Livno is a city and the administrative center of Canton 10 of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated on the river Bistrica in the southeastern edge of the Livno Field at the foot of Krug mountain and rocky hill Crvenice, it is the centre of the Canton 10 which covers an area of the historical and geographical region of Tropolje; as of 2013, it has a population of 37,487 inhabitants. The town, with the remains of the antique architecture and the old town from the 9th century, first mentioned in 892, developed at the crossroads of roads between the Adriatic coast and inland, i.e. regions of Bosnia, Dalmatia and Krajina. The plains of Livno have been populated since 2000 BC. In the late Bronze Age, the Neolithic population was replaced by more Indo-European tribes known as the Illyrians; the region was inhabited by Illyrian tribe of Dalmatae which capital was Delminium in today's Tomislavgrad. They left remains; the most important of them are the gradine, remains of Illyrian settlements which were distributed along the Livno Field.
The three most important are Mala gradina and Kasalov gradac. After the Roman conquest of the area, it was part of the province of Dalmatia. During the twenties of the first century AD, Roman government built a road connecting Salona, a city on the coast with Servitium, a city at the peripanonic lowlands, its route passed through the Livno Field. The station of Pelva was located at the area of village Lištani and in the area of Livno station Bariduo was based. Livno celebrates its founding date as 28 September 892 AD, being mentioned in a document from Duke Mutimir, released at that time, it was the centre of Hlebiana županija of the Kingdom of Croatia, as mentioned in the tenth century work De Administrando Imperio. From 1199 Emeric until 1326 Mladen II Šubić of Bribir, a resident of Livno, it was part of the Chelmensis territory. From 1326 until 1463 Livno was part of the Bosnian Kingdom. One of the noble families of the Bosnian Kingdom bought Livno and Kupres called "Tropolje,"; the beginning of 15th century saw the Ottoman Empire advance and occupy Bosnia for the next 400 years.
Mosque complex in the picture the Hajji Ahmed the Ducat Minter's Mosque is one of the most recognizable architectural symbols of Livno. Constructed upon design by Mimar Sinan in 1574, it is situated on a hill overlooking the old town of Livno, the river Bistrica and the spring Duman in the upper section of the old town of Livno. The mosque complex consists of a compact main building of the mosque under a dome and uncharacteristically short minaret, with a clock tower, erected around 1659, is still in use today. Within the perimeter is an 500-year-old necropolis with characteristic early Bosnian Muslim tombstones and ones. In 1878 Livno was occupied by the Austro-Hungarian forces. Soldiers from Dalmatia and an infantry division from Osijek fiercely fought against 3.000 Ottoman and Muslim militias around Livno capturing the town on September 27th. From 1918 it was part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In 1929 the kingdom was divided into nine banates. Livno was divided with its centre in the city of Split.
This division brought Livno politically closer to Croatia. In 1939, the banates were further redrawn so that there was a Croatian banate of which Livno was part. From 1941-45, Livno was part of the Axis Independent State of Croatia, was labeled as a pro-Ustaše region; the territory that partisans liberated and managed to keep under their control from November 1942 to January 1943 included all of rural Western Herzegovina west of Neretva and Široki Brijeg, including Livno. Livno and its area, under partisan control from August to October 1942, was important for partisan resistance, as key Croatian Peasant Party members from Livno Florijan Sučić and Ivan Pelivan joined the partisans resistance and mobilized many other Croats. Croatian writer Ivan Goran Kovačić joined the Partisans in Croata, writing his epic poem "Jama" during his time with the resistance, he finished it in Livno. When Croatian Ustaše forces drove the partisans out of Livno in October 1942, as many as 1.500 civilians from Livno and the area chose to leave with the partisans into exile.
