Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria. It is in the Inn valley, at its junction with the Wipp valley, which provides access to the Brenner Pass some 30 km to the south. Located in the broad valley between high mountains, the so-called North Chain in the Karwendel Alps to the north, the Patscherkofel and Serles to the south. Innsbruck is an internationally renowned winter sports center, hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics as well as the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics. Innsbruck hosted the first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012; the name translates as "Inn Bridge". The earliest traces suggest initial inhabitation in the early Stone Age. Surviving pre-Roman place names show that the area has been populated continuously. In the 4th century the Romans established the army station Veldidena at Oenipons, to protect the economically important commercial road from Verona-Brenner-Augsburg in their province of Raetia; the first mention of Innsbruck dates back to the name Oeni Pontum or Oeni Pons, Latin for bridge over the Inn, an important crossing point over the Inn river.
The Counts of Andechs acquired the town in 1180. In 1248 the town passed into the hands of the Counts of Tyrol; the city's arms show a bird's-eye view of the Inn bridge, a design used since 1267. The route over the Brenner Pass was a major transport and communications link between the north and the south of Europe, the easiest route across the Alps, it was part of a medieval imperial road under special protection of the king. The revenues generated by serving. Innsbruck became the capital of all Tyrol in 1429 and in the 15th century the city became a centre of European politics and culture as Emperor Maximilian I resided in Innsbruck in the 1490s; the city benefited from the emperor's presence. Here a funeral monument for Maximilian was planned and erected by his successors; the ensemble with a cenotaph and the bronze statues of real and mythical ancestors of the Habsburg emperor are one of the main artistic monuments of Innsbruck. A regular postal service between Innsbruck and Mechelen was established in 1490 by the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post.
In 1564 Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria received the rulership over Tirol and other Further Austrian possessions administered from Innsbruck up to the 18th century. He had Schloss Ambras built and arranged there his unique Renaissance collections nowadays part of Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum. Up to 1665 a stirps of the Habsburg dynasty ruled in Innsbruck with an independent court. In the 1620s the first opera house north of the Alps was erected in Innsbruck. In 1669 the university was founded; as a compensation for the court as Emperor Leopold I again reigned from Vienna and the Tyrolean stirps of the Habsburg dynasty had ended in 1665. During the Napoleonic Wars Tyrol was ceded to ally of France. Andreas Hofer led a Tyrolean peasant army to victory in the Battles of Bergisel against the combined Bavarian and French forces, made Innsbruck the centre of his administration; the combined army overran the Tyrolean militia army and until 1814 Innsbruck was part of Bavaria. After the Vienna Congress Austrian rule was restored.
Until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, head of the district of the same name, one of the 21 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Tyrol province. The Tyrolean hero Andreas Hofer was executed in Mantua. During World War I, the only recorded action taking place in Innsbruck was near the end of the war. On February 20, 1918, Allied planes flying out of Italy raided Innsbruck, causing casualties among the Austrian troops there. No damage to the town is recorded. In November 1918 Innsbruck and all Tyrol were occupied by the 20 to 22 thousand soldiers of the III Corps of the First Italian Army. In 1929, the first official Austrian Chess Championship was held in Innsbruck. In 1938 Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in the Anschluss. Between 1943 and April 1945, Innsbruck suffered heavy damage. In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino by recognizing the creation of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.
Innsbruck has a humid continental climate, since it has larger annual temperature differences than most of Central Europe due to its location in the centre of the Continent and its position around mountainous terrains. Winters are very cold and snowy, although the foehn wind sometimes brings pronounced thaws. Spring is brief. Summer is variable and unpredictable. Days can be cool 17 °C and rainy, or sunny and hot, sometimes hitting 34 °C. In summer, as expected for an alpine-influenced climate, the diurnal temperature variation is very high as nights remain cool, being 12 °C on average, but sometimes dipping as low as 6 °C; the average annual temperature is 9 °C. Innsbruck is divided into nine boroughs that were formed from previo
The Gathering (Testament album)
The Gathering is the eighth studio album by American thrash metal band Testament, released on June 28, 1999. It was the first release. Co-produced by band members, Chuck Billy and Eric Peterson, this was the first album featuring new musicians Steve DiGiorgio on bass guitar and Dave Lombardo on drums. Billy and Lombardo, along with longtime Testament collaborator Del James, are given composer credits on the album; the Gathering featured eleven tracks when it was released, drawing critic and fan acclaim for such songs as "D. N. R.", "Riding the Snake", "Legions of the Dead". After release Testament embarked on the Riding the Snake World Tour to promote the album with "touring" lead guitarist Steve Smyth and Sadus drummer Jon Allen; the tour ended in 2001 shortly. As a result, Testament would not release another studio album until 2008 with The Formation of Damnation, although they did release an album of re-recorded material, First Strike Still Deadly, in 2001; the Gathering is the first of five albums to date featuring engineering and mixing work done with artist and former Sabbat guitarist Andy Sneap.
It is the first of five reissues that Testament has done with Prosthetic Records. The album was reissued January 8, 2008, with an instrumental bonus track, "Hammer of the Gods," increasing the new track total to twelve. While "Hammer of the Gods" is listed on the track listing of the original American release, it does not appear on the CD. However, it does appear on the worldwide Prosthetic Records 2008 reissue. Album cover artwork for The Gathering was done by Dave McKean who did the cover art for the two prior Testament studio albums Demonic and Low. In a 2010 Interview, Chuck Billy describes how the free flow of ideas between Dave Lombardo and Eric Peterson was the "key and secret" to the album's overall heavier sound in comparison to previous albums. Chuck Billy's aggressive vocal approaches and darker death metal sound were apparent earlier on the last album and continued to be on The Gathering, but it was the range and diversity that the singer achieved on this album that drew the highest acclaim.
While the album's songs range from heavier death metal to a more melodic thrash metal, it was the singer's ability to go from his distinct sound to a death metal growl while blending the two, noted as trademark Testament. At the time of release Testament had not done a music video since 1994's Low and was looking at using live footage as a music video to promote The Gathering. Demonic, the band's previous 1997 release, had been handled by a distribution company that went bankrupt to the tune of $44 million which had stranded most retail supply in locked warehouses and off the shelves hurting the album release; the Gathering reached #48 on the German album charts, its only chart showing reflecting problems from the prior albums and a lack of coverage rather than weaknesses with the album. "Hammer of the Gods" did not appear on the domestic American re-release, though the song title was listed on the album cover. It is an instrumental bonus track only available on the Japan reissue. Testament Chuck Billy – vocals James Murphy – lead guitar Eric Peterson – rhythm guitar Steve Di Giorgio – bass Dave Lombardo – drumsProduction Chuck Billy – co-producer Eric Peterson – co-producer, engineering Andy Sneap – engineering, mixing James Murphy – engineering Phil Arnold – executive Producer Vincent Wojno – engineering Kent Matcke – engineering Dave McKean – album cover artwork Testament Official Website Steve Smyth Website Spitfire Records T section Prosthetic Records releases
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Paul Steven Bostaph is a heavy metal drummer performing for the thrash metal band Slayer. His drumming career began in 1984, when he was 20 years old, he has since worked with bands like Forbidden, Systematic and BlackGates. Metal-Rules.com describes Bostaph as "a true professional and one of the best drummers on today's metal music scene." Bostaph's first interest was to play bass but he decided to play drums because he found a drum kit cheaper than a bass guitar. He approached rock music listening to the Beatles and the Beach Boys, but AC/DC got him into rock drumming, he bought his first drum kit at 15 and, after listening to Killers by Iron Maiden, he wanted to become a metal drummer. Other influences include bands like Blue Öyster Cult and Black Sabbath, his biggest drumming inspirations are Phil Rudd, Clive Burr, Tommy Aldridge, Nicko McBrain, Cozy Powell, Jeff Porcaro, Steve Smith, Dave Lombardo, Tommy Lee. Bostaph attended Newark Memorial High School, in California, he had a strong dislike to his schooling years as he thought, "I felt I had enough to get me through every day life, why do I need more?"
