The Mornington Peninsula is a peninsula located south-east of Melbourne, Australia. It is surrounded by Port Phillip to the west, Western Port to the east and Bass Strait to the south, is connected to the mainland in the north. Geographically, the peninsula begins its protrusion from the mainland in the area between Pearcedale and an area south of Frankston; the area was home to the Mayone-bulluk and Boonwurrung-Balluk clans and formed part of the Boonwurrung nation's territory prior to European settlement. Much of the peninsula has been cleared for agriculture and settlements. However, small areas of the native ecology remain in the peninsula's south and west, some of, protected by the Mornington Peninsula National Park. In 2002, around 180,000 people lived on the peninsula and in nearby areas, most in the built-up towns on its western shorelines which are sometimes regarded as outlying suburbs of greater Melbourne. On the 30th of June 2017, the Mornington Peninsula population was recorded at 163,847 people.
However, in the peak of summer the population increases to 225,000-250,000 people each year becoming the most populous coastal holiday area in Victoria with a larger population than Hobart. The peninsula is a local tourist region, with popular natural attractions such as the variety of beaches both sheltered and open-sea and many scenic sights and views. Other popular attractions include the various wineries and the diverse array of water sports made available by the diversity of beaches and calm waters of Port Phillip and Western Port. Most visitors to the peninsula are residents of Melbourne who camp, rent villas and share houses or stay in private beach houses; the peninsula was formed by the flooding of Port Phillip Bay after the end of the glacial period about 10000 BC. It may have extended into Port Phillip at various times, most between 800 BC and 1000 AD when Port Phillip Bay may have dried out. Indigenous Australians of the Mayone-bulluk and Boonwurrung-Balluk clans lived on the peninsula as part of the Boonwurrung People's territory prior to European settlement.
The territory hosted six clans who lived along the Victorian coast from the Werribee River across to Western Port Bay and Wilsons Promontory. The peninsula may have been home to between 100 – 500 people prior to European settlement; the first European settlement on the Mornington Peninsula was the first settlement in Victoria, situated in what is now Sorrento. The Sullivan's Bay settlement was a short-lived penal colony established in 1803, 30 years before the establishment of Melbourne, by Lieutenant-Colonel David Collins. At the time of European settlement in 1803 much of the Mornington Peninsula was covered with she-oak forests; these were cleared to provide firewood for the growing city of Melbourne, much of the peninsula was covered with fruit orchards. Much natural vegetation still exists in an area of bushland in the south known as Greens Bush, the coastal fringe bordering Bass Strait and Western Port Bay. Most large areas of bushland are now included within the Mornington Peninsula National Park.
As serious farming has declined, hobby farmers with an interest in the aesthetic and the natural environment have taken over much of the peninsula. This has led to an expansion of natural bushland on private property, many native species, such as koalas, are becoming common; the local council has a slight lean towards sustainable practices. On 17 December 1967, Prime Minister Harold Holt went swimming at Cheviot Beach on what is now Point Nepean National Park. At the time, however, it was still a restricted area. Holt, 59 and had had a recent shoulder injury, plunged into the surf, he was never seen again. Despite an extensive search his body was never found, he was presumed dead on 19 December 1967. In 2016, 17.8% of people in Mornington Peninsula Shire were born overseas. 8.9% of the total population were born in the United Kingdom being the largest migrant group in the region.. 1.4% were born in New Zealand, 0.7% were born in Italy, 0.6% were born in Germany and 0.6% were born in the Netherlands.
This was followed by smaller migrant groups from Ireland, United States of America, South Africa and Greece. While 88.9% of the population speak English the Mornington Peninsula population can speak other popular languages. 1.0% speak Italian, 0.7% speak Greek, 0.4% speak German, 0.3% speak Mandarin and 0.2% speak French. The peninsula extends from the mainland between Pearcedale and Frankston in a south-westerly direction for about 40 km at a width of about 15–20 kilometres, it begins to extend 15 km in a west/north-westerly direction and tapers down to a width of about 2–3 km before terminating at Point Nepean. Much of the topography is flat in the north where it connects to the mainland, however moving south-west, it soon becomes hilly, culminating in the central hilly landscapes of Boneo, Main Ridge, Red Hill and Moorooduc; the highest point, Arthurs Seat, located unusually close to the shoreline, stands at 305 metres above sea level. The peninsula hosts around 190 km of coastline, its eastern shorelines meet many mangroves and mudflats in the waters of Western Port before it tapers down to form Crib Point, Stony Point and Sandy Point at the peninsula's most south-easterly point.