After the end of World War II, Livno was a part of Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Yugoslavia. After its collapse in 1992 and during the Bosnian War, it was under control of Croat Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. Livno is 127 km from Mostar, 167 km from Banja Luka and 212 km from Sarajevo. • Bila • Bilo Polje • Bogdaše • Bojmunte • Čaić • Čaprazlije • Čelebić • Čuklić • Ćosanlije • Dobro • Donji Rujani • Drinova Međa • Držanlije • Golinjevo • Gornji Rujani • Grborezi • Grgurići • Gubin • Komorani • Kovačić • Lipa • Lištani • Livno • Lopatice • Lusnić • Ljubunčić • Mali Guber • Mali Kablići • Miši • Odžak • Orguz • Podgradina • Podgreda • Podhum • Potkraj • Potočani • Potok • Priluka • Prisap • Prolog • Provo • Radanovci • Rapovine • Sajković • Smričani • Srđevići • Strupnić • Suhača • Tribić • Veliki Guber • Veliki Kablići • Vidoši • Vrbica • Vržerala • Zabrišće • Zagoričani • Zastinje • Žabljak • Žirović The territory of the municipality is 994 km2. Livno is both the industrial center of the canton.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, are most classified collectively as Bos taurus. Cattle are raised as livestock for meat, for milk, for hides, which are used to make leather, they are used as riding animals and draft animals. Another product of cattle is dung, which can be used to create fuel. In some regions, such as parts of India, cattle have significant religious meaning. Cattle small breeds such as the Miniature Zebu, are kept as pets. Around 10,500 years ago, cattle were domesticated from as few as 80 progenitors in central Anatolia, the Levant and Western Iran. According to an estimate from 2011, there are 1.4 billion cattle in the world. In 2009, cattle became one of the first livestock animals to have a mapped genome; some consider cattle the oldest form of wealth, cattle raiding one of the earliest forms of theft. Cattle were identified as three separate species: Bos taurus, the European or "taurine" cattle.
The aurochs is ancestral to both taurine cattle. These have been reclassified as one species, Bos taurus, with three subspecies: Bos taurus primigenius, Bos taurus indicus, Bos taurus taurus. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other related species. Hybrid individuals and breeds exist, not only between taurine cattle and zebu, but between one or both of these and some other members of the genus Bos – yaks and gaur. Hybrids such as the beefalo breed can occur between taurine cattle and either species of bison, leading some authors to consider them part of the genus Bos, as well; the hybrid origin of some types may not be obvious – for example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only taurine-type cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of taurine cattle and yak. However, cattle cannot be hybridized with more distantly related bovines such as water buffalo or African buffalo; the aurochs ranged throughout Europe, North Africa, much of Asia. In historical times, its range became restricted to Europe, the last known individual died in Mazovia, Poland, in about 1627.
Breeders have attempted to recreate cattle of similar appearance to aurochs by crossing traditional types of domesticated cattle, creating the Heck cattle breed. The noun cattle encompasses both sexes; the singular, technically means the female, the male being bull. The plural form cows is sometimes used colloquially to refer to both sexes collectively, as e.g. in a herd, but that usage can be misleading as the speaker's intent may indeed be just the females. The bovine species per se is dimorphic. Cattle did not originate as the term for bovine animals, it was borrowed from Anglo-Norman catel, itself from medieval Latin capitale'principal sum of money, capital', itself derived in turn from Latin caput'head'. Cattle meant movable personal property livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property; the word is a variant of chattel and related to capital in the economic sense. The term replaced earlier Old English feoh ` property', which survives today as fee; the word "cow" came via Anglo-Saxon cū, from Common Indo-European gʷōus = "a bovine animal", compare Persian: gâv, Sanskrit: go-, Welsh: buwch.
The plural cȳ became ki or kie in Middle English, an additional plural ending was added, giving kine, but kies and others. This is the origin of the now archaic English plural, "kine"; the Scots language singular is coo or cou, the plural is "kye". In older English sources such as the King James Version of the Bible, "cattle" refers to livestock, as opposed to "deer" which refers to wildlife. "Wild cattle" may refer to undomesticated species of the genus Bos. Today, when used without any other qualifier, the modern meaning of "cattle" is restricted to domesticated bovines. In general, the same words are used in different parts of the world, but with minor differences in the definitions; the terminology described here contrasts the differences in definition between the United Kingdom and other British-influenced parts of the world such as Canada, New Zealand and the United States. An "intact" adult male is called a bull. A wild, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia. An unbranded bovine of either sex is called a maverick in the Canada.
