspective addressing themes such as social alienation, self-doubt, neglect, betrayal and emotional isolation, psychological trauma and a desire for freedom. A number of factors contributed to grunge's decline in prominence. During the mid-to-late 1990s, many grunge bands became less visible. Nirvana's Kurt Cobain, labeled by Time as "the John Lennon of the swinging Northwest", appeared unusually tortured by success and struggled with an addiction to heroin before he died by suicide at the age of 27 in 1994; the term "grunge" was first recorded as being applied to Seattle musicians in July 1987 when Bruce Pavitt described Green River's Dry as a Bone EP in a Sub Pop record company catalogue as "gritty vocals, roaring Marshall amps, ultra-loose GRUNGE that destroyed the morals of a generation".
Although the word "grunge" has been used to describe bands since the 1960s, this was the first association of grunge with the grinding, sludgy sound of Seattle. It is expensive and time consuming to get a recording to sound clean, so for those northwestern bands just starting out it was cheaper for them to leave the sound dirty and just turn up their volume; this dirty sound, due to low budgets, unfamiliarity with recording, a lack of professionalism may be the origin of the term "grunge". The "Seattle scene" refers to that city's alternative music movement, linked to the University of Washington and the Evergreen State College. Evergreen State was a progressive college which did not use grading and which had its own alternative music radio station. Seattle's remoteness from Los Angeles led to a perceived purity of its music; the music of these bands, many of which had recorded with Seattle's independent record label Sub Pop, became labeled as "grunge". The term "Seattle sound" became a marketing ploy for the music industry.
In September 1991, the Nirvana album Nevermind was released, bringing mainstream attention to the music of Seattle. Nirvana's frontman Kurt Cobain loathed the word "grunge" and despised the new scene, developing, feeling that record companies were signing old "cock-rock" bands who were pretending to be grunge and claiming to be from Seattle; some bands associated with the genre, such as Soundgarden, Pearl Jam and Alice in Chains, have not been receptive to the label, preferring instead to be referred to as "rock and roll" bands. Ben Shepherd from Soundgarden stated that he "hates the word" grunge and hates "being associated with it." Seattle musician Jeff Stetson states that when he visited Seattle in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a touring musician, the local musicians did not refer to themselves as "grunge" performers or their style as "grunge" and they were not flattered that their music was being called "grunge". Rolling Stone noted the genre's lack of a clear definition. Robert Loss acknowledges the challenges of defining "grunge".
Roy Shuker states that the term "obscured a variety of styles." Stetson states that grunge was not a movement, "monolithic musical genre", or a way to react to 1980s-era metal pop. Stetson states. Mark Yarm, author of Everybody Loves Our Town: An Oral History of Grunge, pointed out vast differences between grunge bands, with some being punk and others being metal-based. In 1984 the punk rock band Black Flag went visiting small towns across the US to bring punk to the more remote parts of the country. By this time their music had become slow and sludgy, less like the Sex Pistols and more like Black Sabbath. Krist Novoselic recalls going along with the Melvins to see one of these shows, after which the Melvins front man Buzz Osborne began writing'slow and heavy riffs to form a dirge-like music, the beginning of northwest grunge; the Melvins were the most influential of the early grunge bands. Sub Pop producer Jack Endino described grunge as "seventies-influenced, slowed-down p
Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage and blues rock movements. It is typified by a heavy use of aggressive vocals, distorted electric guitars, bass guitar and accompanied with keyboards. Hard rock developed into a major form of popular music in the 1970s, with notable bands such as AC/DC, the Who, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Aerosmith and Van Halen. During the 1980s, some hard rock bands moved away from their hard rock roots and more towards pop rock, while others began to return to a hard rock sound. Established bands made a comeback in the mid-1980s and it reached a commercial peak in the 1980s, with glam metal bands like Bon Jovi and Def Leppard and the rawer sounds of Guns N' Roses, which followed up with great success in the part of that decade. Hard rock began losing popularity with the commercial success of R&B, hip-hop, urban pop and Britpop in the 1990s. Despite this, many post-grunge bands adopted a hard rock sound and in the 2000s there came a renewed interest in established bands, attempts at a revival, new hard rock bands that emerged from the garage rock and post-punk revival scenes.
