Digital media are any media that are encoded in machine-readable formats. Digital media can be created, distributed and preserved on digital electronics devices. Examples of digital media include software, digital images, digital video, video game, web pages and websites, including social media and databases, digital audio, such as MP3 and electronic books. Digital media contrasts with print media, such as printed books and magazines, other traditional or analog media, such as images, movies or audio tapes. Digital media has a significant complex impact on society and culture. Combined with the Internet and personal computing, digital media has caused disruptive innovation in publishing, public relations, education and politics. Digital media has posed new challenges to copyright and intellectual property laws, fostering an open content movement in which content creators voluntarily give up some or all of their legal rights to their work; the ubiquity of digital media and its effects on society suggest that we are at the start of a new era in industrial history, called the Information Age leading to a paperless society in which all media are produced and consumed on computers.
However, challenges to a digital transition remain, including outdated copyright laws, the digital divide, the spectre of a digital dark age, in which older media becomes inaccessible to new or upgraded information systems. Digital media has a wide-ranging and complex impact on society and culture. Codes and information by machines were first conceptualized by Charles Babbage in the early 1800s. Babbage imagined that these codes would give him instructions for his Motor of Difference and Analytical Engine, machines that Babbage had designed to solve the problem of error in calculations. Between 1822 and 1823, Ada Lovelace, wrote the first instructions for calculating numbers on Babbage engines. Lovelace's instructions are now believed to be the first computer program. Although the machines were designed to perform analysis tasks, Lovelace anticipated the possible social impact of computers and programming, writing. "For in the distribution and combination of truths and formulas of analysis, which may become easier and more subjected to the mechanical combinations of the engine, the relationships and the nature of many subjects in which science relates in new subjects, more researched...
There are in all extensions of human power or additions to human knowledge, various collateral influences, in addition to the primary and primary object reached. "Other old machine readable media include instructions for pianolas and weaving machines. It is estimated that in the year 1986 less than 1% of the world's media storage capacity was digital and in 2007 it was 94%; the year 2002 is assumed to be the year when human kind was able to store more information in digital than in analog media. Though they used machine-readable media, Babbage's engines, player pianos, jacquard looms and many other early calculating machines were themselves analog computers, with physical, mechanical parts; the first digital media came into existence with the rise of digital computers. Digital computers use binary code and Boolean logic to store and process information, allowing one machine in one configuration to perform many different tasks; the first modern, digital computers, the Manchester Mark 1 and the EDSAC, were independently invented between 1948 and 1949.
Though different in many ways from modern computers, these machines had digital software controlling their logical operations. They were encoded in binary, a system of ones and zeroes that are combined to make hundreds of characters; the 1s and 0s of binary are the "digits" of digital media. While digital media came into common use in the early 1950s, the conceptual foundation of digital media is traced to the work of scientist and engineer Vannevar Bush and his celebrated essay "As We May Think," published in The Atlantic Monthly in 1945. Bush envisioned a system of devices that could be used to help scientists, doctors and others, store and communicate information. Calling this then-imaginary device a "memex", Bush wrote: The owner of the memex, let us say, is interested in the origin and properties of the bow and arrow, he is studying why the short Turkish bow was superior to the English long bow in the skirmishes of the Crusades. He has dozens of pertinent books and articles in his memex.
First he runs through an encyclopedia, finds an interesting but sketchy article, leaves it projected. Next, in a history, he finds another pertinent item, ties the two together, thus he goes. He inserts a comment of his own, either linking it into the main trail or joining it by a side trail to a particular item; when it becomes evident that the elastic properties of available materials had a great deal to do with the bow, he branches off on a side trail which takes him through textbooks on elasticity and tables of physical constants. He inserts a page of longhand analysis of his own, thus he builds a trail of his interest through the maze of materials available to him. Bush hoped that the creation of this memex would be the work of scientists after World War II. Though the essay predated digital computers by several years, "As We May Think," anticipated the potential social and intellectual benefits of digital media and provided the conceptual framework for digital scholarship, the World Wide Web and social media.