An adult female that has had a calf is a cow. A young female before she has had a calf of her own and is under three years of age is called a heifer. A young female that has had only one calf is called a first-calf heifer. Young cattle of both sexes are called calves until they are weaned weaners until they are a year old in some areas. After that, they are referred to as stirks if between one and two years of age. A castrated male is called a steer in the United States.
Gruyère is a hard yellow cheese that originated in the cantons of Fribourg, Neuchâtel and Berne in Switzerland. It is named after the town of Gruyères. Before 2001, when Gruyère gained the appellation d'origine contrôlée status as a Swiss cheese, some controversy existed whether French cheeses of a similar nature could be labelled Gruyère. Gruyère is sweet but salty, with a flavor that varies with age, it is described as creamy and nutty when young, becoming more assertive and complex as it matures. When aged it tends to have small cracks that impart a grainy texture. Gruyère cheese is known as one of the finest cheeses for baking, having a distinctive but not overpowering taste. In quiche, Gruyère adds savoriness without overshadowing the other ingredients, it is a good melting cheese suited for fondues, along with Vacherin Fribourgeois and Emmental. It is traditionally used in French onion soup, as well as in croque-monsieur, a classic French toasted ham and cheese sandwich. Gruyère is used in chicken and veal cordon bleu.
It is a fine table cheese, when grated, it is used with salads and pastas. It is used, atop le tourin, a type of garlic soup from France, served on dried bread. White wines, such as Riesling, pair well with Gruyère. Sparkling cider and Bock beer are beverage affinities. To make Gruyère, raw milk is heated to 34 °C in a copper vat, curdled by the addition of liquid rennet; the curd stirred, releasing whey. The curd is cooked at 43 °C, raised to 54 °C; the whey is strained, the curds placed into molds to be pressed. After salting in brine and smearing with bacteria, the cheese is ripened for two months at room temperature on wooden boards, turning every couple of days to ensure moisture distribution. Gruyère can be cured with long curing producing a cheese of intense flavor. In 2001, Gruyère gained the Appellation d'origine contrôlée status. Since the production and the maturation is defined in the Swiss law, all Swiss Gruyère producers must follow these rules. To be accepted throughout Europe as an AOC, the "Interprofession du Gruyère" in Switzerland plans to make a transnational AOC with the French producers of Gruyère.
Gruyère-style cheeses are popular in Greece, where the local varieties are known as γραβιέρα. Some Greek gruyères come from San Michálē from the island of Syros in the Cyclades, the Naxian varieties, that tend to be milder and more sweet and various graviéras from Crete. Gruyère-style cheeses are produced in the United States, Wisconsin with the name of Grand Cru, having the largest output. An important and the longest part of the production of the Le Gruyere Switzerland AOC is the affinage. According to the AOC, the cellars to mature a Swiss Gruyère must have a climate close to that of a natural cave; this means that the humidity should be between 94% and 98%. If the humidity is lower, the cheese dries out. If the humidity is too high, the cheese becomes smeary and gluey; the temperature of the caves should be between 13 °C and 14 °C. This high temperature is required for excellent quality cheese. Lower quality cheeses result from temperatures between 10 °C and 12 °C; the lower the temperature is, the less the cheese matures, resulting in a texture, harder and more crumbly.
Le Gruyère Switzerland AOC has many different varieties, with different aged profiles, an organic version of the cheese is sold. There is a special variety, produced only in summer on the Swiss Alps: the Le Gruyère Switzerland AOC Alpage. One can distinguish the age profiles of mild/doux and réserve known as surchoix. In Switzerland, other age profiles can be found, including mi-salé, salé, Höhlengereift, but these age profiles are not part of the AOC; the French Le Brouère cheese, made in nearby Vosges, is considered a variant of Gruyère. Le Gruyère Premier Cru is a special variety and matured in the canton of Fribourg and matured for 14 months in humid caves with a humidity of 95% and a temperature of 13.5 °C. It is the only cheese that has won the title of best cheese of the world at the World Cheese Awards four times: in 1992, 2002, 2005 and 2015. Brined cheese – Cheese, matured in a solution of brine Culinary Heritage of Switzerland – an online encyclopedia List of cheeses – A list of cheeses by place of origin Gruyère cheese in the online Culinary Heritage of Switzerland database.
An article on the history and controversy of Swiss versus French claims to Gruyère cheese
Tropolje or Završje or Western Regions is a historical region in Bosnia and Herzegovina covering a part of the Dinaric Alps. It encompasses territory around karst fields of Livno and Glamoč; the wider zone of this region comprises the fields of Kupres and Bosansko Grahovo. The region is located on the border of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Name Tropolje derives from the Serbo-Croatian words tri meaning polje meaning field. Tropolje has been inhabited at least since Neolithic times. In the late Bronze Age, the Neolithic population was replaced by more warlike Indo-European tribes known as the Illyrians; the region was inhabited by Illyrian tribe of Dalmatae. Their capital was Delminium, located in today's Tomislavgrad; the Dalmatae left many remains. The most important remains are the gradine, remains of Illyrian settlements which were distributed along the karst fields; the settlements were strategically well placed, why the Romans took over 200 years to occupy this region. County of Hlivno was mentioned on the charter of the Croatian Duke Muncimir from 892.
It's prefect Želimir witnessed the Charter, signed the second. Constantine VII, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, included the County as one of 11 Croatian counties and as its center stated inhabited settlement Hlivno, it covered the hinterland of the mountain Dinara. After ecclesiastical councils in Split, County belonged to the jurisdiction of the archbishop of Split under whose metropolitan administration remained until the beginning of the 18th century; the extinction of the Trpimirović dynasty resulted in forming of personal union with Hungary in the 12th century. Mid of the century the Byzantine Empire strengthens once again and conquers the area of Dalmatian cities, Zadinarje's karst fields and a large part of the southern Croatian Kingdom. After death of Manuel I Komnenos, Byzantine Emperor, in 1180 Bosnian ban Kulin expanded the area of its authority to the east and north of the County of Hlivno while County remained in the Croatian Kingdom. Area of Završje covers territory of five municipalities in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Grahovo, Glamoč, Kupres and Tomislavgrad.
The total area of the Završje is 4,343 square kilometres. The region is located between Dalmatia to the west, Bosanska Krajina to the north, Central Bosnia to the east and Herzegovina to the south and southeast. Završje has population of 83,541—making the region the most sparsely populated region of Bosnia and Herzegovina at 19.24/km2. Most of the region consists of mountainous terrain separated by karst fields. Large fields of Livno, Glamoč and Kupres are located in the hinterland of the mountain Dinara from the perspective of the eastern Adriatic coast of which they are wider inland. There are several small or small karst fields: Grahovsko, Dobransko, Šuičko, Roško, Vukovsko and Planarsko. Livno Field is the largest field of Tropolje, it is a long 65 km, consisting of three parts: the Upper field in the central part, Lower fields in the northeast and Buško mud in the southeast. On the northwestern edge of the Livno Field, between the slopes Dinara and Šator, a narrow valley connects it with Grahovo field.
Eastern of the Livno Field is Duvno Field separated from it by Kovač, Tušnica, Grabovica i Midena mountains. Field is 9 km wide. Glamoč Field is separated from the Livno Field by Šator Mountain, Golija and the Krug plateau, it is long 56 km and is divided on the Lower field to the northwest, up to 15 km wide, Upper field in the southeast wide from 1 to 4 km. Eastern of Glamoč Field is Kupres field, separated by Slovinjand Hrblijne, it is long 26 km and is divided into two parts: Northern or Dry field, about 13 km wide, Southern or Rilić field, about 8 km wide. Mountainous terrain of the region is a part of the Dinaric Alps, linked to a Late Jurassic to recent times fold and thrust belt, itself part of the Alpine orogeny, extending southeast from the southern Alps; the Dinarides form part of a chain of mountains that stretch across southern Europe and isolate Pannonian Basin from the Mediterranean Sea. The highest mountain of the Tropolje Dinarides is Mount Vran, located on the border of the municipalities of Tomislavgrad and Jablanica with the peak called Veliki Vran at 2,074 metres.