Out of this movement came garage rock bands like the White Stripes, the Strokes, Interpol and on, the Black Keys. In the 2000s, only a few hard rock bands from the 1970s and 1980s managed to sustain successful recording careers. Hard rock is a form of aggressive rock music; the electric guitar is emphasised, used with distortion and other effects, both as a rhythm instrument using repetitive riffs with a varying degree of complexity, as a solo lead instrument. Drumming characteristically focuses on driving rhythms, strong bass drum and a backbeat on snare, sometimes using cymbals for emphasis; the bass guitar works in conjunction with the drums playing riffs, but providing a backing for the rhythm and lead guitars. Vocals are growling, raspy, or involve screaming or wailing, sometimes in a high range, or falsetto voice. Hard rock has sometimes been labelled cock rock for its emphasis on overt masculinity and sexuality and because it has been predominantly performed and consumed by men: in the case of its audience white, working-class adolescents.
In the late 1960s, the term heavy metal was used interchangeably with hard rock, but began to be used to describe music played with more volume and intensity. While hard rock maintained a bluesy rock and roll identity, including some swing in the back beat and riffs that tended to outline chord progressions in their hooks, heavy metal's riffs functioned as stand-alone melodies and had no swing in them. Heavy metal took on "darker" characteristics after Black Sabbath's breakthrough at the beginning of the 1970s. In the 1980s it developed a number of subgenres termed extreme metal, some of which were influenced by hardcore punk, which further differentiated the two styles. Despite this differentiation, hard rock and heavy metal have existed side by side, with bands standing on the boundary of, or crossing between, the genres; the roots of hard rock can be traced back to the 1950s electric blues, which laid the foundations for key elements such as a rough declamatory vocal style, heavy guitar riffs, string-bending blues-scale guitar solos, strong beat, thick riff-laden texture, posturing performances.
Electric blues guitarists began experimenting with hard rock elements such as driving rhythms, distorted guitar solos and power chords in the 1950s, evident in the work of Memphis blues guitarists such as Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson, Pat Hare, who captured a "grittier, more ferocious electric guitar sound" on records such as James Cotton's "Cotton Crop Blues". Other antecedents include Link Wray's instrumental "Rumble" in 1958, the surf rock instrumentals of Dick Dale, such as "Let's Go Trippin'" and "Misirlou". In the 1960s, American and British blues and rock bands began to modify rock and roll by adding harder sounds, heavier guitar riffs, bombastic drumming, louder vocals, from electric blues. Early forms of hard rock can be heard in the work of Chicago blues musicians Elmore James, Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" which made it a garage rock standard, the songs of rhythm and blues influenced British Invasion acts, including "You Really Got Me" by the Kinks, "My Generation" by the Who, "Shapes of Things" by the Yardbirds, "Inside Looking Out" by the Animals, " Satisfaction" by the Rolling Stones.
From the late 1960s, it became common to divide mainstream rock music that emerged from psychedelia into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies. In contrast, hard rock was most derived from blues rock and was played louder and with more intensity. Blues rock acts that pioneered the sound included Cream, the Jimi Hendrix Experience, the Jeff Beck Group. Cream, in songs like "I Feel Free" combined blues rock with pop and psychedelia in the riffs and guitar solos of Eric Clapton. Jimi Hendrix produced a form of blues-influenced psychedelic rock, which combined elements of jazz and rock and roll. From 1967 Jeff Beck brought lead guitar to new heights of technical virtuosity and moved blues rock in the direction of heavy rock with his band, the Jeff Beck Group. Dave Davies of the Kinks, Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones, Pete Townshend of the Who, Hendrix and Beck all pioneered the use of new guitar effects like phasing and distortion.
