Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products in diet, an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. A follower of the diet or the philosophy is known as a vegan. Distinctions may be made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances; the term ethical vegan is applied to those who not only follow a vegan diet but extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives, oppose the use of animals for any purpose. Another term is environmental veganism, which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable. Vegan diets are regarded as appropriate for all stages of life including during infancy and pregnancy by the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, the British Dietetic Association; the German Society for Nutrition does not recommend vegan diets for children or adolescents, or during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fiber, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, phytochemicals. Unbalanced vegan diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues; some of these deficiencies can only be prevented through the choice of fortified foods or the regular intake of dietary supplements. Vitamin B12 supplementation is important because its deficiency causes blood disorders and irreversible neurological damage. Donald Watson coined the term vegan in 1944. At first he used it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian", but from 1951 the Society defined it as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals". Interest in veganism increased in the 2010s in the latter half. More vegan stores opened and vegan options became available in supermarkets and restaurants in many countries; the term "vegetarian" has been in use since around 1839 to refer to what was described as a vegetable regimen or diet. Modern dictionaries based on scientific linguistic principles explain its origin as an irregular compound of vegetable and the suffix -arian.
The earliest-known written use is attributed to actress and abolitionist Fanny Kemble, in her Journal of a Residence on a Georgian plantation in 1838–1839. The practice can be traced to Indus Valley Civilization in 3300–1300 BCE in the Indian subcontinent in northern and western India and in Pakistan. Early vegetarians included Indian philosophers such as Mahavira and Acharya Kundakunda, the Tamil poet Valluvar, the Indian emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka; the Greek sage Pythagoras may have advocated an early form of strict vegetarianism, but his life is so obscure that it is disputed whether he advocated any form of vegetarianism at all. He certainly prohibited his followers from eating beans and from wearing woolen garments. Eudoxus of Cnidus, a student of Archytas and Plato, writes that "Pythagoras was distinguished by such purity and so avoided killing and killers that he not only abstained from animal foods, but kept his distance from cooks and hunters". One of the earliest known vegans was the Arab poet al-Maʿarri.
Their arguments were based on health, the transmigration of souls, animal welfare, the view—espoused by Porphyry in De Abstinentia ab Esu Animalium —that if humans deserve justice so do animals. Vegetarianism established itself as a significant movement in 19th-century England and the United States. A minority of vegetarians avoided animal food entirely. In 1813, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley published A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors", in 1815, William Lambe, a London physician, claimed that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne. Lambe called animal food a "habitual irritation", argued that "milk eating and flesh-eating are but branches of a common system and they must stand or fall together". Sylvester Graham's meatless Graham diet—mostly fruit, vegetables and bread made at home with stoneground flour—became popular as a health remedy in the 1830s in the United States. Several vegan communities were established around this time.
In Massachusetts, Amos Bronson Alcott, father of the novelist Louisa May Alcott, opened the Temple School in 1834 and Fruitlands in 1844, in England, James Pierrepont Greaves founded the Concordium, a vegan community at Alcott House on Ham Common, in 1838. In 1843, members of Alcott House created the British and Foreign Society for the Promotion of Humanity and Abstinence from Animal Food, led by Sophia Chichester, a wealthy benefactor of Alcott House. Alcott House helped to establish the UK Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent; the Medical Times and Gazette in London reported in 1884: There are two kinds of Vegetarians—one an extreme form, the members of which eat no animal food whatever. The Vegetarian Society... belongs to the latter more moderate division. An article in the Society's magazine, the Vegetarian Messenger, in 1851 discussed alternatives to shoe leat
VegNews is an American magazine that publishes content about and relating to veganism, including news, health information, global events, vegan products and more. It was founded in 2000 as a newspaper, transitioned to full-color glossy magazine in 2004; the magazine is published on a quarterly basis. VegNews is owned by Fresh Healthy Media, LLC, a company devoted to promoting the vegan lifestyle, owned and operated by VegNews’ co-founder and publisher Colleen Holland. Joe Connelly is the other co-founder. VegNews won an award for Best Lifestyle Magazine in 2017. VegNews is published in California. Audio recording of founders interview Interview with founders
A cookie is a baked or cooked food, small and sweet. It contains flour and some type of oil or fat, it may include other ingredients such as raisins, chocolate chips, etc. In most English-speaking countries except for the United States and Canada, crisp cookies are called biscuits. Chewier biscuits are sometimes called cookies in the United Kingdom; some cookies may be named by their shape, such as date squares or bars. Cookies or biscuits may be mass-produced in factories, made in small bakeries or homemade. Biscuit or cookie variants include sandwich biscuits, such as custard creams, Jammie Dodgers and Oreos, with marshmallow or jam filling and sometimes dipped in chocolate or another sweet coating. Cookies are served with beverages such as milk, coffee or tea. Factory-made cookies are sold in convenience stores and vending machines. Fresh-baked cookies are sold at bakeries and coffeehouses, with the latter ranging from small business-sized establishments to multinational corporations such as Starbucks.
In most English-speaking countries outside North America, including the United Kingdom, the most common word for a crisp cookie is biscuit. The term cookie is used to describe chewier ones. However, in many regions both terms are used. In Scotland the term cookie is sometimes used to describe a plain bun. Cookies that are baked as a solid layer on a sheet pan and cut, rather than being baked as individual pieces, are called in British English bar cookies or traybakes, its American name derives from the Dutch word koekje or more its informal, dialect variant koekie which means little cake, arrived in American English with the Dutch settlement of New Netherland, in the early 1600s. According to the Scottish National Dictionary, its Scottish name derives from the diminutive form of the word cook, giving the Middle Scots cookie, cooky or cukie, it gives an alternative etymology: like the American word, from the Dutch koekje, the diminutive of koek, a cake. There was much trade and cultural contact across the North Sea between the Low Countries and Scotland during the Middle Ages, which can be seen in the history of curling and golf.
Cookies are most baked until crisp or just long enough that they remain soft, but some kinds of cookies are not baked at all. Cookies are made in a wide variety of styles, using an array of ingredients including sugars, chocolate, peanut butter, nuts, or dried fruits; the softness of the cookie may depend on. A general theory of cookies may be formulated this way. Despite its descent from cakes and other sweetened breads, the cookie in all its forms has abandoned water as a medium for cohesion. Water in cakes serves to make the base as thin as possible, which allows the bubbles – responsible for a cake's fluffiness – to better form. In the cookie, the agent of cohesion has become some form of oil. Oils, whether they be in the form of butter, vegetable oils, or lard, are much more viscous than water and evaporate at a much higher temperature than water, thus a cake made with butter or eggs instead of water is far denser after removal from the oven. Oils in baked cakes do not behave. Rather than evaporating and thickening the mixture, they remain, saturating the bubbles of escaped gases from what little water there might have been in the eggs, if added, the carbon dioxide released by heating the baking powder.
This saturation produces the most texturally attractive feature of the cookie, indeed all fried foods: crispness saturated with a moisture that does not sink into it. Cookie-like hard wafers have existed for as long as baking is documented, in part because they deal with travel well, but they were not sweet enough to be considered cookies by modern standards. Cookies appear to have their origins in 7th century AD Persia, shortly after the use of sugar became common in the region, they spread to Europe through the Muslim conquest of Spain. By the 14th century, they were common in all levels of society throughout Europe, from royal cuisine to street vendors. With global travel becoming widespread at that time, cookies made a natural travel companion, a modernized equivalent of the travel cakes used throughout history. One of the most popular early cookies, which traveled well and became known on every continent by similar names, was the jumble, a hard cookie made from nuts and water. Cookies came to America through the Dutch in New Amsterdam in the late 1620s.
The Dutch word "koekje" was Anglicized to "cookie" or cooky. The earliest reference to cookies in America is in 1703, when "The Dutch in New York provided...'in 1703...at a funeral 800 cookies...'"The most common modern cookie, given its style by the creaming of butter and sugar, was not common until the 18th century. Cookies are broadly classified according to how they are formed, including at least these categories: Bar cookies consist of batter or other ingredients that are poured or pressed into a pan and cut into cookie-sized pieces after baking. In British English, bar cookies are known as "tray bakes". Examples include brownies, fruit squares, bars such as date squares. Drop cookies are made from a soft dough, dropped by spoonfuls onto the baking sheet. During baking, the mounds of dough flatten. Chocolate chip cookies, oatmeal raisin cookies, rock cakes are popular examples of drop cookies; this may include thumbprint cookies, for which a small central depression is created with a thumb or small spoon before baki
Shark Tank is an American business-related reality television series on ABC that premiered on August 9, 2009. The show is the American franchise of the international format Dragons' Den, which originated in Japan in 2001, it shows aspiring entrepreneurs as they make business presentations to a panel of five investors or "sharks", who choose whether to invest in their company as business partners. The series has been a ratings success in its time slot and has won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Structured Reality Program four times, in all four years of that category's existence. Prior to that, it won Outstanding Reality Program. On February 5, 2019, ABC renewed the series for an eleventh season. Shark Tank is produced by Mark Burnett and based on the format Dragons' Den, which originated in 2001 with the Japanese show Tigers of Money. Shark Tank, more resembles the format of the British version of Dragons' Den, which premiered in 2005; the show features a panel of potential investors, called "sharks", who consider offers from aspiring entrepreneurs seeking investments for their business or product.
The sharks are paid for their participation in the show. The entrepreneur can make a deal on the show. However, if all of the panel members opt out, the entrepreneur leaves empty-handed; the show is said to portray "the drama of pitch meetings and the interaction between the entrepreneurs and tycoons." A one-hour pitch by a contestant is edited down to "a dramatic 10-minute segment."Two of the show's longstanding sharks, Robert Herjavec and Kevin O'Leary, are Canadian entrepreneurs who had appeared on the Canadian version of Dragons' Den. The sharks find weaknesses and faults in an entrepreneur's concept, product, or business model; some of the investors try to soften the impact of rejection, like panel member Barbara Corcoran, while others such as O'Leary can be "brutal" and show "no patience for tales of hardship". Many, a majority, of the deals made on the show are never enacted, due to the investors' vetting process following the deal, which includes product testing and the examination of the contestants' personal and business financials.
In some cases, the entrepreneurs themselves have backed out of the deal after admitting that they only wanted to appear on the show for the publicity. The show is responsible for what has become known as the Shark Tank effect. Appearing on the show without getting an offer, has the potential to boost sales for companies; some entrepreneurs have reported revenue increases of 10–20 times after the show's airing. The show required each contestant to sign an agreement with Finnmax, the producer of Shark Tank, promising Finnmax the option of taking a "2 percent royalty" or "5% equity stake" in the contestant's business venture. However, in October 2013, this requirement was repealed by the network, due to pressure from panel member Mark Cuban. Cuban felt the requirement would lower the quality of the entrepreneurs, as savvy investors would be wary of trading away a portion of their company just for appearing on the show. A number of potential entrepreneurs have declined to participate in the show for this reason.
Shark Tank premiered in August 2009 and aired 14 episodes through January 2010. In August, it was renewed for a second season. Season 2 premiered with a "sneak peek" episode on Sunday, March 20, 2011, before resuming its regular Friday night time slot on March 25, 2011. Season 2 had 5 of them featuring new panel members. Comedian Jeff Foxworthy and Mark Cuban replaced panel member Kevin Harrington in those episodes. In season 2, Kevin O'Leary, Barbara Corcoran, Daymond John, Robert Herjavec appeared in all nine episodes. Shark Tank's third season premiered in January 2012. During the second season, Kevin Harrington was replaced by Mark Cuban, while in the third season, the "queen of QVC" Lori Greiner replaced Barbara Corcoran on 4 episodes. Kevin O'Leary, Daymond John, Robert Herjavec, Mark Cuban appeared in all 15 episodes of season three. In February, ABC ordered two additional episodes for season 3 using unaired footage, which brought the season's episode total to 15. On May 10, 2012, Shark Tank was renewed for a fourth season consisting of 26 episodes.
This is the first time. Filming began on June 30, 2012. According to TV Guide, as of December 2012, the show's panel members had invested $12.4 million in the business opportunities presented to them during that season. Those whose business ideas did not result in an investment from the sharks still benefited from the publicity generated by that contestant appearing on the show. During the show's 2012 season, 36,076 people applied to become contestants. In 2013, ABC renewed the show for a fifth season. Season 5 premiered on September 20, 2013. In October 2013, ABC ordered an additional two episodes for the season. In December 2013, ABC ordered another four episodes. Steve Tisch and John Paul DeJoria were added as panel members. In 2013, CNBC licensed exclusive off-network cable rights for the series from ABC. In May 2014, ABC announced a sixth season starting in September 2014; the series began its syndication run on CNBC on December 30, 2013. The seventh season of the show premiered on Friday, September 25, 2015.
Actor/investor Ashton Kutcher, music manager/CEO Troy Carter, venture investor Chris Sacca all appeared as guest sharks. The ninth season of the show premiered on Sunday, October 1, 2017, with a new, modern-looking set, new chairs, more space, guest shark Richard Branson; the tenth season of Shark
Waitsfield is a town in Washington County, United States. The population was 1,719 at the 2010 census, it was created by Vermont charter on February 25, 1782. It was granted to militia Generals Benjamin Wait and Roger Enos and others, named for Wait. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.9 square miles, of which 26.7 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles, or 0.68%, is water. Waitsfield is located in the valley of the Mad River, between the main range of the Green Mountains to the west and the Northfield Mountains to the east. Vermont Route 100 runs through the valley, connecting Waterbury to the north with Warren and Rochester to the south. Vermont Route 17 leaves Route 100 to the west, heading over the Green Mountains past the Mad River Glen ski area reaching Bristol; the primary villages in town are Waitsfield and Irasville, both along Route 100. Waitsfield Common is near the geographic center of the town. Children in Waitsfield attend Harwood Union High School.
The 2000 census stated that there were 1,659 people, 734 households, 485 families residing in the town. The population density was 61.7 people per square mile. There were 908 housing units at an average density of 33.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.23% White, 0.96% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.48% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.21% of the population. There were 734 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families. 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.73. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.3% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $45,577, the median income for a family was $54,868. Males had a median income of $31,827 versus $27,260 for females; the per capita income for the town was $24,209. About 3.9% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.1% of those under age 18 and 2.0% of those age 65 or over. Bill Parker and inventor Edmund Rice, US congressman from Minnesota Henry Mower Rice, US senator from Minnesota Grace Potter, musician of Grace Potter and the Nocturnals Charles W. Waterman, US senator from Colorado The town's economy is based around the two nearby ski resorts, Sugarbush Resort and Mad River Glen. Both are popular resorts but different at the same time, with Mad River Glen being the longest run skier owned and skier only resort on the East Coast and Sugarbush being a much more tourist driven resort.
In recent years Sugarbush has worked on growing into a much larger resort throughout the town adding several new condos and a hotel. Other than skiing Waitsfield has become famous for the amazing restaurants it features. First and most well known is American Flatbread a locally owned, locally grown unique restaurant featuring famous wood fired pizzas with local ingredients. In the parking lot of American Flatbread Declan Lyons was shot dead, notable because of the rarity of violent crime in the area. After Flatbreads local favorite Mexican spot the Mad Taco serves local meat smoked on the premises along with locally brewed beer, a favorite among locals and tourists both. A new restaurant the Peasant just arrived on Bridge Street serving another locally grown taste this time the taste of France. After restaurants Waitsfield features a one of a kind movie theater, The Big Picture Theater features both a restaurant and two theaters with love seat style seating, food service to your movie seat. During the summer a favorite in Waitsfield is the swimming holes along the Mad River.
Lareau Farm and swimming under the hundred year old covered bridge are local favorites and adopted by the visiting tourists during the summer. Overall Waitsfield's economy offers. Featuring many different high class restaurants and activities it makes for the perfect getaway during any of the four seasons. A long-running Christmas-themed commercial for Miller High Life beer was filmed in Waitsfield in 1976. Town of Waitsfield official website Waitsfield VT – VT Living Magazine