In the south-east between Sandy Point and West Head, the mudflats give way to sandy beaches which in turn become more and more rocky further south. In the south the peninsula meets Bass Strait and the coastline becomes rocky between West Head and Cape Schanck; the coast between Cape Schanck and P
The center known as the five, or the big man, is one of the five positions in a regular basketball game. The center is the tallest player on the team, has a great deal of strength and body mass as well. In the NBA, the center is 6 feet 10 inches or taller and weighs 240 pounds or more, they traditionally have played close to the basket in the low post. A center with the ability to shoot outside from three-point range is known as stretch five; the center is considered a necessary component for a successful team in professional leagues such as the NBA. Great centers have been the foundation for most of the dynasties in both the NBA and NCAA; the 6'10" George Mikan pioneered the Center position, shattering the held perception that tall players could not develop the agility and coordination to play basketball well, ushering in the role of the dominant big man. He led DePaul University to the NIT title after turning professional, won seven National Basketball League, Basketball Association of America and NBA Championships in his ten-year career, nine of them with the Minneapolis Lakers.
Using his height to dominate opposing players, Mikan invented the shot block. In the 1960s, Bill Russell and Wilt Chamberlain further transformed basketball by combining height with a greater level of athleticism than previous centers. Following the retirement of George Mikan, the rivalry of the two big men came to dominate the NBA. Between the two of them and Russell won nine of the eleven MVP awards in the eleven-year period between 1958 and 1969. Many of the records set by these two players have endured today. Most notably and Russell hold the top eighteen season averages for rebounds. Bill Russell led the University of San Francisco to two consecutive NCAA Championships, he joined the Boston Celtics and helped make them one of the greatest dynasties in NBA history, winning eleven championships over his thirteen-year career as well as five MVP awards. Russell revolutionized defensive strategy with his shot-blocking and physical man-to-man defense. While he was never the focal point of the Celtics offense, much of the team's scoring came when Russell grabbed defensive rebounds and initiated fast breaks with precision outlet passes to point guard Bob Cousy.
As the NBA's first African-American superstar, Russell struggled throughout his career with the racism he encountered from fans in Boston after the 1966–67 season, when he became the first African-American in any major sport to be named player-coach. His principal rival, Wilt Chamberlain, listed at 7'1", 275 pounds, lacked Russell's supporting cast. Chamberlain played college ball for the Kansas Jayhawks, leading them to the 1957 title game against the North Carolina Tar Heels. Although the Jayhawks lost by one point in triple overtime, Chamberlain was named the tournament's Most Outstanding Player. A member of the Harlem Globetrotters before joining the Philadelphia Warriors of the NBA in 1959, Chamberlain won two Championships, in 1967 with the Philadelphia 76ers and 1972 with the Los Angeles Lakers, although his teams were defeated by the Celtics in the Eastern Conference and NBA Finals, he won seven scoring titles, eleven rebounding titles, four regular season Most Valuable Player awards, including the distinction, in 1960, of being the first rookie to receive the award.
Stronger than any player of his era, he was capable of scoring and rebounding at will. Although he was the target of constant double- and triple-teaming, as well as fouling tactics designed to take advantage of his poor free-throw shooting, he set a number of records that have never been broken. Most notably, Chamberlain is the only player in NBA history to average more than 50 points in a season and score 100 points in a single game, he holds the NBA's all-time records for rebounding average, rebounds in a single game, career rebounds. A lesser-known center of the era was Nate Thurmond, who played the forward position opposite Wilt Chamberlain for the San Francisco Warriors but moved to center after Chamberlain was traded to the new Philadelphia franchise. Although he never won a Championship, Thurmond was known as the best screen setter in the league, his averages of 21.3 and 22.0 rebounds per game in 1966–67 and 1967–68, are exceeded only by Chamberlain and Russell. In contrast to the Celtics dynasty of the 1960s, the 1970s were a decade of parity in the NBA, with eight different champions and no back-to-back winners.
