Ljudevit Gaj was a Croatian linguist, politician and writer. He was one of the central figures of the pan-Slavist Illyrian Movement, he was born in Krapina, on August 8, 1809. His father Johann Gay was a German immigrant from Hungarian Slovakia, his mother was Juliana née Schmidt, the daughter of a German immigrant arriving in the 1770s; the Gays were of Burgundian Huguenot origin. They arrived to Batizovce in present-day Slovakia in 17th century. Thence they became serfs of Mariassy de Batizfalva families in 18th century; as there was a lot of ethnic Germans in that area, the Gays were soon Germanised. Ljudevit's father originates from a branch. Gaj started publishing early. In Buda in 1830 Gaj's Latin alphabet was published, the first common Croatian orthography book; the book was printed bilingually, in German. The Croatians used the Latin alphabet, but some of the specific sounds were not uniformly represented. Gaj followed the example of Pavao Ritter Vitezović and the Czech orthography, using one letter of the Latin script for each sound in the language.
He used the digraphs lj and nj. The book helped Gaj achieve nationwide fame. In 1834 he succeeded where fifteen years before Đuro Matija Šporer had failed, i.e. obtaining an agreement from the royal government of the Habsburg Monarchy to publish a Croatian daily newspaper. He was known as an intellectual leader thereafter. On 6 January 1835, Novine Horvatske appeared, on 10 January the literary supplement Danicza horvatzka, slavonzka y dalmatinzka; the "Novine Horvatske" were printed in Kajkavian dialect until the end of that year, while "Danica" was printed in Shtokavian dialect along with Kajkavian. In early 1836 the publications' names were changed to Ilirske narodne novine and Danica ilirska respectively; this was because historians at the time hypothesised Illyrians had been Slavic and were the direct forefathers of the present-day South Slavs. In addition to his intellectual work, Gaj was a poet, his most popular poem was "Još Hrvatska ni propala", written in 1833. Gaj died in Zagreb, Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, Austria-Hungary, in 1872 at the age of 62.
The Latin alphabet used in the Serbo-Croatian language is credited to Gaj's Kratka osnova Hrvatskog pravopisa. The Cyrillic counterpart is called vukovica, after contemporary linguist Vuk Karadžić; the Slovenian alphabet, introduced in the mid-1840s, is a variation of Gaj's Latin alphabet, from which it differs by the lack of the letters ć and đ. He married niece of an abbott, in 1842 at Marija Bistrica, they had five children: daughter Ljuboslava, sons Velimir, Svetoslav and Bogdan. In 2008, a total of 211 streets in Croatia were named after Ljudevit Gaj, making him the fourth most common person eponym of streets in the country. Illyrian movement Romantic nationalism Croatian language
The Latin or Roman alphabet is the writing system used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language. Due to its use in writing Germanic and other languages first in Europe and in other parts of the world, due to its use in Romanizing writing of other languages, it has become widespread, it is used in China and has been adopted by Baltic and some Slavic states. The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, itself descended from the Phoenician abjad, which in turn derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics; the Etruscans, who ruled early Rome, adopted the Cumaean Greek alphabet, modified over time to become the Etruscan alphabet, in turn adopted and further modified by the Romans to produce the Latin alphabet. During the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was used for writing Romance languages, which are direct descendants of Latin, as well as Celtic, Germanic and some Slavic languages. With the age of colonialism and Christian evangelism, the Latin script spread beyond Europe, coming into use for writing indigenous American, Austronesian and African languages.
More linguists have tended to prefer the Latin script or the International Phonetic Alphabet when transcribing or creating written standards for non-European languages, such as the African reference alphabet. The term Latin alphabet may refer to either the alphabet used to write Latin, or other alphabets based on the Latin script, the basic set of letters common to the various alphabets descended from the classical Latin alphabet, such as the English alphabet; these Latin-script alphabets may discard letters, like the Rotokas alphabet, or add new letters, like the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. Letter shapes have evolved over the centuries, including the development in Medieval Latin of lower-case, forms which did not exist in the Classical period alphabet. English is the only major modern European language requiring no diacritics for native words, it is believed that the Romans adopted the Cumae alphabet, a variant of the Greek alphabet, in the 7th century BC from Cumae, a Greek colony in Southern Italy.
The Ancient Greek alphabet was in turn based upon the Phoenician abjad. From the Cumae alphabet, the Etruscan alphabet was derived and the Romans adopted 21 of the original 27 Etruscan letters: Latin included 21 different characters; the letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek gamma, but it was used for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/ alike under the influence of Etruscan, which might have lacked any voiced plosives. During the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ – unneeded to write Latin properly – was replaced with the new letter ⟨G⟩, a ⟨C⟩ modified with a small vertical stroke, which took its place in the alphabet. From on, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/; the letter ⟨K⟩ was used only in a small number of words such as Kalendae interchangeably with ⟨C⟩. After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters.
Thus it was during the classical Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: The Latin names of some of these letters are disputed. In general the Romans did not use the traditional names as in Greek: the names of the plosives were formed by adding /eː/ to their sound and the names of the continuants consisted either of the bare sound, or the sound preceded by /e/; the letter ⟨Y⟩ when introduced was called "hy" /hyː/ as in Greek, the name upsilon not being in use yet, but this was changed to "i Graeca" as Latin speakers had difficulty distinguishing its foreign sound /y/ from /i/. ⟨ Z ⟩ was given zeta. This scheme has continued to be used by most modern European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet. For the Latin sounds represented by the various letters see Latin pronunciation. Diacritics were not used, but they did occur sometimes, the most common being the apex used to mark long vowels, which had sometimes been written doubled. However, in place of taking an apex, the letter i was written taller: ⟨á é ꟾ ó v́⟩.
For example, what is today transcribed Lūciī a fīliī was written ⟨lv́ciꟾ·a·fꟾliꟾ⟩ in the inscription depicted. The primary mark of punctuation was the interpunct, used as a word divider, though it fell out of use after 200 AD. Old Roman cursive script called majuscule cursive and capitalis cursive, was the everyday form of handwriting used for writing letters, by merchants writing business accounts, by schoolchildren learning the Latin alphabet, emperors issuing commands. A more formal style of writing was based on Roman square capitals, but cursive was used for quicker, informal writing, it was most c
Gaj's Latin alphabet
Gaj's Latin alphabet is the form of the Latin script used in Serbo-Croatian and all of its standard varieties: Bosnian, Croatian and Montenegrin. It was devised based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, a expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia; the alphabet consists of thirty upper and lower case letters: Gaj's original alphabet contained the digraph ⟨dj⟩, which Serbian linguist Đuro Daničić replaced with the letter ⟨đ⟩. The letters do not have names, consonants are pronounced as such when spelling is necessary; when clarity is needed, they are pronounced similar to the German alphabet: a, be, ce, če, će, de, dže, đe, e, ef, ge, ha, i, je, ka, el, elj, em, en, enj, o, pe, er, es, eš, te, u, ve, ze, že.
These rules for pronunciation of individual letters are common as far as the 22 letters that match the ISO basic Latin alphabet are concerned. The use of others is limited to the context of linguistics, while in mathematics, ⟨j⟩ is pronounced jot, as in German; the missing four letters are pronounced as follows: ⟨q⟩ as ku or kju, ⟨w⟩ as dublve or duplo ve, ⟨x⟩ as iks, ⟨y⟩ as ipsilon. Letters ⟨š⟩, ⟨ž⟩, ⟨č⟩ and ⟨dž⟩ represent the sounds, but are transcribed as /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/ and /dʒ/. Note that the digraphs dž, lj, nj are considered to be single letters: In dictionaries, njegov comes after novine, in a separate ⟨nj⟩ section after the end of the <n> section. In vertical writing, ⟨ dž ⟩, ⟨ lj ⟩, ⟨. For instance, if mjenjačnica is written vertically, ⟨nj⟩ appears on the fourth line. In crossword puzzles, ⟨dž⟩, ⟨lj⟩, ⟨nj⟩ each occupy a single square. If words are written with a space between each letter, each digraphs is written as a unit. For instance: M J E NJ A Č N I C A. If only the initial letter of a word is capitalized, only the first of the two component letters is capitalized: Njemačka, not NJemačka.
In Unicode, the form ⟨Nj⟩ is referred to as titlecase, as opposed to the uppercase form ⟨NJ⟩, representing one of the few cases in which titlecase and uppercase differ. Uppercase would be used if the entire word was capitalized: NJEMAČKA; the Croatian Latin alphabet was designed by Ljudevit Gaj, who modelled it after Czech and Polish, invented ⟨lj⟩, ⟨nj⟩ and ⟨dž⟩. In 1830, he published in Buda the book Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja, the first common Croatian orthography book, it was not the first Croatian orthography work, as it was preceded by works of Rajmund Đamanjić, Ignjat Đurđević and Pavao Ritter Vitezović. Croats had used the Latin script, but some of the specific sounds were not uniformly represented. Versions of the Hungarian alphabet were most used, but others were too, in an confused, inconsistent fashion. Gaj followed the example of Pavao Ritter Vitezović and the Czech orthography, making one letter of the Latin script for each sound in the language, his alphabet mapped on Serbian Cyrillic, standardized by Vuk Karadžić a few years before.Đuro Daničić suggested in his Rječnik hrvatskoga ili srpskoga jezika published in 1880 that Gaj's digraphs ⟨dž⟩, ⟨dj⟩, ⟨lj⟩ and ⟨nj⟩ should be replaced by single letters: ⟨ģ⟩, ⟨đ⟩, ⟨ļ⟩ and ⟨ń⟩ respectively.
The original Gaj alphabet was revised, but only the digraph ⟨dj⟩ has been replaced with Daničić's ⟨đ⟩, while ⟨dž⟩, ⟨lj⟩ and ⟨nj⟩ have been kept. In the 1990s, there was a general confusion about the proper character encoding to use to write text in Latin Croatian on computers. An attempt was made to apply the 7-bit "YUSCII" "CROSCII", which included the five letters with diacritics at the expense of five non-letter characters, but it was unsuccessful; because the ASCII character @ sorts before A, this led to jokes calling it žabeceda. Other short-lived vendor-specific efforts were undertaken; the 8-bit ISO 8859-2 standard was developed by ISO. MS-DOS introduced 8-bit encoding CP852 for Central European languages, disregarding the ISO standard. Microsoft Windows spread yet another 8-bit encoding called CP1250, which had a few letters mapped one-to-one with ISO 8859-2, but had some mapped elsewhere. Apple's Macintosh Central European encoding does not include the entire Gaj's Latin alphabet. Instead, a separate codepage, called MacCroatian encoding, is used.
EBCDIC has a Latin-2 encoding. The preferred character encoding for Croatian today is either the ISO 8859-2, or the Unicode encoding UTF-8. However, as of 2010, one can still find programs as well as databases that use CP1250, CP852 or CROSCII. Digraphs ⟨dž⟩, ⟨lj⟩ and ⟨nj⟩ in their upper case, title case and lower case forms have dedicated UNICODE code points as shown in the table below, these are included chiefly for backwards compatibility (with legacy encodings which kept a one-to-one correspondence
Ll/ll is a digraph which occurs in several natural languages. In English, ll represents the same sound as single l: /l/; the doubling is used to indicate that the preceding vowel is short, or that the "l" sound is to be extended longer than a single "l" would provide. It is worth noting that different English language traditions transpose "l" and "ll": British English "travelled" and like words, for example, are spelled with a single "l" in U. S. English. In Welsh, ll stands for a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative sound; the IPA signifies this sound as. This sound is common in place names in Wales because it occurs in the word Llan, for example, where the ll appears twice, or Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, where the ll appears three times. In Welsh,'Ll' is a separate letter from L; this led to its ligature being included in the Latin Extended Additional Unicode block. The capital ligature appears similar to a joined "IL" and the minuscule ligature like "ll" joined across the top.. This ligatured character is not used in Modern Welsh.
In Spanish, ll was considered a digraph from 1754 to 2010 as the fourteenth letter of the Spanish alphabet because of its representation of a palatal lateral articulation consonant phoneme. This single letter was called "elle"; this letter was collated after L as a separate entry, from 1803 until April 1994, after a vote in the X Congress of the Association of Spanish Language Academies ruled for the adoption of the standard Latin alphabet collation rules. Since the digraph ll is now considered a sequence of two characters. A similar situation occurred with the Spanish-language digraph ch. Hypercorrection leads some to wrongly capitalize it as a single letter, as with the Dutch IJ. In handwriting, it is written with a distinct uppercase and lowercase form. An old ligature for Ll is known as the "broken L", which takes the form of a lowercase l with the top half shifted to the left, connected to the lower half with a thin horizontal stroke; this ligature is displayed Ꝇ and ꝇ respectively. Today, most Spanish speakers outside of Spain pronounce ll as the same sound as y, a phenomenon called yeísmo.
As a result, in most Spanish-speaking parts of the Americas as well as in many regions of Spain, Spanish speakers pronounce it /ʝ/, while some other Spanish speakers in the Americas pronounce it /ʒ/ or /ʃ/. In official Galician spelling the ll combination stands for the phoneme /ʎ/. In Catalan, ll represents the phoneme /ʎ/. For example, as in llengua "language" or "tongue", enllaç "linkage", "connection" or coltell "knife". In order to not confuse ll /ʎ/ with a geminated l /ll/, the ligature ŀl is used with the second meaning. For example, exceŀlent is the Catalan word from Latin excellente. In Catalan, l·l must occupy two spaces, so the interpunct is placed in the narrow space between the two L: ĿL and ŀl. However, it is more common to write l · l, occupying three spaces. L. L and l.l are incorrect and not accepted. See interpunct for more information. While Philippine languages like Tagalog and Ilokano write ly or li in the spelling of Spanish loanwords, ll still survives in proper nouns. However, the pronunciation of ll is rather than.
Hence the surnames Llamzon, Llamas and Villanueva are pronounced /, /. Furthermore, in Ilokano ll represents a geminate alveolar lateral approximant /lː/, like in Italian. In Albanian, L stands for the sound /l/, while Ll is pronounced as the velarized sound /ɫ/. In Icelandic, the "ll" represents either the sound combination or, depending on the context, it occurs in the words "fell", "fjall", "jökull", in the names of many geographical features, including Eyjafjallajökull. In the Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization of Mandarin Chinese, final -ll indicates a falling tone on a syllable ending in /ɻ/, otherwise spelled -l. In Central Alaskan Yup'ik and the Greenlandic language, ll stands for /ɬː/, in Haida it is glottalized /ˀl/. Lh Lj Hungarian ly
Th is a digraph in the Latin script. It was introduced into Latin to transliterate Greek loan words. In modern languages that use the Latin alphabet, it represents a number of different sounds, it is the most common digraph in order of frequency in the English language. The most logical use of ⟨th⟩ is to represent a consonant cluster of the phonemes /t/ and /h/, as in English knighthood; this is not a digraph, since a digraph is a pair of letters representing a single phoneme or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the separate characters. The digraph ⟨th⟩ was first introduced in Latin to transliterate the letter theta ⟨Θ, θ⟩ in loans from Greek. Theta was pronounced as an aspirated stop /tʰ/ in Classical and Koine Greek.⟨th⟩ is used in academic transcription systems to represent letters in south and east Asian alphabets that have the value /tʰ/. According to the Royal Thai General System of Transcription, for example, ⟨th⟩ represents a series of Thai letters with the value /tʰ/.⟨th⟩ is used to transcribe the phoneme /tʰ/ in Southern Bantu languages, such as Zulu and Tswana.
During late antiquity, the Greek phoneme represented by the letter ⟨θ⟩ mutated from an aspirated stop /tʰ/ to a fricative /θ/. This mutation affected the pronunciation of ⟨th⟩, which began to be used to represent the phoneme /θ/ in some of the languages that had it. One of the earliest languages to use the digraph this way was Old High German, before the final phase of the High German consonant shift, in which /θ/ and /ð/ came to be pronounced /d/; the Old English Latin alphabet adapted the runic letters ⟨þ⟩ and ⟨ð⟩ to represent this sound, but the digraph ⟨th⟩ superseded these letters in Middle English. However, in early Old English of the 7th and 8th centuries, the runic letters were not used yet and the digraph used in its place. In modern English, an example of the ⟨th⟩ digraph pronounced as /θ/ is the one in tooth. In Old and Middle Irish, ⟨th⟩ was used for /θ/ as well, but the sound changed into. Other languages that use ⟨th⟩ for /θ/ include Albanian and Welsh, both of which treat it as a distinct letter and alphabetize it between ⟨t⟩ and ⟨u⟩. English uses ⟨th⟩ to represent the voiced dental fricative /ð/, as in father.
This unusual extension of the digraph to represent a voiced sound is caused by the fact that, in Old English, the sounds /θ/ and /ð/ stood in allophonic relationship to each other and so did not need to be rigorously distinguished in spelling. The letters ⟨þ⟩ and ⟨ð⟩ were used indiscriminately for both sounds, when these were replaced by ⟨th⟩ in the 15th century, it was used for both sounds. In the Norman dialect Jèrriais, the French phoneme /r/ is realized as /ð/, is spelled ⟨th⟩ under the influence of English. In the Latin alphabet for the Javanese language, ⟨th⟩ is used to transcribe the phoneme voiceless retroflex stop ʈ, written as ꦛ in the native Javanese script; because neither /tʰ/ nor /θ/ were native phonemes in Latin, the Greek sound represented by ⟨th⟩ came to be pronounced /t/. The spelling retained the digraph for etymological reasons; this practice was borrowed into German, French and other languages, where ⟨th⟩ still appears in Greek words, but is pronounced /t/. See German orthography.
Interlingua employs this pronunciation. In early modern times, French and English all expanded this by analogy to words for which there is no etymological reason, but for the most part the modern spelling systems have eliminated this. Examples of unetymological ⟨th⟩ in English are the name of the River Thames from Middle English Temese and the name Anthony from Latin Antonius. In English, ⟨th⟩ for /t/ can occur in loan-words from French or German, such as Neanderthal; the English name Thomas has initial / t /. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages ⟨th⟩ represents a dental stop, /t̪/. In Irish and Scottish Gaelic, ⟨th⟩ represents the lenition of /t/. In most cases word-initially, it is pronounced /h/. For example: Irish and Scottish Gaelic toil'will' → do thoil'your will'; this use of digraphs with ⟨h⟩ to indicate lenition is distinct from the other uses which derive from Latin. While it is true that the presence of digraphs with ⟨h⟩ in Latin inspired the Goidelic usage, their allocation to phonemes is based on the internal logic of the Goidelic languages.
It is a consequence of their history: the digraph in Old and Middle Irish, designated the phoneme /θ/, but sound changes complicated and obscured the grapheme–sound correspondence, so that ⟨th⟩ is found in some words like Scottish Gaelic piuthar "sister" that never had a /θ/ to begin with. This is an example of "inverted spelling": the model of words where the original interdental fricative had disappeared between vowels caused ⟨th⟩ to be reinterpreted as a marker of hiatus; the Irish and Scottish Gaelic lenited /t/ is silent in final position, as in Scottish Gaelic sgith /skiː/ "tired". And it is silent in initial position, as in Scottish Gaelic thu /uː/ "you". In English the ⟨th⟩ in "asthma" and "clothes" is silent. U+1D7A ᵺ LATIN SMALL LETTER TH WITH STRIKETHROUGH is used for phonetic notation in some dictionaries. Eth Pronunciation of English th Thorn
Letter case is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case and smaller lower case in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two parallel sets of letters, with each letter in one set having an equivalent in the other set; the two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and pronunciation and are treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order. Letter case is applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text; the choice of case is prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline. In orthography, the upper case is reserved for special purposes, such as the first letter of a sentence or of a proper noun, which makes the lower case the more common variant in regular text. In some contexts, it is conventional to use one case only. For example, engineering design drawings are labelled in upper-case letters, which are easier to distinguish than the lower case when space restrictions require that the lettering be small.
In mathematics, on the other hand, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects, with upper-case letters representing "superior" objects. The terms upper case and lower case can be written as two consecutive words, connected with a hyphen, or as a single word; these terms originated from the common layouts of the shallow drawers called type cases used to hold the movable type for letterpress printing. Traditionally, the capital letters were stored in a separate shallow tray or "case", located above the case that held the small letters. Majuscule, for palaeographers, is technically any script in which the letters have few or short ascenders and descenders, or none at all. By virtue of their visual impact, this made the term majuscule an apt descriptor for what much came to be more referred to as uppercase letters. Minuscule refers to lower-case letters; the word is spelled miniscule, by association with the unrelated word miniature and the prefix mini-. This has traditionally been regarded as a spelling mistake, but is now so common that some dictionaries tend to accept it as a nonstandard or variant spelling.
Miniscule is still less however, to be used in reference to lower-case letters. The glyphs of lower-case letters can resemble smaller forms of the upper-case glyphs restricted to the base band or can look hardly related. Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case variants of each letter included in the English alphabet: Typographically, the basic difference between the majuscules and minuscules is not that the majuscules are big and minuscules small, but that the majuscules have the same height. There is more variation in the height of the minuscules, as some of them have parts higher or lower than the typical size. B, d, f, h, k, l, t are the letters with ascenders, g, j, p, q, y are the ones with descenders. In addition, with old-style numerals still used by some traditional or classical fonts, 6 and 8 make up the ascender set, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 the descender set. Writing systems using two separate cases are bicameral scripts. Languages that use the Latin, Greek, Armenian, Warang Citi and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity.
Other bicameral scripts, which are not used for any modern languages, are Old Hungarian and Deseret. The Georgian alphabet has several variants, there were attempts to use them as different cases, but the modern written Georgian language does not distinguish case. Many other writing systems make no distinction between majuscules and minuscules – a system called unicameral script or unicase; this includes most other non-alphabetic scripts. In scripts with a case distinction, lower case is used for the majority of text. Acronyms are written in all-caps, depending on various factors. Capitalisation is the writing of a word with its first letter in uppercase and the remaining letters in lowercase. Capitalisation rules vary by language and are quite complex, but in most modern languages that have capitalisation, the first word of every sentence is capitalised, as are all proper nouns. Capitalisation in English, in terms of the general orthographic rules independent of context, is universally standardised for formal writing.
Capital letters are used as the first letter of a proper noun, or a proper adjective. The names of the days of the week and the names of the months are capitalised, as are the first-person pronoun "I" and the interjection "O". There are a few pairs of words of d
IJ is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or a letter in itself. In most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, which are sometimes kerned. An ij in written Dutch represents the diphthong. In Standard Dutch and most Dutch dialects, there are two possible spellings for the diphthong: ij and ei; that causes confusion for schoolchildren, who need to learn which words to write with ei and which with ij. To distinguish between the two, the ij is referred to as the lange ij, the ei as korte ei or E – I. In certain Dutch dialects and the Dutch Low Saxon dialects of Low German, a difference in the pronunciation of ei and ij is maintained. Whether it is pronounced identically to ei or not, the pronunciation of ij is perceived as being difficult by people who do not have either sound in their native language; the tendency for native English-speakers is to pronounce ij as, like the English vowel y in by, which does not lead to confusion among native listeners since the same pronunciation occurs in a number of dialects.
The ij represented a'long i'. This can still be seen in the etymology of some words and in the Dutch form of several foreign placenames: Berlin and Paris are spelled Berlijn and Parijs. Nowadays, the pronunciation follows the spelling, they are pronounced with; the IJ is distinct from the letter Y. Particular when writing capitals, Y used to be common instead of IJ. In fact, the official spelling in the early 19th century; that practice has now long been deprecated, but the standard Dutch pronunciation of the letter Y is still ij when the alphabet is read. In scientific disciplines such as mathematics and physics, the symbol y is pronounced ij. To distinguish the Y from IJ in common speech, however, Y is called Griekse IJ, i-grec, or Ypsilon. In Dutch, the letter Y now occurs only in loanwords, proper nouns, or in Old Dutch, while in the related language Afrikaans, Y has replaced IJ. Furthermore, the names of Dutch immigrants to the United States, Canada and New Zealand were anglicised, with the IJ becoming a Y.
For example, the surname Spijker was changed into Spyker and Snijder into Snyder. IJ developed out of ii, representing a long sound. In the Middle Ages, the i was written without a dot in handwriting, the combination ıı was confused with u. Therefore, the second i was elongated: ıȷ; the dots were added, albeit not in Afrikaans, a language that has its roots in Dutch. In this language the y is used instead. Alternatively, the letter J may have developed as a swash form of i. In other European languages it was first used for the final i in Roman numerals when there was more than one i in a row, such as iij for "three", to prevent the fraudulent addition of an extra i to change the number. In Dutch, which had a native ii, the "final i in a row elongated" rule was applied as well, leading to ij. Another theory is that IJ might have arisen from the lowercase y being split into two strokes in handwriting. At some time in the 15th or 16th century, this combination began to be spelled as a ligature ij.
An argument against this theory is that in handwriting which does not join letters, ij is written as a single sign. Some time after the birth of this new letter, the sound, now represented by ij, in most cases, began to be pronounced much like ei instead, but words containing it were still spelled the same. Nowadays, ij in most cases represents the diphthong, except in the suffix -lijk, where it is pronounced as a schwa. In one special case, the Dutch word bijzonder, the sound is correct standard pronunciation, although is more common and is allowed. In proper names, ij appears instead of i at the end of other diphthongs, where it does not affect the pronunciation: aaij, oeij and uij are pronounced identically to aai, ei, ooi and ui; this derives from an old orthographic practice of writing y instead of i after another vowel. Spelling reforms and standardization have removed the redundant js in common words, but proper names continue to use these archaic spellings; as the rules of usage for the IJ differ from those that apply to the many other digraphs in the Dutch language – in some situations behaving more as a single ligature or letter than a digraph – the IJ is not only confusing to foreigners, but a source of discussion among native speakers of Dutch.
Its actual usage in the Netherlands and in Flanders sometimes differs from the official recommendations. Both the Dutch Language Union and the Genootschap Onze Taal consider the ij to be a digraph of the letters i and j; the descriptive dictionary Van Dale Groot woordenboek van de Nederlandse taal states that ij is a "letter combination consisting of the signs i and j, used, in some words, to represent the diphthong ɛi." The Winkler Prins encyclopedia states that ij is the 25th letter of the Dutch alphabet, placed between X and Y. However, this definition is not accepted. In words where i and j are in different syllables, they do not form the digraph ij. In compound words, a hyphen is ad