It was recognized as a significant work at the time of its publication. In the years since the invention of the first digital
Euronext Paris is France's securities market known as the Paris Bourse, which merged with the Amsterdam and Brussels exchanges in September 2000 to form Euronext NV, the second largest exchange in Europe behind the United Kingdom's London Stock Exchange Group. It operates the MATIF futures exchange, which trades futures and options on interest rate products and commodities, MONEP, equity and index futures and options. All products are traded electronically on the NSC system adopted by all of the Euronext members. Transactions are cleared through LCH. Clearnet. Cash settlement is T+2. Trading hours are 9 am to 5:30 pm CET, Monday to Friday; the French equities market is divided into three sections. The Premier Marché called the Official List, includes large French and foreign companies, most Bond issues; the Second Marché, lists medium-sized companies, while nouveau marché lists fast-growing start up companies seeking capital to finance expansion, linked to Euro.nm, the European equity growth market.
A fourth market, Marché Libre, is nonregulated, administered by Euronext Paris for transactions in securities not listed on the other three markets. Euronext Paris calculates a family of indices; the CAC 40 is the exchange's benchmark, disseminated in real time. Its components are included in a benchmark for investment funds; the SBF 250 index, a benchmark for the long-term performance of equity portfolios, includes all of the SBF 120. The MIDCAC index includes 100 of the most liquid medium-size stocks on the Premier Marché and Nouveau Marché calculated on the basis of opening and closing prices, while the Second Marché index focuses on that market. Both indices are benchmarks for funds; the Nouveau Marché Index represents stocks in the growth market. The SBF-FCI index is based on a selection of convertible bonds that represent at least 70% of the total capitalization of this market, calculated twice daily. For derivatives, MONEP trades short-term and long-term stock options and futures and options on a family of Dow Jones indices.
MATIF's products include commodity future and options on European rapeseed and futures on rapeseed meal, European rapeseed oil, milling wheat and sunflower seeds. For the fiscal year ending December 2004, Euronext Paris recorded sales of US $522 million, a −12.9% decrease in sales from 2003. Euronext Paris has a US $2.9 trillion total market capitalization of listed companies and average daily trading value of its combined markets of US $102 billion/€77 billion. List of French companies CAC 40 CAC Next 20 French Society of Financial Analysts Euronext Paris website MONEP website
Quantcast is an American technology company, founded in 2006, that specializes in AI-driven real-time advertising, audience insights & measurement. The company claims, it has offices in the United States, Australia, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Sweden. Quantcast was launched in 2006; the company claimed to be the first rating service to rely on direct measurement. The company was built on the belief that digital advertising requires reliable data to be successful, so the primary aim was to gather detailed, real-time insights on audience characteristics across the internet. By placing tags on digital content across the open internet, the firm measures metrics such as audience age and gender makeup, areas of interest and type and frequency of their engagement with certain types of content; this private information is made publicly available to be used by marketers and publishers to understand their audience in granular detail.2009, Quantcast launched the real-time advertising side of their business, using all of the insight into human behavior they received from the direct measurement of audiences.
In 2010, Quantcast's Publisher Program was the first syndicated online traffic measurement service to receive official accreditation from the Media Rating Council. In 2013, the company acquired MakeGood Software, an advertising technology startup that simplifies data management and reporting for online advertising campaigns; the technology was subsequently integrated with Quantcast Advertise to enhance the reporting functions available for Quantcast campaigns. This nudged the company closer towards competition in the ad effectiveness category, which includes companies like comScore. 2013 OnMedia 100 Top Private Companies - B2B: Advertising Analytics 2012 WIRED Magazine: The 10 San Francisco Tech Companies You Wish You Worked For 2012 AlwaysOn Global 250 Top Private Companies 2011 OnMedia 100 Top Private Companies - B2B: Advertising Analytics 2011 Business Insider Digital 100: Quantcast Ranked #54 2010 Fast Company Most Innovative Companies - Web 2015 Glassdoor Employee's Choice Award, Best Places to Work 2016 Quantcast partnered with IAB Europe, IAB UK and the ANAs to create an educational program for industry professionals to understand the language and processes of the online advertising ecosystem.