At the college level, the UCLA Bruins, under Coach John Wooden, built the greatest dynasty in NCAA basketball history, winning seven consecutive titles between 1967 and 1973. UCLA had won two consecutive titles in 1964 and 1965 with teams that pressed and emphasized guard play. After not winning in 1966, Wooden's teams changed their style, he led UCLA to three championships-in 1967, 68' and 69'-while winning the first Naismith College Player of the Year Award. During his college career, the NCAA enacted a ban on dunking because of Alcindor's dominant use of the shot, his entrance into the NBA with the Milwaukee Bucks in 1969 was timely, as Bill Russell had just retired and Wilt Chamberlain was 33 years old and plagued by injuries. After leading the Bucks to the 1971 NBA championship, te
Australia women's national basketball team
The Australian women's national basketball team is nicknamed the Opals, after the brightly coloured gemstone common to the country. From 1994 onwards, the Opals have been competitive and successful having won nine medals at official FIBA international tournaments, highlighted by a gold medal winning performance at the 2006 World Championship in Brazil. At the now-defunct regional Oceania Championship for Women, the Opals won 15 titles. Effective in 2017, FIBA combined its Asian zones for official senior competitions. Basketball arrived in Melbourne in 1905, but the first major international women’s tournament was the 1953 FIBA World Championships held in Chile. Although the Opals did not qualify for the first tournament, they did, qualify for the 1957 Championships held in Brazil. Captained by Lorraine Eiler, the Opals defeated Peru. Sixteen year-old Bronte Cockburn led the scoring for Australia with an average of 9.5 points per game, but the inexperienced team finished in 10th place. Since the Opals have helped increase the popularity of the sport in Australia.
Australia would not get the opportunity to participate at the 1959 World Championship held in Moscow because at the time, the Australian Government would not allow the team to travel to the USSR. The Opals would not qualify for a World Championship again until the 1967 contest in Czechoslovakia. With an new team and a single victory over Italy, Australia finished in 10th position for the second time. Team captain, Jean Forster, led the scoring for Australia with an average of 21.2 points per game, with a tournament high of 34 against Brazil. Her 21.2 points per game would remain unchallenged for 35 years. In 1971, the Opals travelled once again to Brazil. Led by new head coach Merv Harris, featuring Jill Hammond, the team made several improvements with only three players from the 1967 squad selected. Although the Opals finished in ninth place, they had victories over Madagascar, Argentina and Canada. In 1975, the team headed to Colombia with Jim Madigan. Despite a 74–25 confidence building win over Senegal, as well as victories over Japan and Hungary, the team finished in 10th place.
The 1976 Olympics held in Montreal marked the first Olympic medals awarded for women’s basketball, but Opals did not qualify for the tournament. Their next major competition would be the 1979 World Championships in South Korea, which would prove to be their first taste of success; the coach again was Jim Madigan, the squad featured some of the faces of the Opals for the next decade such as Jenny Cheesman, Robyn Maher, Julie Nykiel, Karin Maar and Patricia Mickan. The team would have early success defeating Italy and France, as well as thrashing Malaysia 119–14. Australia would lose their next three games, but bounced back winning their final game over Japan to finish in fourth place, their best international result to that time. In the early days of women’s Olympic basketball, only six countries competed in the tournament, the host country received an automatic entry. Therefore, there were 22 countries competing for the remaining five spots in 1980 Olympics held in Moscow. In the preliminary tournament, the Opals fell to the USA and Hungary, did not qualify for the Olympics.
Three years the team traveled to Brazil for the 1983 World Championships, looking to demonstrate that their 1979 success was no accident. Despite an early victory over Japan, Australia finished in 11th place; the Opals were not expected to participate at the 1984 Olympic Games held in Los Angeles. However, following the decision by Cuba to boycott the games, the door was opened for the Opals to compete in their first Olympics. Led by head coach Brendan Flynn, team captain Jenny Cheesman, the Opals played competitively in every game, but finished fifth out of the six teams; the next tournament for the Opals was the 1986 World Championships in Moscow. The first game against Hungary was a two overtime thriller that the Opals lost 79–77; the game set the tone for the tournament, despite some close finishes against the top rated teams, Australia finished in ninth place. The Opals headed into the 1988 Seoul Olympics with a medal hope, but they lost the first game to host nation Korea; the Opals bounced back and defeated Bulgaria, meaning that only the powerful Soviet Union stood between them and a semi-finals berth.
In a major upset, the Opals defeated the USSR 60 -- 48. In a memorable game, the Opals lost a contested game at the buzzer 57–56, sending them to a rematch with the USSR for the bronze medal. Motivated by the previous loss, the USSR came out determined and outplayed the Opals 68–53. Despite the loss, the fourth-place finish equalled the Opals’ previous best international placing. Building from their success at Seoul, the Opals headed to Malaysia for the 1990 World Championships with high hopes; the team won their first two games against Malaysia and Italy, before suffering a string of losses to Bulgaria, the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia. In their final game, the Opals came back from seven point halftime deficit to beat Bulgaria 73–71 and finish in sixth place. Fifteen teams competed for the five open spots at the 1992 Barcelona Olympics, despite a respectable 4–2 record at the preliminary tournament, the Opals did not qualify. Two years Australia played host to the 1994 FIBA World Championships.
Led by guard Shelley Sandie's 11.9 points per game, the team scored victories over Japan, Italy and Canada to set up a semi-finals match against China. The Opals held an early lead, but China mounted a second half
Coffs Harbour is a city on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales, Australia, 540 km north of Sydney, 390 km south of Brisbane. It is one of the largest urban centres on the North Coast, with an estimated population of 70,000 in 2017. Coffs Harbour's economy was once based on bananas, now being superseded by blueberries as well as tourism and fishing; the wider region is known as the Bananacoast. The city has a campus of Southern Cross University, a public and a private hospital, several radio stations, three major shopping centres. Coffs Harbour is including a marine national park. There are regular passenger flights each day to Sydney and Melbourne departing from Coffs Harbour Airport. Coffs Harbour is accessible by road, by NSW TrainLink, by regular bus services. Coffs Harbour is a regional city along the Pacific Highway between The Gold Coast, it has become a major service centre for those living between South West Rocks in the south and Grafton to the north. Sawtell, 10 km south along Hogbin Drive from the city has become a satellite suburb of Coffs Harbour.
The surrounding region is dominated by coastal resorts and apartments with hinterland hills and mountains covered by forests, banana plantations, other farms. It is the only place in New South Wales; the Bananacoast Community Credit Union is headquartered in Coffs Harbour. The greater Coffs Harbour city is broken up into several suburb and precinct areas including: The city is surrounded by outlying towns which are referred to by locals as suburbs of the Coffs Coast Region: By the early 1900s, the Coffs Harbour area had become an important timber production centre. Before the opening of the North Coast Railway Line, the only way to transport large items of heavy but low value, such as timber, was by coastal shipping; this meant sawmillers on the North Coast were dependent on jetties either in rivers or off beaches for exporting their timber. Timber tramways were constructed to connect the timber-getting areas, the sawmills and jetties built into the ocean at Coffs Harbour. Coffs Harbour owes its name to John Korff, who named the area Korff's Harbour when he was forced to take shelter from a storm in the area in 1847.