He was interested in sports and towards the end of his first year, his interest in music began, he got a job, which took priority over his schooling. Bostaph played drums for Forbidden from 1985–1992, playing on their first two studio albums, Forbidden Evil and Twisted into Form, he played on their 1989 live EP Raw Evil: Live at the Dynamo. He is regarded as their most prolific'permanent' drummer to date. Bostaph had joined the band First Strike. Following the departure of Slayer drummer Dave Lombardo in 1992, the band was looking for a new drummer. Lombardo's drum tech was filling in but made errors. After auditioning several drummers and listening to hundreds of demo tapes, Bostaph was recommended by Slayer guitarist Kerry King's guitar technician. Slayer members listened to Forbidden records, they did not see how Bostaph could fit into the Slayer momentum – Lombardo's style being "over the top", while Forbidden was more melodic. Slayer auditioned Bostaph with nine songs, he made only one error on "Angel of Death".
Bostaph had to continually practice to improve the strength of his feet. So, I went in and every time I had to learn a new song I would play them how Dave played them". Bostaph recorded four albums with Slayer; this is due to the guitars not being loud enough as they were in the recording session, moving around to several recording studios, a producer who had never done any heavy metal music. The producer changed near the end of recording to Toby Wright – Bostaph stating "that record never had any consistency to it although a lot of fans still like it." Bostaph left the band in 1996 to concentrate on his solo project, Truth About Seafood, was replaced by Jon Dette. His second favorite album is 2001's God Hates Us All. Bostaph departed from Slayer after the release of God Hates Us All, following a chronic elbow injury he had sustained that would hinder his ability to play, his third last performance with the band is recorded on the DVD War at the Warfield recorded on December 7, 2001. Bostaph is yet to watch it as he feels "It's like breaking up with a girlfriend" and needs to move on with his life.
He remained friends with Slayer members, when asked if he would work with them in the future, he replied "sure". Bostaph was temporarily replaced by original Slayer drummer Dave Lombardo, which proved to be a permanent arrangement until 2013, when the band announced he has replaced Lombardo for the second time. Unwilling to give up music, Bostaph joined Systematic in 2003 – a band which he had formed with vocalist Tim Narducci and guitarist Adam Ruppel before recording Slayer's Diabolus in Musica. Bostaph introduced the band to Slayer's manager – Rick Sales – to help the band gain notice; as the band needed a drummer in 2003, Bostaph was willing to help out. Bostaph toured with Systematic for four months, although departed in 2004 stating: "I wasn’t having much fun and it’s not for me." In 2003 Bostaph sustained an injury while playing soccer. After finishing Systematics tour, Bostaph underwent surgery – not touching a drum kit for over a year until he received a phone call from Exodus members.
Bostaph received a phone call from Exodus' manager. Exodus bass guitarist Jack Gibson talked to guitarist Gary Holt if they should recruit Bostaph – Holt knew Bostaph while Exodus toured with Forbidden, as both bands were from the San Francisco Bay Area; when Bostaph received the phone call, two members had left Exodus, drummer Tom Hunting was thinking about leaving. Bostaph knew how to play all the records except for Impact Is Imminent, recorded drums on the band's 2005 album Shovel Headed Kill Machine. Bostaph asserts. Bostaph says the chemistry between members was different, due to three out of five members being replaced in one year; the band tou
Eric Peterson (musician)
Eric Peterson is an American guitarist, best known as a member of the American thrash metal band Testament and is the only remaining original member left in the band, which first started in 1982 under the name Legacy. He and vocalist Chuck Billy are the only members to appear on all of the band's studio albums. Peterson has a side project black metal band called Dragonlord, in which he plays guitar and sings. In Testament, Peterson was a rhythm guitarist while Alex Skolnick handled all lead work. More though, Peterson plays leads along with Skolnick, his father was of Swedish descent and his mother was of Mexican descent. Peterson was married with whom he has one child, they are now divorced. Peterson's main guitars have been Gibson models for most of his career in Testament a black Explorer model and a Les Paul. However, he is endorsing Dean