The Beatles began producing songs in the new
Silverchair were an Australian rock band, which formed in 1992 as Innocent Criminals in Merewether, Newcastle with the line-up of Ben Gillies on drums, Daniel Johns on vocals and guitars, Chris Joannou on bass guitar. The group got their big break in mid-1994 when they won a national demo competition conducted by SBS TV show Nomad and ABC radio station, Triple J; the band was signed by Murmur, were successful on the Australian and international rock stages. During their career, Silverchair won more ARIA Music Awards than any other artist in history with 21 wins from 49 nominations; the band have received six APRA Awards with Johns winning three songwriting awards at the 2008 ceremony. All five of their studio albums have debuted at number-one on the ARIA Albums Chart: Frogstomp, Freak Show, Neon Ballroom and Young Modern. Three of the group's singles have reached number-one on the related ARIA Singles Chart: "Tomorrow", "Freak" and "Straight Lines". Silverchair's alternative rock sound had evolved throughout their career, differing styles on specific albums growing more ambitious over the years, from grunge on their debut to more recent work displaying orchestral and art rock influences.
The songwriting and singing of Johns had evolved while the band had developed an increased element of complexity. In 2003, following the release of Diorama, the band announced a hiatus, during which time members recorded with side projects The Dissociatives, The Mess Hall, Tambalane. Silverchair were reunited at the 2005 Wave Aid concerts. In 2007, they released their fifth album, Young Modern, played the Across the Great Divide tour with contemporaries Powderfinger. In May of 2011, Silverchair announced an indefinite hiatus; as of January 2019, Silverchair have sold over 10 million albums worldwide. Silverchair's founders, Ben Gillies and Daniel Johns, attended the same primary school in the Newcastle suburb of Merewether; as teenagers, singer-guitarist Johns and drummer Gillies, started playing music together – in one class they built a stage out of desks and played rap songs for their schoolmates. When they moved on to Newcastle High School, a fellow student, Chris Joannou, joined the pair on bass guitar.
In 1992, they formed Innocent Criminals with Tobin Finane as a second guitarist – but he soon left. They played numerous shows around the Hunter Region in their early teens, their repertoire was cover versions of Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple and Black Sabbath. In 1994 Innocent Criminals entered YouthRock, a national competition for school-based bands and placed first ahead of older competition. Early in the year they recorded demos of "Acid Rain", "Cicada", "Pure Massacre" and "Tomorrow" at Platinum Sound Studios. In April, the band's mainstream breakthrough came when they won a national competition called Pick Me, using their demo of "Tomorrow"; the competition was conducted by the SBS TV show Nomad and Australian Broadcasting Corporation alternative radio station Triple J. As part of the prize, Triple J recorded the song and ABC filmed a video, aired on 16 June. For the video's broadcast, they had changed their name to Silverchair. In a 1994 interview with Melbourne magazine Buzz, the band claimed the name derived from a radio request for "Sliver" by Nirvana and "Berlin Chair" by You Am I being mixed up as Silver Chair.
It was revealed they were named for the C. S. Lewis-penned novel The Silver Chair from The Chronicles of Narnia series. Following a bidding war between rival labels, Silverchair signed a three-album recording contract with Sony Music subsidiary Murmur Records; the group were managed by their parents. Sony A&R manager John Watson, jointly responsible for signing the group, subsequently left the label to become their band manager. In September, their Triple J recording of "Tomorrow" was released as a four-track extended play. From late October, it spent six weeks at number-one on the ARIA Singles Chart. In 1995, a re-recorded version of "Tomorrow" was made for the United States market, becoming the most played song on US modern rock radio that year. Silverchair's debut album, was recorded in nine days with production by Kevin Shirley and was released in March 1995. At the time of recording, the band members were 15 years old, still attending high school. Frogstomp's lyrical concepts were fiction-based, drawing inspiration from television, hometown tragedies, perceptions of the pain of friends.
The album was well received: Allmusic and Rolling Stone rated it in four and four-and-a-half stars praising the intensity of the album "Tomorrow". Aside from Innocent Criminals, the band has used The George Costanza Trio and Short Elvis as aliases. Frogstomp was a number-one album in New Zealand, it reached the Billboard 200 Top 10, making Silverchair the first Australian band to do so since INXS. It was certified as a US double-platinum album by the RIAA, triple-platinum in Canada by the CRIA and multi-platinum in Australia; the album sold more than 4 million copies worldwide. Paste magazine called this album the "last stand" of grunge; as Frogstomp and "Tomorrow" continued to gain popularity through 1995, the group toured the US where they supported Red Hot Chili Peppers in June, The Ramones in September, played on the roof of Radio City Music Hall at the MTV Music Awards – in between touring they continued their secondary education in Newcastle. At the ARIA Music Awards of 1995, the band won five awards out of nine nominations.
To collect their awards on the night they sent the young son of the album's producer. In a January 1996 murder case, the defendant counsel for Brian Bassett, 16, Nicholaus McDo
Julian Thomas Hamilton is an Australian singer-songwriter and keyboardist, with band mate Kim Moyes, formed the electronica duo, The Presets in 2003. They have issued four studio albums, Apocalypso, Hi Viz. Both were members of another electronic group, which released two albums, Small Craft Rough Sea and Cook Cut Damage Destroy. Hamilton has worked as a session and touring member of Silverchair and The Dissociatives. At the APRA Music Awards of 2008 Hamilton and Daniel Johns won Song of the Year and Most Played Australian Work for Silverchair's single, "Straight Lines". In 2009 Hamilton and Moyes won Songwriters of the Year for their work on Apocalypso for The Presets. In 2012 Julian opened the Tarts' in Leura of the Blue Mountains; the cafe is renowned for winning the coveted'Mounty' awards for an unprecedented 6th consecutive year. The award recognizes the best cafe of the Blue Mountains as voted by the Blue Mountains public at each Winterfest. Hamilton grew up in Sydney, he attended St Andrew's Cathedral School.
He completed his Higher School Certificate in 1994. In the following year, Hamilton was studying piano at the Sydney Conservatorium of Music, where he met Kim Moyes. Hamilton on keyboards and Moyes on vibraphone joined an electronic band Prop, with Jeremy Barnett on marimbas, David Symes on bass guitar and Jared Underwood on drums. Prop released their debut album, Small Craft Rough Sea, in 2001 on Undercover Music/Silent Recordings label. In October that year, Radio National's Brent Clough aired some of their tracks on his programme and described their sound as "fusing jazz, minimalist and techno elements into a seamless whole" and noted their "remarkably diverse influences – with selections from Olivier Messiaen and Philip Glass to Sci-Fi soundtracks, Squarepusher and Al Green". Small Craft Rough Sea's tracks were remixed by various artists and appeared as Cook Cut Damage Destroy, in early 2003; the remix artists included Stereolab, paulmac, Decoder Ring, Mice Parade, Telemetry Orchestra, Mako and Burnt Friedman.
Chris Johnston of The Age reviewed the remix album in March 2010, felt its sound was "cerebral and faintly ridiculous jazz-fusion" which resulted in an album "where in wordless, warbly... songs such as'Low' they attempted to abridge the history of Western thought and Eastern composition into one mid-length instrumental". Hamilton and Moyes formed The Presets in 2003, to provide their own remix of one of Prop's track, "Magnetic Highway", as "Blood Bubbles" for Cook Cut Damage Destroy. Tammy La Gorce of AllMusic noted their version showed "harder electronic edges". Moyes recalled "Julian and I used to muck around after Prop rehearsals and play the stupidest music we could... This new style that we were experimenting with, we got computers and started recording them and put a little demo together"; as a member of The Presets, Hamilton has provided lead vocals, keyboards and producing for their releases including three studio albums, Beams and Pacifica. Hamilton has worked as a session and touring musician, co-songwriter, for Silverchair.
Hamilton worked with The Sleepy Jackson to record their 2006 album, Personality - One Was a Spider, One Was a Bird. He is credited for orchestral arrangements and additional production, played keyboard and synth on many of the songs. Hamilton co-wrote four tracks with Daniel Johns on the 2007 Silverchair album, Young Modern, including the singles "Straight Lines" and "Mind Reader". Hamilton co-wrote the song "On My Own" for Bluejuice's 2011 album Company. In 2013 he released the Single "Higher Love" taken from the Vocal Collaboration Album "Features" by Kris Menace. In the early 2000s Julian Hamilton met Janice Petersen at a record store, they became a domestic couple and live in Sydney, where Petersen, since 2008, is the co-anchor of the Special Broadcasting Service TV evening news. Hamilton and Petersen have two children. 2008 Song of the Year and Most Played Australian Work for "Straight Lines" – wins shared with Daniel Johns. 2009 Songwriters of the Year – win shared with Kim Moyes