The name was accidentally changed by the surveyor for the crown when he reserved land in the area during 1861. Coffs Harbour has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 1 Breakwater Road: Ferguson's Cottage According to the 2016 Census the population of the suburb of Coffs Harbour is 25,752; this is an increase from 24,581 in 2011. 52.5% of the population is female in contrast to the national average of 50.7%. The average age is 43, higher than the national average of 38. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 5.6% of the population. 75.5% of residents reported being born in Australia. Other than Australia the most common countries of birth are England, New Zealand, Myanmar and Germany. 62.2% of residents reported both their parents being born in Australia higher than the national average of 47.3%. 82.1% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Punjabi 0.9%, Chin Haka 0.5%, Arabic 0.4%, Spanish 0.4% and Dari 0.4%. The top religious response in Coffs Harbour are Catholic 20.0%, Anglican 17.9% and Presbyterian and Reformed 3.9%.
29.3 % declared 11.1 % did not submit a response. Coffs Harbour has a humid subtropical climate with marked seasonality of rainfall; the city is sunny, receiving 122.1 clear days annually, higher than Brisbane and Cairns. Summers are warm and humid. Winters are mild and drier. Coffs Harbour was the hub for a thriving banana industry. One of the biggest attractions is the Big Banana, one of the first of Australia's Big Things, with the World's Largest Banana celebrating the region's best known export. There is a popular underwater diving spot on a small natural reef; the Coffs Harbour Jetty is an important timber wharf where coastal shipping once moved the timber from the hinterland. The jetty area is the subject of current planning by Council and consultants to develop a cultural precinct and rejuvenated residential area. Nearby, the Solitary Islands Marine Park preserves a diverse underwater ecosystem that mirrors the terrestrial biodiversity, covering the southern limit of northern tropical species and the northern limits of the southern temperate species.
Muttonbird Island is accessible by walking along the breakwater from the harbour, with the nature reserve protecting a significant wedge-tailed shearwater breeding site. The Muttonbird Island footpath leads to a viewing platform where whales are spotted between June and November. There are many national parks and marine parks surrounding the city, including: Bellinger River National Park Bindarri National Park Bongil Bongil National Park Cascade National Park Coffs Coast Regional Park Dorrigo National Park Hayden Dent Nature Reserve Junuy Juluum National Park Moonee Beach Nature Reserve Nymboi-Binderay National Park Solitary Islands Marine Park South Solita
2018 WNBA All-Star Game
The 2018 WNBA All-Star Game was an exhibition basketball game played on July 28, 2018. The Minnesota Lynx hosted the WNBA All-Star Game for the first time. On June 5, the WNBA announced that 2018 would have a new roster selection format for the All-Star Game. Fans, WNBA players, head coaches, sports writers and broadcasters would all be able to vote for All Stars. Fans could vote for 10 players. Players and coaches cannot vote for members of their own team. Voting began on June 19, 2018 at 2 PM EDT, ended on July 12, 2018 at 11:59 PM EDT; the voting will be weighted as follows: Players were not allowed to vote for their teammates. Head coaches could not vote for players on their own team; the top 22 players receiving votes based on this weighting would be selected to the All-Star Game. There would not be a restriction on number of players from one conference; the top two vote-getters would be captains of the two All-Star teams and select their teams from the pool of remaining 20 players. The 22 All-Stars were revealed on July 17, 2018.
Rosters were revealed on July 19, 2018, during ESPN2's coverage of the Washington Mystics at the Dallas Wings. The head coaches of the two teams will be the head coaches from the two WNBA teams with the best records following games on July 13. On July 12, 2018 the two teams with the best records were determined when the Dallas Wings defeated the Los Angeles Sparks; the Seattle Storm had the best record in the league and the Phoenix Mercury had the second best. Therefore, Dan Hughes was to coach the team captained by the highest All-Star vote getter, Sandy Brondello would be the coach of the team captained by the second highest All-Star vote getter; the players for the All-Star Game were selected by the voting process described above. The 22 players that would participate in the All-Star Game were announced on July 17, 2018, on Sportscenter. Maya Moore and Elena Delle Donne were the two leading vote-getters and would be the captains of the two All-Star teams. Moore decline the role of captain, president Lisa Borders named Candace Parker as the replacement captain, due to Parker being the next-leading vote-getter.
The selections were led by the Western Conference, with 16 selections, while the Eastern Conference had six players selected. On July 24, 2018, it was announced that the Three Point Shootout would return during halftime of the All-Star Game. For the second year in a row, the WNBA will donate $10,000 to a charity of the winner's choice; the Three-Point Shootout is a two-round, timed competition in which five shooting locations are positioned around the three-point arc. Four racks contain one "money" ball; the fifth station is a special “all money ball” rack, which each participant can place at any of the five locations. Every ball on this rack is worth two points; the players have one minute to shoot as many of the 25 balls. The two competitors with the highest scores in the first round advance to the championship round. Allie Quigly beat Kayla McBride in a tie breaker round, winning the 2018 WNBA three point contest
Australian Institute of Sport
The Australian Institute of Sport is a sports training institution in Australia. The Institute's headquarters are situated in Canberra; the 66-hectare site campus is in the northern suburb of Bruce. The AIS is a division of the Australian Sports Commission. Two reports were the basis for developing the AIS: The Role and Development of Recreation in Australia by John Bloomfield and Report of the Australian Sports Institute Study Group; the need for the AIS was compounded in 1976 when the Australian Olympic team failed to win a gold medal at the Montreal Olympics, regarded as a national embarrassment for Australia. The Institute's well-funded programs have been regarded as a major reason for Australia's recent success in international sporting competitions. A brief overview of the history of the AIS follows; the AIS employs a number of staff who work in Sports Science and Sports Medicine, which includes disciplines such as sports nutrition, performance analysis, skill acquisition, recovery, athlete career education and conditioning, physical therapies, talent identification, applied performance research.
There are a number of sculptures located throughout the Bruce Campus, such as'Acrobats','Gymnast','Pole Vaulter' and'Soccer Players' by John Robinson and the'Swimmer' by Guy Boyd. After the Sydney 2000 Olympics, two of the three sculptures -' Gymnast' and'Wheelchair Basketballer' - that were located on the Sydney Tower Eye prior to the Olympics were installed at the AIS; the AIS Arena is a 5,200 capacity indoor stadium, used for sports such as basketball and volleyball as well as music concerts. Directly adjacent to, but not part of the Institute is the 25,000 capacity outdoor Canberra Stadium which has hosted matches of all the major forms of football played in Australia. In 2005, 2009, 2010 the Institute won awards at the prestigious Canberra and Capital Region Tourism Awards; these awards were given in recognition of the daily public tours. Each tour, which takes in several different buildings of the Institute as well as the arena and the Sportex zone, is led by an athlete training there.
Shortly after its inception in 1981, the AIS held a competition for a symbol that would depict the AIS aim of "achieving supremacy in sport". Over 500 designs were submitted; the winner was a design student from Bendigo in Victoria, Rose-Marie Derrico. Her design showed an athlete with hands clasped above the head in recognition of victory; the colours of the logo were red and blue, which are the same colours as the Australian flag. On 3 February 2014, the AIS launched a new logo in line with its new direction as outlined in its Winning Edge program, launched in 2012. Landor Associates designed the new logo; the gold in the brand representing Australia's pursuit of gold. From 2014, as a result of Australia's Winning Edge 2012-2022 strategy, the AIS no longer directly offered scholarships to athletes; as a result of the strategy, many national sporting organisations are utilizing the AIS facilities and services on an ongoing or regular basis. Several national sports organisations have located their national centres for excellence at the AIS.
These include: Basketball Australia Centre for Excellence, Netball Australia Centre for Excellence Football Federation of Australia Centre of Excellence, Rowing Australia National Training Centre, Volleyball Australia Centre of Excellence and Swimming Australia National Training Centre. The AIS does continue to support other athletes in other sports however they are self funded and not under the National Training Centre banner. Up until 2013, the AIS offered scholarships to athletes across 36 programs in 26 different sports: Artistic gymnastics, athletes with disabilities - swimming and winter sports, netball, football, swimming and field, volleyball and water polo administered from Canberra Diving, squash and cricket administered from Brisbane Sailing and slalom canoeing administered from Sydney Hockey administered from Perth Sprint canoeing, triathlon and BMX administered from the Gold Coast Road cycling, track cycling and beach volleyball administered from Adelaide Australian rules football, rugby union and rugby league are camps based programs Winter sports administered from MelbourneSports that had an AIS program but were discontinued prior to 2013 included: weightlifting, water polo, wrestling, archery and golf..
The head coach for the AIS boxing program from 1997 to 2010 was Bodo Andreass. Many prominent Australian athletes have taken up AIS scholarships. In 2001, the AIS established the Best of the Best Award to recognise performed AIS athletes; as of 2011, the following athletes have been recognised - Alisa Camplin, Robert De Castella, John Eales, Simon Fairweather, Neil Fuller, Bridgette Gusterson, Rechelle Hawkes, Shane Kelly, Luc Longley, Michelle Martin, Glenn McGrath, Michael Klim, Michael Milton, Clint Robinson, Louise Sauvage, Kate Slatter, Zali Steggall, Mark Viduka, Vicki Wilson, Todd Woodbridge, Lauren Jackson, Chantelle Newbery, Petria Thomas, Kerry Saxby-Junna, Jamie Dwyer, Anna Meares, Malcolm Page, Ricky Ponting, Oenone Wood and Matthew Cowdrey. In August 2013, Stuart O'Grady was indefinitely suspended from the'Best of the Best' due to his admission to doping in 1998; the Australian Institute of Sport Alumni highlights
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, has taken place every four years since then; the Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. It is the world's first multi-sport event which inducted equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented in the 2018 Commonwealth Games, their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which were held in London, United Kingdom in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton in 1930. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the games movement has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18.
The first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were cancelled because of the Second World War; the Commonwealth Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation, which controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations, Commonwealth Games Associations, organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. There are several rituals and symbols, such as the Commonwealth Games flag and Queen's Baton, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Commonwealth Games in more than 15 different sports and more than 250 events; the first and third-place finishers in each event receive Commonwealth Games medals: gold and bronze, respectively. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games include some sports which are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries but which are not part of the Olympic programme, such as lawn bowls and squash.
Although there are 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams. Nineteen cities in nine countries have hosted the event. Australia has hosted the Commonwealth Games five times. Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games more than once: Auckland and Edinburgh. Only six countries have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, England, New Zealand and Wales. Australia has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England for seven, Canada for one; the most recent Commonwealth Games were held in Gold Coast from 4 to 15 April 2018. The next Commonwealth Games are to be held in Birmingham from 27 July to 7 August 2022. A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by John Astley Cooper in 1900, when he wrote an article in The Times suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire".
John Astley Cooper Committees were formed worldwide and helped Pierre de Coubertin to get his international Olympic Games off the ground. In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held at The Crystal Palace in London to celebrate the coronation of George V; as part of the Festival of the Empire, an Inter-Empire Championships were held in which teams from Australia, South Africa, the United Kingdom competed in athletics, boxing and swimming events. Canada won the championships and was gifted a silver cup, 2 feet 6 inch high and weighed 340 oz, it was gifted by Lord Lonsdale. However, the 1911 championships were followed by the first world war which happened from 1914 to 1918; the organisers had lost hopes of hosting such sporting events for the empire athletes. Melville Marks Robinson, who went to the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam to serve as the manager of the Canadian track and field team lobbied for the proposal of organising the first British Empire Games in Hamilton in 1930; the 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what become known as the Commonwealth Games, were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from 16–23 August 1930.
Eleven countries sent a total of 400 athletes to the Hamilton Games. The opening and closing ceremonies as well as athletics took place at Civic Stadium; the participant nations were Australia, British Guyana, England, Northern Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and Wales. The Hamilton Games featured six sports: athletics, lawn bowls, rowing and diving and wrestling and ran at a cost of $97,973. Women competed in only the aquatic events. Canadian triple jumper Gordon Smallacombe won the first gold medal in the history of the Games; the 1934 British Empire Games were the second of what is now known as the Commonwealth Games, held in London, England. The host city was London, with the main venue at Wembley Park, although the track cycling events were in Manchester; the 1934 Games had been awarded to Johannesburg, but were giv