Guitars and has been using his own signature Dean V guitar. Demo 1 Demo 2 The Legacy The New Order Practice What You Preach Souls of Black The Ritual Return to the Apocalyptic City Low Demonic The Gathering The Formation of Damnation Dark Roots of Earth Brotherhood of the Snake Rapture Black Wings of Destiny Dominion Dreamland Winter Sun Old Man's Child – Vermin Leah McHenry - Otherworld EP Amplifier: Kemper, Marshall JVM series 210 watt head, Mesa/Boogie Triple Rectifier Heads, EVH 5150 heads Cabinets: Mesa 4x12 Recto Cabinets loaded with Celestion vintage 30s & EVH III Cabinets Effects: Dunlop Cry Baby from Hell Wah, Boss TU-2 Tuner, MXR Flanger, MXR Stereo Chorus, TC Electronic Nova Delay Cords: Monster Cable Guitars: Dean Cadillac, Dean Michael Schenker V, Gibson Flying V, Dean Eric Peterson Signature OldSkull V Strings: DR Gauge 10–52 Pickups: Dean Flying V: EMG 85 & EMG 81, Dean Time Capsule: Dimarzio Super Distortion Zebras, Dean Cadillac: Seymor Duncan'59 & jazz, jb Picks: Dunlop Purple & Green sharp
The New Order (album)
The New Order is the second studio album by American thrash metal band Testament, released on May 5, 1988. Alex Skolnick recounts of the album recording process: "We got done with our first couple of tours on that first album cycle when we were informed we have to have another album, soon! We got spooked in a way. By the time we recorded the album, we neglected to look at our recording contract. We had it in our contract that there's a minimum of 40 minutes of music, we clocked in under that! Our album was promptly sent back...we added the Aerosmith tune, we added those little instrumentals, we extended a couple of sections...that was all done so we wouldn't be in breach of contract." The New Order was the album that broke Testament into the thrash metal mainstream, with singles "Trial by Fire" and "The Preacher". This success would only grow with their next album Practice; the New Order was the first Testament album to enter the Billboard 200, reaching number 136 on that chart. It was the band's first album to include an instrumental track.
The album contains many songs that the band still plays live to this day including "Into the Pit", "The Preacher", "The New Order", "Disciples of the Watch", "Trial by Fire". "Into the Pit", "The New Order", "Disciples of the Watch" are among Testament's most performed songs. One of Testament's earliest songs dating back to their period as Legacy, "Reign of Terror", was recorded during the sessions of The New Order, but was left off the album; this re-recorded version of "Reign of Terror" can be found as a b-side to the "Trial by Fire" single as well as the band's 1993 EP Return to the Apocalyptic City. The song would be re-recorded again in 2001 for the album First Strike Still Deadly. Reviews for The New Order have been favorable. Allmusic's Alex Henderson awards the album four-and-a-half stars out of five, claims that Testament "delivered its best offering ever" and describes it as "every bit as brutally forceful as The Legacy." He called the album the "ideal choice."The New Order entered the Billboard 200 album charts in August 1988, three months after its release.
The album peaked at number 136 and remained on the chart for thirteen weeks, making it Testament's longest run so far. "Trial By Fire" and "The Preacher" were released as singles. By 1990, The New Order had sold over 250,000 copies in the U. S. In August 2014, Revolver placed The New Order on its "14 Thrash Albums You Need to Own" list. Testament toured for three months to promote The New Order, they toured Europe shortly after its release alongside thrash acts Megadeth, Sanctuary and Jetsam and Nuclear Assault. This was followed by a summer U. S. tour, which featured support from Vio-Lence, Voivod, Destruction, Nuclear Assault, Death Angel and Potential Threat. They toured Europe again in August. After playing two shows in San Francisco in December 1988, one show with Heathen at the Country Club in Reseda in January 1989, Testament began work on their third studio album Practice What You Preach; the track "Into the Pit" was covered by The Absence on Riders of the Plague. The track "The Preacher" was covered by Hell's Thrash Horsemen on their 2009 EP...
Till Violence. TestamentChuck Billy – vocals Alex Skolnick – lead guitar Eric Peterson – rhythm guitar, cover art concept Greg Christian – bass Louie Clemente – drumsProductionTom Coyne – mastering Robert Hunter – assistant engineer Alex Perialas – producer, mixing Jon Zazula – executive producer Marsha Zazula – executive producer Andy Meyn – photography William Benson – artwork
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular