Slottsbacken is a street in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. It stretches east from the Stockholm Cathedral and the Royal Palace down to the street Skeppsbron which passes along the eastern waterfront of the old town. In the western end, the alley Källargränd leads south to the square Stortorget, while Storkyrkobrinken extends Slottsbacken west beyond the cathedral and Högvaktsterrassen, down to the square Riddarhustorget. On the southern side of Slottsbacken, three alleys connect to the interior throng of the old town: On either side of the Tessin Palace are Finska Kyrkogränd and Bollhusgränd, while Österlånggatan begins in the low-lying eastern part of the slope; the street, named after the vicinity to the Royal Palace, first appears in historical records during the second half of the 15th century, from early on the name designated not only the slope down to the waterfront, but the open space above it. The present palace, designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and built in 1697-1760, was preceded by the Medieval castle Tre kronor, continuously rebuilt during it existence and was destroyed by fire in 1697.
South of this older building was in medieval times a slope consisting of sand and gravel, deliberately left unbuilt for defensive purposes. Wider than the present slope, it stretched further south to the royal stables, the kitchen gardens, the butchers stalls on the opposite side. In 1520, the burghers of the city were requested to relocate their stables and piggeries from the "Stable Slope" to the hills surrounding the city. New defensive walls were built around the royal palace during the 16th century on the expense of the open area surrounding it, defensive constructions outdated in the early 17th century. By the end of the 17th century, the slope had been transformed into an narrow street squeezed between the wide moat of the palace and the variegated structures lined-up on the southern side. Parts of the five metres deep moat was furnished with a superstructure; as the new palace was being built, the slope was redesigned to become the palace's grand-style Baroque antechamber, the structures and gardens on the southern side were replaced by more prestigious buildings in stone.
While the exterior of the Palace was more or less completed in the 1750s, the work on the slope, the palace's main approach, was still proceeding by the end of that century. Though the four façades of the Royal Palace are all built in brick and bound by a unitary programme, they are all given distinctive designs in accordance to their various functions; the southern façade, representing the Nation and concealing the Royal Chapel and the Rikssal, is facing the palace's main approach and is the most pompous of the four. It is dominated by a Roman triumphal arch composition dressed in limestone and furnished with six war trophies, four abduction scenes by Bouchardon, 16 reliefs displaying mythological scenes; the balustrade over the central part was intended to be furnished with a series of sculptures. While the tall central portion, 115 metres wide, is flanked by a 48 metres long eastern wing, the corresponding western wing is limited to a mere 11 metres, as the original plans of the architect to demolish the Medieval cathedral were ignored.
The statues in the eight niches, dating from 1899–1902, depict prominent Swedes from the late 17th century: Dahlbergh, M. Stenbock, Polhem, Adelcrantz and von Dalin; the five sections of the eastern façade of the Stockholm Cathedral reflects the three original, medieval nave and aisles and the flanking two aisles. The marble statue of Olaus Petri, dating from 1897 and carved by Theodore Lundberg, celebrates the reformer who, inspired by studies in Germany paid by King Gustav Vasa, translated the Bible to Swedish and had a crucial role in the development of the Swedish language, he is buried in it. In the cobbled pavement between the cathedral and the palace are two markings showing the location of the south-west bastion of the medieval palace and the eastern sanctuary of the medieval church destroyed by King Gustav Vasa to give the cannons of the palace more aiming space. Built in 1910 to the design of Erik Josephson, the tall building on number 2 was much criticized as it replaced a lower building, the concave façade of which made the space in front of the palace wider and more prominent, the'tenement Baroque' it represented was regarded as objectionable for the royal setting.
The building is, occupied by the Royal Household. In respect to the vicinity to the royal palace and as a consequence of the irregularly shaped lot, the discreet three-story façade of the private palace of Nicodemus Tessin the Younger, unveils little of the elaborated Baroque garden in the interior court; the lime stone portal by Ferdinand Foucquet, one of the most prominent monumental sculptors of the Swedish Baroque era, gives an inviting hint of the richly decorated interior. The façade was flanked by two walls perpendicular to the façade; the building is today the residence of the county governor of Stockholm. Finland was a part of Sweden until 1809, the national parish of the Finnish Church was established in Stockholm in 1533, at the time accommodated in the old abbey of the Blackfriars. A building constructed on the present site 1648-1653 intended for ball games, thus called Lilla bollhuset, but used as a theatre, was taken over by the Finnish parish in 1725 from w
Biological museum (Stockholm)
Biologiska museet is a museum located in Djurgården in Stockholm. It exhibits a collection of stuffed European mammals in dioramas; some of the diorama backgrounds were created by artist Bruno Liljefors, known for his dramatic paintings of Scandinavian wildlife. The museum was built in 1893 after a design by architect Agi Lindegren, inspired by medieval Norwegian stave churches. Museums in Stockholm Official homepage
Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm
The Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, located in Stockholm, Sweden, is a museum launched by Sweden's Parliament in 1926, with the Swedish archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson as founding director. The museum is located on Skeppsholmen in the building Tyghuset and since 1999 the museum is a part of the public Swedish National Museums of World Culture; the museum was based on Andersson's groundbreaking discoveries in China, during the 1920s, of a hitherto unknown East Asian prehistory. The museum today has wide-ranging collections from Japan and India, it exhibits of both archeology, classical arts and contemporary culture, holds a large research library open to the public. The last time the museum published a comprehensive catalog was 1963; the museum publishes an annual journal focused on research on ancient East Asia, the Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities. Johan Gunnar Andersson Bernhard Karlgren English-language website listing exhibitions publications of the Museum at the Internet Archive, including volumes 1–40 of the Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities
Stockholm Palace or the Royal Palace is the official residence and major royal palace of the Swedish monarch. Stockholm Palace is located in Gamla stan in the capital, Stockholm, it neighbours the Riksdag building. The offices of the King, the other members of the Swedish Royal Family, the offices of the Royal Court of Sweden are located here; the palace is used for representative purposes by the King whilst performing his duties as the head of state. This royal residence has been in the same location by Norrström in the northern part of Gamla stan in Stockholm since the middle of the 13th century when the Tre Kronor Castle was built. In modern times the name relates to the building called Kungliga Slottet; the palace was designed by Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and erected on the same place as the medieval Tre Kronor Castle, destroyed in a fire on 7 May 1697. Due to the costly Great Northern War which started in 1700, construction of the palace was halted in 1709, not recommenced until 1727—six years after the end of the war.
When Tessin the Younger died in 1728, the palace was completed by Carl Hårleman who designed a large part of its Rococo interior. The palace was not ready to use until 1754, when King Adolf Frederick and Queen Louisa Ulrika moved in, but some interior work proceeded until the 1770s. No major conversions have been done in the palace since its completion, only some adjustments, new interiors and redecorating for different regents and their families, coloration of the facades and addition of the palace museums; the palace is surrounded by the Lejonbacken and the Norrbro to the north, the Logården and Skeppsbron in the east, the Slottsbacken and the Storkyrkan in the south, the outer courtyard and Högvaktsterrassen in the northwest. As of 2009 the interior of the palace consists of 1,430 rooms; the palace contains apartments for the Royal families and festivities such as the State Apartments, the Guest Apartments and the Bernadotte Apartments. More features are the Hall of State, the Royal Chapel, the Treasury with the Regalia of Sweden and the Tre Kronor Museum located in the remaining cellar vaults from the former castle.
The National Library of Sweden was housed in the northeast wing, the Biblioteksflygeln, until 1878. As of 2014 it houses the Bernadotte Library; the Slottsarkivet is housed in the Chancery Wing. In the palace are the offices of the Royal Court of Sweden, a place of work for 200 employees; the Royal Guards have guarded the palace and the Royal Family since 1523. A comprehensive renovation of the facade began in 2011, to repair weather damaged parts made from sandstone; the repairs are estimated to cost 500 million crowns over a period of 22 years. The Royal Palace is owned by the Swedish State through the National Property Board of Sweden, responsible for running and maintaining the palace, while the Ståthållarämbetet manages the royal right of disposition of the palace; the first building on this site was a fortress with a core tower built in the 13th century by Birger Jarl to defend Lake Mälaren. The fortress grew to a castle named Tre Kronor for the core tower's spire top decorated with three crowns.
At the beginning of the 17th century, King Gustavus Adolphus made plans for a new royal palace. The plans came to naught, but in 1651, his daughter Queen Christina appointed Jean de la Vallée to Architect for the Royal castles and among his commissions was to make suggestions for how to improve and update the Tre Kronor Castle. Contemporaneous copperplates from 1654 shows de la Vallée’s idea of a more visible castle on a raised plateau with a connecting bridge over the Norrström. Queen Christina remodelled and embellished the existing castle extensively, but no new castle was built during her reign. From 1650 to 1660, Jean de la Vallée made suggestions for large conversions of the castle, but it was not until 1661, when Nicodemus Tessin the Elder became City Architect and Architect for the Royal castles, that more substantial plans for a new castle were made. In 1661, he presented the first draft for a conversion of the northern row which his son, Nicodemus Tessin the Younger, would rework and realise in 1692 to 1696.
A map of the Stadsholmen from the 1650s, illustrates de la Vallées suggestion for the conversion of the old castle. The project brought about an adjustment of the Slottsbacken, making it enclosed by buildings. Of interest are Tessin the Younger's additions in pencil on that map made at the end of the 17th century. There is an early sketch for the northern facade's west wing and the two curved wings enclosing the outer courtyard. Tessin the Younger made plans for the city area west of the palace with large stairs in false perspective where the Axel Oxenstierna palace, among other buildings and joining the Västerlånggatan in addition to a wide street to the present Mynttorget, straight though the city block with the present Brantingtorget, he had envisioned a line of sight from the center of westwards to the Riddarholmen. The northern row of the present palace was built in 1692, in just five months as a part of the old Tre Kronor castle; the new row had the same austere Baroque style that still remain, contrasting with the rest of the Renaissance castle.
At an early stage of the conversion in the 1690s, a number of elderly Swedish artists such as David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl and Johan Sylvius, were still alive and they contributed with ar
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa known as Sigismund III of Poland, was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, King of Sweden from 1592 as a composite monarchy until he was deposed in 1599. He was the son of his first wife, Catherine Jagiellon. Elected to the throne of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sigismund sought to create a personal union between the Commonwealth and Sweden, succeeded for a time in 1592. After he had been deposed in 1599 from the Swedish throne by his Protestant uncle, Charles IX of Sweden, a meeting of the Riksens ständer, he spent much of the rest of his life attempting to reclaim it. A pious yet erratic ruler, Sigismund attempted to hold absolute power in all his dominions. Shortly after his victory over internal opposition, Sigismund took advantage of a period of civil unrest in Muscovy, known as the Time of Troubles, invaded Russia, holding Moscow for two years and Smolensk thereafter. In 1617 the Polish–Swedish conflict, interrupted by an armistice in 1611, broke out again.
While Sigismund's army was fighting Ottoman forces in Moldavia, King Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden invaded Sigismund's lands, capturing Riga in 1621 and seizing all of Polish Livonia. Sigismund, who concluded the Truce of Altmark with Sweden in 1629, never regained the Swedish crown, his Swedish wars resulted, moreover, in Poland's loss of northern Livonian territories and in a diminution of the kingdom's international prestige. Sigismund remains a controversial figure in Poland. One of the country's most recognizable monarchs, he transferred the capital from Kraków to Warsaw in 1596 and his long reign coincided with the apex of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's prestige and economic influence. On the other hand, it was during his reign that the symptoms of decline leading to the Commonwealth's eventual demise surfaced. Popular histories, such as the books of Paweł Jasienica, tend to present Sigismund as the principal source of these destructive processes. However, the question of whether the Commonwealth's decline was caused by Sigismund's decisions or had its roots in historical processes beyond his personal control, remains a debated topic.
He was commemorated in Warsaw with Sigismund's Column, one of the city's landmarks and the first secular monument in the form of a column in modern history. It was commissioned after Sigismund's death by his son and successor, Władysław IV. Sigismund was born on 20 June 1566 to Catherine Jagiellon and the Grand Duke John of Finland at Gripsholm, his parents, at the time, were being held prisoner by King Eric XIV, but despite the Protestant domination of Sweden young Sigismund was raised as a Roman Catholic. His mother Catherine was the daughter of Polish king Sigismund I the Old and Queen Bona Sforza of Italy. In 1567 Sigismund and his parents were released from prison. A year in 1568, Erik XIV was deposed and Sigismund's father ascended to the throne of Sweden as King John III. From 1568 onward Sigismund was the Crown Prince of Sweden. In 1587 Sigismund stood for election to the Polish throne after the death of king Stephen Bathory, he was supported by his aunt Queen Anna, Hetman Jan Zamoyski and the nobles loyal to the Zborowski family.
With such a strong support from the elite families and people of influence he was duly elected ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth on 19 August 1587 with the blessings of the primate of Poland Stanisław Karnkowski. From that time his official name and title became: "by the grace of God, king of Poland, grand duke of Lithuania, ruler of Ruthenia, Masovia, Samogitia and hereditary king of the Swedes and Wends". However, as was the case with the Polish electoral monarchy, the outcome was contested by factions of the Polish nobility who backed and supported the Archduke Maximilian III of Austria for King of Poland. Upon hearing of his election King Sigismund slipped through the clutches of the Protestants in Sweden and landed in Poland on 7 October agreeing to give up several royal privileges to the parliament in the hope of winning over some of his enemies and settling the disputed election, he was proclaimed by the Lesser Prussian Treasurer Jan Dulski as king on behalf of Crown Marshal Andrzej Opaliński, after arriving in the Royal Capital City of Kraków he was crowned on 27 December at Wawel Cathedral.
It seemed that the issue of who would be King of Poland had been settled when Maximilian III invaded Poland to claim the crown. Hetman Jan Zamoyski took him prisoner. However, at the request of Pope Sixtus V, King Sigismund III released Maximilian, who surrendered his claim to Poland in 1589. King Sigismund tried to maintain peace with his powerful neighbor by marrying Archduchess Anne Habsburg in 1592, it was always his intention to maintain an alliance with Catholic Austria against the Protestant forces. When his father died King Sigismund III asked the Sejm to be allowed to claim his inheritance as the rightful King of Sweden; the Poles had no objection. When he promised to respect Lutheranism as the official religion of Sweden, the Swedes agreed. Sigismund was crowned King of Sweden in 1594, he appointed his uncle, Duke Charles, to rule as regent on his behalf in Sweden while he rema
Maritime Museum (Stockholm)
The Maritime Museum in Stockholm, Sweden is a museum for naval history, merchant shipping and shipbuilding. Located in the Gärdet section of the inner-city district Östermalm, the museum offers a panoramic view of the bay Djurgårdsbrunnsviken; the building was designed by architect Ragnar Östberg and built in 1933–36. The museum houses about 900,000 photos, 50,000 objects and 45,000 drawings, all related to the sea, coast and boats, past and present. A major part of the collection, the boats, are housed in Boat Hall 2 at Galärvarvet in Stockholm; the boat collection ranges from canoes to Skerry cruisers. On the bottom floor there are, among other things, exhibits on naval history including several detailed models of 18th century ships; the second floor includes exhibits on Swedish commercial fleets. In the basement is a replica of a cabin in King Gustav III's ship Amphion, along with the original stern from the ship; the Maritime Museum is responsible for the listing of historical ships in Sweden.
Both ships and pleasure boats of historical significance can be listed. While the listing offers no legal protection or obligations, it gives the owner of the craft certain privileges; the curved building, inspired by the neoclassicist design of Olof Tempelman, acts as a background for the surrounding park where open-air concerts are held each year. It was the last major commission of Ragnar Östberg and was built on the location for the Stockholm Exhibition; as the exhibition was an important Functionalism manifestation, the museum mark the point of view of the architect in the debate the introduction of Functionalist style caused in Sweden. The central cupola is built of brick; the building houses a model workshop, wood shop, photo studio, archives and a library. In the 1970s, a film and lecture hall was added and in the 1990s a café. Outside of the museum is a bronze statue called The Sailor, a memorial to the Swedish sailors who died during World War II; the statue was made by artist Nils Sjögren in 1952.
The statue was inaugurated in 1953. Starting in 1975, open-air conserts and music festivals are held in the park in front of the museum; the annual concerts arranged by the newspaper Dagens Nyheter with the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra are compared with, inspired by, The Proms in the Royal Albert Hall. Among the other artists who have performed at events held at the museum are Lisa Nilsson, Pearl Jam, Sarah Dawn Finer and Per Gessle. Culture in Stockholm Pictures of ship models in the museum, from visit in June 2011 High resolution photos