The area is characterized by numerous karst features as ponors and intermittent watercourses so there are only a few major permanent surface watercourses. On the Livno Field permanent waterways are rivers Sturba and Žabljak; the entire field drains to the Cetina and through it belongs to the Adriatic basin. On the Kupres Fields two major watercourses are formed belonging to different drainage basins. Stream Mrtvica with more ponors on its course gravitate towards the Pliva River which belongs to the Black Sea drainage basin. Milač stream plunges in the south of the Field and emerges as river Šuica at the spring Veliki Stržanj. Šuica, which continues to flow to the south passes through Šuica Valley, narrow canyon and passes through Duvno Field plunges near Kovači. As Ričina re-emerges in Prisoje and flows into the Buško Blato, an accumulation lake located on the south side of Livno Field. Hydrological watershed cuts Glamoč Field into two parts and divides it between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea drainage basin.
Watercourses of the Upper Field drain as groundwater flows into the Livno Field. Northerly streams belongs to the area of the Black Sea drainage ba
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk, produced in a wide range of flavors and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk the milk of cows, goats, or sheep. During production, the milk is acidified, adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation; the solids are pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature. Over a thousand types of cheese from various countries are produced, their styles and flavors depend on the origin of the milk, whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents; the yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is produced by adding annatto. Other ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black pepper, chives or cranberries. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid the addition of rennet completes the curdling.
Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, lower shipping costs. Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, high content of fat, protein and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep depends on the type of cheese. Speaking, hard cheeses, such as Parmesan last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goat's milk cheese; the long storage life of some cheeses when encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable. There is some debate as to the best way to store cheese, but some experts say that wrapping it in cheese paper provides optimal results. Cheese paper is coated in a porous plastic on the inside, the outside has a layer of wax; this specific combination of plastic on the inside and wax on the outside protects the cheese by allowing condensation on the cheese to be wicked away while preventing moisture from within the cheese escaping.
A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheesemonger. Becoming an expert in this field requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience, much like becoming an expert in wine or cuisine; the cheesemonger is responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory: selecting the cheese menu, receiving and ripening. The word cheese comes from Latin caseus, from which the modern word casein is derived; the earliest source is from the proto-Indo-European root *kwat-, which means "to ferment, become sour". The word cheese comes from cīese or cēse. Similar words are shared by other West Germanic languages—West Frisian tsiis, Dutch kaas, German Käse, Old High German chāsi—all from the reconstructed West-Germanic form *kāsī, which in turn is an early borrowing from Latin; the Online Etymological Dictionary states that "cheese" comes from "Old English cyse, cese...from West Germanic *kasjus, from Latin caseus "cheese"." The Online Etymological Dictionary states. Compare fromage.
Old Norse ostr, Danish ost, Swedish ost are related to Latin ius "broth, juice.'"When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies, a new word started to be used: formaticum, from caseus formatus, or "molded cheese". It is from this word that the French fromage, standard Italian formaggio, Catalan formatge, Breton fourmaj, Occitan fromatge are derived. Of the Romance languages, Portuguese, Romanian and Southern Italian dialects use words derived from caseus; the word cheese itself is employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". Head cheese uses the word in this sense; the term "cheese" is used as a noun and adjective in a number of figurative expressions. Cheese is an ancient food. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheesemaking originated, whether in Europe, Central Asia or the Middle East, but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and, according to Pliny the Elder, had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being.
Earliest proposed dates for the origin of cheesemaking range from around 8000 BCE, when sheep were first domesticated. Since animal skins and inflated internal organs have, since ancient times, provided storage vessels for a range of foodstuffs, it is probable that the process of cheese making was discovered accidentally by storing milk in a container made from the stomach of an animal, resulting in the milk being turned to curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach. There is a legend—wit