2016 Business Insider: The 37 hottest pre-IPO ad tech startups of 2016. Ranked #11. Official website Quantcast at Crunchbase
Axel Springer SE
Axel Springer SE is a German digital publishing house, the largest in Europe, with numerous multimedia news brands, such as Bild, Die Welt, Fakt and more than 15,000 employees. It generated total revenues of about €3.3 billion and an EBITDA of €559 million in the financial year 2015. The digital media activities contribute more than 60% to its revenues and nearly 70% to its EBITDA. Axel Springer’s business is divided into three segments: paid models, marketing models, classified ad models. Headquartered in Berlin, the company is active in more than 40 countries with subsidiaries, joint ventures, licensing, it was started in 1946/1947 by journalist Axel Springer. Its current CEO is Mathias Döpfner; the Axel Springer company is the largest publishing house in Europe and controls the largest share of the German market for daily newspapers. The media offerings of Axel Springer SE are clustered in: current news, sports and consumer electronics, as well as lifestyle. Die Welt, the intellectual flagship of the company Bild, tabloid with the largest circulation in Europe Auto Bild, automobile magazine with the largest circulation in Europe Audio Video Foto Bild, magazine for consumer electronics Computer Bild, published in nine countries, is Europe's best-selling computer magazine Sport Bild, published in many countries, is Europe's largest sport magazine Auto.cz, the largest Czech internet car portal including RoadLook.tv, starting in Slovakia and Poland as well Fakt, the largest daily tabloid in Poland B.
Z. local newspaper Watchmi, a personalized TV content discovery system Musikexpress, a monthly music magazine the German edition of the magazine Rolling Stone Transfermarkt, a football statistics website Business Insider, a business and technology news website INSIDER, a social-first lifestyle publication. In addition, the company is active in the online editorial and marketing business with its shares in aufeminin.com and buy.at and owns several classified advertising online platforms such as the online career site StepStone, the real estate marketing portal immonet and price comparison platform idealo. 1946: Publisher Hinrich Springer and his son Axel Springer establish the limited company Axel Springer Verlag GmbH. Launch of the NORDWESTDEUTSCHE HEFTE and the radio and TV magazine HÖRZU. 1948: Launch of the evening newspaper HAMBURGER ABENDBLATT, the first daily created by Axel Springer. 1952: Launch of the popular daily BILD. The paper was based on the British tabloid Daily Mirror, peaked at circulation of 5 million in the 1980s.
1953: Axel Springer Verlag buys the publishing house DIE WELT, including the daily paper DIE WELT and the Sunday paper WELT am SONNTAG. 1956: Company headquarters in Hamburg is built. 1959: The company acquires the majority holding in Ullstein AG, including the Berlin newspapers BERLINER MORGENPOST and B. Z. and the Ullstein book-publishing business. 1966: Official opening of the Berlin headquarters. Hamburg remains important site. 1968: After the attack on the students' leader Rudi Dutschke on 11 April 1968 the APO starts acts of violence against the company. The APO had a history of animosity with the Springer Group's biased coverage of the student movement. For instance, in the wake of the shooting of Benno Ohnesorg by the police at a student demonstration against the Shah, one Springer paper reported that “what happened yesterday in Berlin had nothing to do with politics… It was criminal in the most sickening way.”. In fact, who had never attended a demonstration before, had been shot in the back while trying to leave the demonstration.
1972–73: Building of the offset-printing plant in Essen-Kettwig. 1984: Official opening of the offset printing facility in Ahrensburg near Hamburg. 1985: 49% of the company is offered for public subscription. That year Axel Springer dies. Control is passed to his widow Friede Springer. 1986: The first licensed edition of AUTO BILD comes out in Italy. Other licensed editions and joint venture publications appear in twenty European countries and Thailand. 1993: Official opening of the offset printing works in Berlin-Spandau. 2001: Axel Springer and T-Online establish a joint subsidiary Bild.de/T-Online AG. 2002: Launch of immonet.de. Mathias Doepfner, former editor-in-chief of Die Welt, becomes CEO of Axel Springer AG. 2003: Name is changed to Axel Springer AG. 2009: Axel Springer AG acquires affiliate marketers Zanox and Digital Window as well as StepStone ASA. 2010 a $635.7 million offer by Axel for leading French real estate website operator seloger.com caused seloger shares to rise as much as 32% the most since it went public.
Within 3 days Axel increased its offer 15.6% to $735 million after seloger shareholders rejected the deal. 2012 Axel Springer forms a joint venture with global growth equity firm General Atlantic. The company buys TotalJobs in the UK from Reed Elsevier. 2013: Springer sells its regional newspapers, woman's magazines, television magazines to Funke Mediengruppe for €920 million 2013: Publications Grand Public, a French magazine publisher owned by Springer, is sold to Reworld Media. 2015: Axel Springer AG purchases Business Insider, a business and technology news website, in a deal that values Business Insider at $442 million. 2015: On December 8, Axel Springer increased their share in Axel Springer Digital Classifieds GmbH from 70 per cent to 85 per cent, was granted a purchase option to acquire the remaining 15 per cent from General Atlantic. On December 9, Axel Springer exercised the option, acquiring the additional 15% from General Atlantic in exchange
Comerica Incorporated is a financial services company headquartered in Dallas, Texas. It has retail banking operations in Texas, Arizona and Florida, with select business operations in several other U. S. states, as well as in Mexico. Comerica is the largest U. S. commercial bank is on the list of largest banks in the United States. The company's largest offices are in Detroit, Auburn Hills and Dallas; the bank sponsors Comerica Park in Detroit, Comerica Theatre in Phoenix, sponsored the Comerica Bank New Year's Parade in Dallas between 2007 and 2010. In 1849, the company was founded in Detroit by Elon Farnsworth as the Detroit Savings Fund Institute, its name changed to The Detroit Savings Bank in 1871 and to The Detroit Bank in 1936, being one of the few area banks to survive the Great Depression. In 1956, the company merged with Birmingham National Bank, Ferndale National Bank and Detroit Wabeek Bank and Trust Company to form The Detroit Bank & Trust Company. In 1973, it formed DetroitBank Corporation.
The current name was adopted in 1982. In 1982, Comerica entered the Florida market. In 1983, it acquired Bank of the Commonwealth of Michigan, it entered the Texas market in 1988. In 1990, Comerica received approval to construct One Detroit Center. In 1991, the bank expanded to California by acquiring InBancshares. In 1992, the bank merged with a similarly-sized Detroit-based bank, Manufacturers National Corporation. In 1996, the bank sold its Illinois operation to LaSalle Bank parent ABN Amro for $190 million. In 1998, the bank signed a 30-year $66 million agreement for the naming rights to Comerica Park in downtown Detroit, home to the Detroit Tigers of Major League Baseball. In 2000, the bank formed an alliance with the company. In 2001, the bank acquired Imperial Bank of California, which had branches in Arizona. On March 6, 2007, the company announced its decision to relocate its corporate headquarters to Dallas to move closer to its customer base in the Sun Belt. In August, the company announced.
The company executives began moving into 1717 Main Street in November 2007 and the building was renamed Comerica Tower. In January 2008, the United States Department of the Treasury selected the company as the issuing bank for its Direct Express debit card program; the federal government uses the Express Debit product to issue electronic payments, such as Social Security benefits, to people who do not have bank accounts. In July 2011, the bank acquired Sterling Bank of Texas for $1.03 billion. In 2017, the bank announced plans to reduce its office space by 500,000 square feet, saving $7 million in 2018
Redwood City, California
Redwood City is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern California's Bay Area 27 miles south of San Francisco, 24 miles northwest of San Jose. Redwood City's history spans its earliest inhabitation by the Ohlone people to being a port for lumber and other goods; the county seat of San Mateo County in the heart of Silicon Valley, Redwood City is home to several global technology companies including Oracle, Electronic Arts, Evernote and Informatica. The city had an estimated population of 86,685 in 2017; the Port of Redwood City is the only deepwater port on San Francisco Bay south of San Francisco. Redwood City is the location of the San Mateo County Jail, for both men; the Hetch Hetchy water pipeline runs through Redwood City and supplies a vast majority of the surrounding area with low grain rated water. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 34.7 square miles, of which 19.4 square miles is land and 15.2 square miles is water. A major watercourse draining much of Redwood City is Redwood Creek, to which several significant river deltas connect, the largest of, Westpoint Slough.
Redwood City stretches from the San Francisco Bay towards the Santa Cruz Mountains between San Carlos to the northwest and Atherton to the southeast with Woodside to the southwest. It is divided by Highway 101 and further inland El Camino Real on the northwest/southeast axis and Woodside Road on the north-northeast/south-southwest axis. Locally, the former two are regarded as north/south and the latter east/west, as 101 and El Camino connects Redwood City to San Francisco and San Jose and Woodside Road runs from San Francisco Bay to the Santa Cruz Mountains. Neighborhoods include Bair Island to the northeast of Highway 101; the northern neighborhood of Redwood Shores to the northeast of Highway 101 is part of Redwood City, although it is not possible to travel by road from one to the other without passing through the neighboring city of San Carlos, or through Belmont via unincorporated San Mateo County. Stretching along Highway 101 to the southeast of Woodside Road is Friendly Acres, further inland and still to the southeast of Woodside Road are Redwood Village and Redwood Oaks.
Most neighborhoods are to the northwest of Woodside Ride and southwest of Highway 101. Centennial and Stambaugh Heller are adjacent to 101. Next inland are Edgewood, Mt. Carmel and Palm Canyon, Eagle Hill and Woodside Plaza. Furthest inland is Farm Hills. Neighborhoods associated with Redwood City but not part of the incorporated city include Emerald Lake Hills and Kensington Square inland and to the north and North Fair Oaks to the southeast. Palomar Park, just north of Emerald Hills and east of San Carlos' Crestview area, is another Redwood City neighborhood, formally part of unincorporated San Mateo County. Although Redwood City has a large middle class, the south eastern section of Redwood City resembles working class North Fair Oaks in demographic make-up and income level. Redwood City, along with most of the Bay Area, enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate, with warm, dry summers and cool wet winters; the National Weather Service, which maintains both a forecast center and a cooperative office in Redwood City, reports that December is the coolest month and July is the warmest month.
The record highest temperature of 110 °F was recorded on both July 14 and 15, 1972. The record lowest temperature of 16 °F was recorded on January 11, 1949. Annually, there are an average of 21.6 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and 2.8 days with highs of 100 °F or higher. The normal annual precipitation is 20.56 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 12.42 inches in February 1998. The record 24-hour rainfall of 4.88 inches was on October 13, 1962. There are an average of 62.1 days with measurable precipitation. Snow flurries have been observed on rare occasions. Redwood City incorporated in 1867, the first city to do so in San Mateo County, it has been the county seat since the county was formed in 1856; the land had been part of the Rancho de las Pulgas granted to the Arguello family in 1835 by the Mexican government. Their control was challenged after the Mexican–American War when California became part of the United States; the family lawyer, Simon M. Mezes, in 1854 defended the claim somewhat and was allowed to buy the part of the estate, now Redwood City.
Mezes sold some of the land to people squatting on it along the banks of Redwood Creek and named the settlement, Mezesville. Though the city did not keep that name, Mezes Park still exists on land Mezes had given for open space. In 1907 Eikichi and Sadakusi Enomoto, Japanese immigrant brothers, grew the first chrysanthemums commercially in the United States in Redwood City. In 1926 the chamber of commerce proclaimed the city the "Chrysanthemum Center of the World" though the internment of Japanese Americans in 1941 and other factors removed flower growing as a major industry in the city; the 2010 United States Census reported that Redwood City had a population of 76,815. The population density was 3,955.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Redwood City was 46,255 White, 1,881 African American, 511 Native American, 8,216 Asian, 795 Pacific Islander, 14,967 from other races, 4,190 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 29,810 persons. Non-Hispanic Whites n