Fnac is a large French retail chain selling cultural and electronic products, founded by André Essel and Max Théret in 1954. Its head office is in Le Flavia in Ivry-sur-Seine near Paris. Fnac is an abbreviation of Fédération Nationale d’Achats des Cadres; the company's founders were Max Théret. Fnac was founded in 1954. Fnac holds "forums" throughout the year, which are opportunities for customers to have dialogue with people such as Pedro Almodóvar, George Lucas, David Cronenberg, discussions with authors including Paul Auster, Pierre Bourdieu, Françoise Giroud in addition to concerts. Musicians playing in these concerts have included Yann Tiersen, Ben Harper and David Bowie; each year a "Book Fair" is held with discussions among writers and the public. Topics related to literature, culture and the sciences are discussed. Since 2001 the company has annually presented an award, Le prix du roman Fnac, whose winners are chosen by a panel of booksellers and members. Dominique Mainard, Pierre Charras, Pierre Charras and Pierre Péju are among those.
These events are shown on the company website fnaclive.com. The company claims to be committed to defending the diversity of music. In February 2002 Fnac published with UPFI "Manifeste pour la diversité musicale", as a prelude to a policy of favorable treatment for independent labels and their artists. Fnac publishes "Indétendances," a compilation of ten artists bimonthly published by independent labels, which it set aside part of its listening kiosks in stores to promote their work. Max Théret had a passion for photography which began in 1932. Hunted by the Gestapo, Théret left the Occupied Zone in 1942, moving to Grenoble, where he took up photography as a career. After the war, he trained as a photo laboratory technician, founded his own laboratory, constructed the first colour-processing machine in France. In 1951, while working for the telephone company, he founded Economie Nouvelle, a membership discount buying group for products sold through participating merchants. In 1953, Théret and André Essel conceived a new magazine-based buyers club.
Founded 1954, Fnac was a members-only discount buyers' club, offering sharp discounts on commercial and consumer products, based on the founders' socialist principles. Their aim was to improve the lives of the workers, not through higher salaries but through lower prices; the first shop was opened in a sublet, a second-floor apartment on the rue de Sebastopol in Paris on July 31, 1954. The brand positioning of the company continued with the training of sales assistants in their product categories, with purchases being guaranteed for one year. Furthermore, all products were tested in the company's independent test centre before sale; the test centre would check for technical quality, ease of use and the "price/quality ratio," and all results were published in the company's free members' magazine Contact, which today can be found advertised in store. In addition, staff were expected to do more than just sell their products but offer advice to customers and beginning in 1957 blacklist any unsatisfactory products, such as those with technical difficulties.
By the end of its first full year of operation the company saw revenues of 50 million old francs. In 1957, it was selling televisions, hi-fis, recording equipment and records. In 1966, the Fnac store was opened to non-members and began to expand, opening its second store in Paris on the avenue de Wagram, near the Arc de Triomphe in 1969. By this time, the company had 580 employees; the 1970s saw further expansion for Fnac, as the company began opening shops in the French provinces outside Paris and a third in the city itself that sold books, the newest addition to the product range. The founders of the company sold 40 percent of the company to insurance firm Union des Assurances to raise money to fund growth. In turn, the insurance firm sold 16 percent of its shares to investment bank Banque de Paris et des Pays Bas, in 1972. In 1974, the company began selling books at 80% of the Recommended Retail Price, sparking protests from publishers and independent booksellers alike, who could not benefit from the economies of scale.
This prompted government action in 1982 with the so-called'anti-Fnac' law, signed to limit discounts on books to a maximum of five percent. In 1975, videos were added to the product range. Towards the late 1970s, Fnac continued to expand by building to 12 stores in Paris and other cities through France. In 1977, the remaining shares of the company's founders were sold to the Société Génerale des Cooperatives de Consommation to raise more capital. FNAC became a Public limited company on the Paris stock exchange in 1980 when 25 percent of the company was offered to the public. SGCC, maintained a 51 percent control of the company, which now employed more than 2,700 and was declaring turnover of FFr 2.2 billion. Théret left the company in 1981. In 1981, FNAC opened a store in Brussels, Belgium under the management of Sodal, a joint-venture between FNAC and the GIB Group; the GIB Group added three more stores in the mid-1980s, in Ghent, Liège. In 1983, Essel retired and was replaced by the SGCC president Roger Kerinec.
In 1985, SGCC sold its shares to the insurance group Garantie Mutuelle des Fonctionnaires due to growing competition from the French hypermarket and discount chains such as Carrefour and E. Leclerc. Michel Barouin, GMF's president and director general, took these positions at FNAC as well. In 1987, Baro
Publishers Weekly is an American weekly trade news magazine targeted at publishers, librarians and literary agents. Published continuously since 1872, it has carried the tagline, "The International News Magazine of Book Publishing and Bookselling". With 51 issues a year, the emphasis today is on book reviews; the magazine was founded by bibliographer Frederick Leypoldt in the late 1860s, had various titles until Leypoldt settled on the name The Publishers' Weekly in 1872. The publication was a compilation of information about newly published books, collected from publishers and from other sources by Leypoldt, for an audience of booksellers. By 1876, Publishers Weekly was being read by nine tenths of the booksellers in the country. In 1878, Leypoldt sold The Publishers' Weekly to his friend Richard Rogers Bowker, in order to free up time for his other bibliographic endeavors; the publication expanded to include features and articles. Harry Thurston Peck was the first editor-in-chief of The Bookman, which began in 1895.
Peck worked on its staff from 1895 to 1906, in 1895, he created the world's first bestseller list for its pages. In 1912, Publishers Weekly began to publish its own bestseller lists, patterned after the lists in The Bookman; these were not separated into fiction and non-fiction until 1917, when World War I brought an increased interest in non-fiction by the reading public. Through much of the 20th century, Publishers Weekly was guided and developed by Frederic Gershom Melcher, editor and co-editor of Publishers' Weekly and chairman of the magazine's publisher, R. R. Bowker, over four decades. Born April 12, 1879, in Malden, Melcher began at age 16 in Boston's Estes & Lauriat Bookstore, where he developed an interest in children's books, he moved to Indianapolis in 1913 for another bookstore job. In 1918, he read in Publishers' Weekly, he applied to Richard Rogers Bowker for the job, was hired, moved with his family to Montclair, New Jersey. He remained with R. R. Bowker for 45 years. While at Publishers Weekly, Melcher began creating space in the publication and a number of issues dedicated to books for children.
In 1919, he teamed with Franklin K. Mathiews, librarian for the Boy Scouts of America, Anne Carroll Moore, a librarian at the New York Public Library, to create Children’s Book Week; when Bowker died in 1933, Melcher succeeded him as president of the company. In 1943, Publishers Weekly created the Carey–Thomas Award for creative publishing, naming it in honor of Mathew Carey and Isaiah Thomas. In 2008, the magazine's circulation was 25,000. In 2004, the breakdown of those 25,000 readers was given as 6000 publishers. Subject areas covered by Publishers Weekly include publishing, marketing and trade news, along with author interviews and regular columns on rights, people in publishing, bestsellers, it attempts to serve all involved in the creation, production and sale of the written word in book, audio and electronic formats. The magazine increases the page count for four annual special issues: Spring Adult Announcements, Fall Adult Announcements, Spring Children's Announcements, Fall Children's Announcements.
The book review section of Publishers Weekly was added in the early 1940s and grew in importance during the 20th century and through the present time. It offers prepublication reviews of 9,000 new trade books each year, in a comprehensive range of genres and including audiobooks and e-books, with a digitized archive of 200,000 reviews. Reviews appear two to four months prior to the publication date of a book, until 2014, when PW launched BookLife.com, a website for self-published books, books in print were reviewed. These anonymous reviews are short, averaging 200–250 words, it is not unusual for the review section to run as long as 40 pages, filling the second half of the magazine. In the past, a book review editorial staff of eight editors assigned books to more than 100 freelance reviewers; some are published authors, others are experts in specific genres or subjects. Although it might take a week or more to read and analyze some books, reviewers were paid $45 per review until June 2008 when the magazine introduced a reduction in payment to $25 a review.
In a further policy change that month, reviewers received credit as contributors in issues carrying their reviews. There are nine reviews editors listed in the masthead. Now titled "Reviews", the review section began life as "Forecasts." For several years, that title was taken literally. Genevieve Stuttaford, who expanded the number of reviews during her tenure as the nonfiction "Forecasts" editor, joined the PW staff in 1975, she was a Saturday Review associate editor, reviewer for Kirkus Reviews and for 12 years on the staff of the San Francisco Chronicle. During the 23 years Stuttaford was with Publishers Weekly, book reviewing was increased from an average of 3,800 titles a year in the 1970s to well over 6,500 titles in 1997, she retired in 1998. Several notable PW editors stand out for making their mark on the magazine. Barbara Bannon was the head fiction reviewer during the 1970s and early 1980s, becoming the magazine’s executive editor during that time and retiring in 1983, she was, the first reviewer to insist that her name be appended to any blur
Conjunto Nacional (São Paulo)
Conjunto Nacional is an important building and commercial centre of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. It occupies the block bounded by Avenida Paulista, Rua Augusta, Alameda Santos and Rua Padre João Manuel; the project was authored by architect David Libeskind and is characterized by being one of the first major modern multifunctional buildings deployed in the city of São Paulo. The complex is characterized by the blending of different uses in the same urban structure: within the building are the following usages: residential, commercial and leisure; the relationship between the collective trade usages, leisure-and uses private residences-gives the composition between two parts: in the horizontal part, which occupies the entire block on which to deploy the building-is a shopping arcade, the vertical part, which occupies only a part of the projection of the terrain are the apartments. The Gallery proposal in the National Assembly became an architectural paradigm for projects of similar buildings in the central area of São Paulo during the 1950s decade.
Conjunto Nacional has restaurants and other types of shops and services, plus the largest bookstore in Latin America by built area, the Livraria Cultura. For many years it housed the Fasano Restaurant. In 2005, the building was listed by Condephaat, the State Council of Defense of historical and architectural heritage; the building began construction in 1952, after the decision of the Argentine Jewish businessman José Tjurs to build a large building on Avenida Paulista - which until had residential character. His intention was to bring together in one building a shopping center. In the late 50s, as the city did not allow the hotel construction at the site, some modifications to the original design of David Libeskind were implemented; the clock of the National Assembly mark the temperature of the city of São Paulo. It is located on top of the Edificio Horsa - Conjunto Nacional, at Avenida Paulista, being visible from several points of the city within a radius of about 5 miles away. Official website
São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir