The A483 known as the Swansea to Chester Trunk Road, is a major road in the United Kingdom. It runs from Swansea in Wales to Chester in England via Llandovery, Llandrindod Wells and Wrexham, a distance of around 153 miles; the A483 begins at junction 42 of the M4 motorway, just east of Swansea. From here, it travels west along the Fabian Way towards Swansea city centre, where it turns to a northwesterly direction, it meets the M4 again at junction 47 at Penllergaer, after which it multiplexes with the A48 along Swansea Road, Bryntirion Road and Bolgoed Road to Pontarddulais. After Pontarddulais, the route continues along Carmarthen Road, it diverges from the A48 at the terminus of the M4, junction 49, turning northeast towards Ammanford and north towards Llandeilo. At Llandeilo it meets the A40 multiplexes with this route as far as Llandovery. From here, it continues north into Powys; the A483 continues through Builth Wells and Llandrindod Wells. It intersects with the A44 at Crossgates, just north of Llandrindod Wells continues to Newtown, where it passes under the Cambrian Line at the Dolfor Road Railway Bridge.
This low bridge, with a height restriction of 13 ft 3 in, has been hit by high vehicles on many occasions. From Newtown the road continues to Welshpool, running parallel to the River Severn, before crossing the border into England at Llanymynech. From Llanymynech, the A483 continues north. Here, it picks up a multiplex with the A5. After the A5 diverges to the west at Chirk, the A483 crosses the River Dee reaches Ruabon. Here, it becomes a dual carriageway with numbered grade-separated junctions. Junction 1 - A539 Ruabon Junction 2 - B5426 Johnstown Junction 3 - A5152 Croesfoel Junction 4 - A525 Ruthin Road Junction 5 - A541 Mold Road Junction 6 - A5156 Gresford Junction 7 - B5102 Rossett Just south of Chester, the A483 intersects with the A55 North Wales Expressway, it continues as a single carriageway to its terminus at the city centre, crossing the Grosvenor Bridge over the Dee. There have been calls to upgrade the road from Shrewsbury to Wrexham, including the section of the A483 from Oswestry to Ruabon, to dual carriageway.
There has been a campaign by residents of Llanymynech and nearby Pant for an A483 bypass around these villages. Trunk roads in Wales Google Maps UK Media related to A483 road at Wikimedia Commons SABRE Roads by 10 - A483
The A48 is a major trunk road in Great Britain. It runs to the A40 at Carmarthen. Before the construction of the first Severn Bridge, in 1966, it was the principal route between South Wales and South West England. For most of its journey through South Wales, it runs parallel to its successor. Before the construction of the Second Severn Crossing, during times of high winds at the Severn Bridge the A48 was used as part of the diversion route, is still marked as a Holiday Route. From Gloucester, the A48 runs through the villages of Minsterworth, Westbury-on-Severn, connects to a link road to Cinderford in the Forest of Dean through Newnham and bypassing the town of Lydney on the west bank of the River Severn. Crossing the Wales-England border at Chepstow and continuing west close to the South Wales coast, it connects Newport, Cowbridge, Pyle, Port Talbot, Swansea before terminating at the junction with the A40 near the centre of Carmarthen. There is a motorway section, a spur from the M4 running from junction 29 on the west side of Newport.
The A48 has the unusual feature of having no junction options at both ends—it leads into limited-access junctions. Near the east of Cardiff, at St Mellons, it ends by flowing through Cardiff, it is a 2-lane motorway throughout its length. At St Mellons it runs continuously into a further 6 miles of the dual-carriageway A48, which features hard shoulders; the original A48 continues to link Cardiff. Just before Junction 44 of the M4 motorway, there is an abandoned dual carriageway trunk road, just to the left side of the motorway; this road used to have two service stations. The A48 from Highnam to Newport runs adjacent to the River Severn, it runs through a series of villages, until it reaches Chepstow where it crosses the Wales-England border. From the M4 Motorway at J15 near Swindon, traffic is directed for Wales if it is over the Severn Bridge weight limit of 44 tonnes. Traffic is directed onto the A419 onto the A417 after Cirencester, at Gloucester, onto the A40; this road has some speed cameras, as there have been incidents here, have been erected to prevent them happening again.
During busy periods, such as the Severn Bore, this road may become busy with parked cars near the river's edge. Apart from morning and evening rush hours the road is quite empty and free running, with no heavy traffic reports; the road runs next to the Forest of Dean. The woods may be viewed from the roadside. There is a level crossing in Lydney; until Chepstow, there is a height limit under the low railway bridges. Tall vehicles are directed to Newport on the A40. For some parts of this route, short distance dual carriageways occur on steep hills. At Chepstow, the road links Gloucestershire with Monmouthshire; the road runs through Chepstow. There is access to the Forest of Dean in Chepstow. At the end of the road in Chepstow, the Primary Route ends here, it meets the A466, a road that provides access to the Wye Valley and to the M48 motorway the M4. Access to the M4 is available on this road; the A48 becomes a secondary route here, continues bypassing Caldicot and Langstone. The A48 continues to M4 junction 24, where vehicles exceeding the height limit may rejoin the A48.
The A449 provides the A40 near Raglan. When the Severn Bridge is closed in bad weather conditions, the traffic is directed onto the A449. After this roundabout, the road follows through to Newport. There are some minor routes that take you to Newport Town Centre, but the main route is the A4042, leading directly to Newport town centre and Caerleon; this is after the Newport International Sports Village, a sports village with facilities including a Swimming Pool, Tennis Courts, Football Stadium, Cricket Pitch and many more facilities. Passing through Newport, there are views of the industrial town, with views of historic features such as the Transporter Bridge; the road reaches the M4 again, at J28. The original route of the A48 was Worcester to Carmarthen via Malvern, Ross-on-Wye, Newport, Bridgend and Llanelli. In 1935 it was rerouted east of Newport, replacing the A437 between Gloucester; the road from Worcester to Newport became part of the A449, apart from the section between Ross and Monmouth.
In June 2008, a 27-mile stretch of the A48 between Chepstow - Gloucester was named as the most dangerous road in the South West of England. This single carriageway stretch had 45 fatal and serious injury car accident collisions between 2004 and 2006, was rated as medium risk in the EuroRAP report published by the Road Safety Foundation
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were
The Gwili Railway is a Welsh heritage railway, that operates a preserved standard gauge railway line from the site of Abergwili Junction in southwest Wales along a four-and-a-half-mile section of the former Carmarthen to Aberystwyth line. The original railway closed in 1965, with the track being lifted in 1975; the broad-gauge railway was opened in 1860 from Carmarthen to Conwil by the ill-fated Carmarthen and Cardigan Railway Company, which fell in and out of insolvency until it was absorbed by the Great Western Railway. Despite hostility from GWR, the line never reached Cardigan any further than Newcastle Emlyn; the Manchester and Milford Railway made a junction with the CCR at Pencader, making a through route to Lampeter which, in turn extended to Aberystwyth. In 1872, the line became the last in Wales to be converted from Brunel's 7 ft 1⁄4 in gauge to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge. In its early days, the line thrived by serving the local farming and wool industries though, in the years following the First World War, this traffic declined.
The Second World War brought another lease of life as a relief route carrying heavy ammunition trains between south and north Wales. Between the wars, the GWR sought to encourage traffic, opened several new halts along the route and provided camping coaches at several stations; the route earned a reputation as a meandering rural branch. In fact, nearly three hours was permitted for the 56-mile journey between Carmarthen and Aberystwyth. In the post-war years, closure of the spurs off the main line began; the Branches to Aberaeron and Newcastle Emlyn closed in 1952 which left only the route between Carmarthen and Aberystwyth open to traffic. The line enjoyed a brief resurgence in the 1950s, when the Royal Train traversed the route and other new traffic included Butlins through-specials taking holidaymakers to the new camp in Pwllheli. However, declining passenger figures meant. In the end however, it was nature. Heavy flooding severed the line six miles from Aberystwyth in December 1964, this taking place in the same weekend that storms that caused the Ruabon to Barmouth Line to suffer a similar washout.
The last passenger train ran along the truncated route on 22 February 1965, two Hymek diesels providing the motive power. The line remained open for freight using Hymek locomotives until around 1970 by Class 37 locomotives; the freight traffic that kept the remainder of the line open was dominated by milk traffic between Carmarthen and Lampeter where traffic was routed to both the last remaining part of the main line to Aberystwyth as far as the milk creamery at Pont Llanio (near Llanddewi-Brefi which survived until 1970, plus the Aberaeron branch as far as the milk creamery at Green Grove near Felin Fach which continued in service until discontinued by British Rail in 1973. This resulted in the final closure of the line. Track was left in place until the summer of 1975. Following the line's closure, the Gwili Railway Preservation Company was formed with the ambition to preserve at least eight miles of track of the former route, from Abergwili Junction right up the Gwili Valley to the station site at Llanpumpsaint.
Track lifting had started at the time of the formation of the new Company and, as a result, only one mile of track north of Bronwydd Arms was left in situ, the Company being able to acquire the full eight-mile stretch of trackbed from Abergwili Junction to Llanpumsaint for both rebuilding and preserving. Over time, the Railway has extended the operational length from one mile to over 4 1⁄2 miles, as well as reconstructing original features at Bronwydd Arms station and amassing a collection of locomotives and rolling stock; the Gwili Railway was set up in 1975, within three years the railway had purchased eight miles of track and was running an initial steam-hauled service on a one-mile section. In April 1978, it re-opened the one-mile section of the Carmarthen-Aberystwyth route from its base at Bronwydd Arms, making it the first standard-gauge heritage railway to operate in Wales; the railway had been working south towards Carmarthen to a new station site named "Abergwili Junction" built on the northern outskirts of Carmarthen, at the site of the old and former Abergwili junction.
Trains on the Gwili start from Bronwydd Arms where the replica GWR station is dominated by a Signal Box saved from Llandybie railway station on the Heart of Wales Line. The Signal box, open to the public, was built in 1885 and has been restored to operate signalling within the station area. Typical features on the line include the gradients such as the 1 in 60 on the bank north of Bronwydd Arms, the meandering River Gwili and the A484 road which are never far away and the wooded forests and sharp curves as the railway twists its way through the valley. From Bronwydd, the line climbs between rural hills and meadows alongside the river River Gwili past the site of the first terminus of the newly opened Gwili Railway next to the old mill at Cwmdwyfran. From here, the line continues climbing until it passes under a rusticated brick bridge at the second terminus at the now defunct Penybont station; the line carries over a redecked bridge crossing the River Gwili. This expansion was achieved in time for its 10th anniversary celebrations in 1988.
At the same time, the new terminus of Llwyfan Cerrig was opene
A roads in Zone 4 of the Great Britain numbering scheme
List of A roads in zone 4 in Great Britain starting north of the A4 and south/west of the A5
Ffairfach railway station
Ffairfach railway station serves the village of Ffairfach, near Llandeilo, Wales. The station is on the Heart of Wales Line 30 miles north east of Swansea; the railway station is located next to the main road Heol Cennen, which crosses the line at its south end. This is the nearest railway station to Carreg Cennen Castle; the former station signal box has been preserved on the Gwili Railway as a working museum exhibit after being made redundant here when the level crossing was automated. All trains serving the station are operated by Transport for Wales; the station is unstaffed and has a basic range of amenities for passengers, including a small wooden waiting shelter, digital CIS display, timetable poster board and a customer help point. Tickets must be bought on the train or prior to travel; the route from the entrance to the platform has no steps, but is via a narrow gate and steep ramp - as such it is not recommended for use by disabled passengers without assistance. All trains serving the station are operated by Transport for Wales.
There are four trains a day to Shrewsbury northbound from Monday to Saturday and five southbound to Llanelli & Swansea. This is a request stop for northbound trains, whereby passengers have to give a hand signal to the approaching train driver to board or notify the guard when they board that they wish to alight from the train there. Southbound trains are required to stop at the station for the traincrew to operate the level crossing controls. Train times and station information for Ffairfach railway station from National Rail