Aberdaron is a community, electoral ward and former fishing village at the western tip of the Llŷn Peninsula in the Welsh county of Gwynedd. It lies 14.8 miles west of Pwllheli and 33.5 miles south west of Caernarfon, has a population of 965. The community includes Bardsey Island, the coastal area around Porthor, the villages of Anelog, Penycaerau, Rhydlios, Uwchmynydd and Y Rhiw. Y Rhiw and Llanfaelrhys have long been linked by sharing rectors and by their close proximity, but were ecclesiastical parishes in themselves; the parish of Bodferin/Bodverin was assimilated in the 19th century. The village was the last rest stop for pilgrims heading to Bardsey Island, the legendary "island of 20,000 saints". In the 18th and 19th centuries it developed as port; the mining and quarrying industries became major employers, limestone, lead and manganese were exported. There are the ruins of an old pier running out to sea at Porth Simdde, the local name for the west end of Aberdaron Beach. After the Second World War the mining industry collapsed, Aberdaron developed into a holiday resort.
The beach was awarded a Seaside Award in 2008. The coastal waters are part of Pen Llŷn a'r Sarnau Special Area of Conservation, one of the largest marine designated sites in the United Kingdom; the coast itself forms part of the Aberdaron Coast and Bardsey Island Special Protection Area, was designated a Heritage Coast in 1974. In 1956 the area was included in Llŷn Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Conservation Areas have been created in Bardsey Island and Y Rhiw. Aberdaron means "Mouth of the River Daron", a reference to the Afon Daron which flows into Bae Aberdaron in the village; the area around Aberdaron has been inhabited by people for millennia. Evidence from the Iron Age hillfort at Castell Odo, on Mynydd Ystum, shows that some phases of its construction began unusually early, in the late Bronze Age, between 2850 and 2650 years before present; the construction was wholly defensive, but in phases defence appears to have been less important, in the last phase the fort's ramparts were deliberately flattened, suggesting there was no longer a need for defence.
It appears. Ptolemy calls the Llŷn Peninsula "Ganganorum Promontorium"; the church at Aberdaron had the ancient privilege of sanctuary. In 1094 Gruffudd ap Cynan, the exiled King of Gwynedd, sought refuge in the church while attempting to recapture his throne, he regained his territories in 1101, in 1115 Gruffydd ap Rhys, the exiled prince of Deheubarth, took refuge at Aberdaron to escape capture by Gwynedd's ruler. Henry I of England had invaded Gwynedd the previous year, faced by an overwhelming force, Gruffudd ap Cynan had been forced to pay homage and a substantial fine to Henry; the King of Gwynedd, seeking to give up the exiled prince to Henry, ordered that the fugitive prince be dragged from the church by force, but his soldiers were beaten back by the local clergy. Following the conquest of Gwynedd, in 1284, Edward I set about touring his new territories, he visited the castles at Caernarfon. Court was held at Nefyn; the medieval townships of Aberdaron were Isseley, Uwchseley and Bodrydd.
These locatives predate the idea of the modern ecclesiastical parish. Some were or became hamlets in themselves, whereas others have subsequently been divided - for example the modern Bodrydd Farm is only a part of the medieval township. After the English Civil War, when the Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell introduced a Protestant regime, Catholicism remained the dominant religion in the area. Catholics, who had supported the Royalist side, were considered to be traitors and efforts were made to eradicate the religion; the persecution extended to Aberdaron, in 1657, Gwen Griffiths of Y Rhiw was summoned to the Quarter Sessions as a "papist". Agricultural improvement and the Industrial Revolution came to Aberdaron in the 19th century; the Inclosure Act 1801 was intended to make it easier for landlords to enclose and improve common land, introduce increased efficiency, bring more land under the plough, reduce the high prices of agricultural production. Rhoshirwaun Common, following strong opposition, was enclosed in 1814.
On the industrial front, mining developed as a major source of employment at Y Rhiw, where manganese was discovered in 1827. During the Second World War, Y Rhiw played a vital role in preparations for the Normandy landings. A team of electronic engineers set up an experimental ultra high frequency radio station, from where they were able to make a direct link to stations in
Bala is a market town and community in Gwynedd, Wales. An urban district, Bala lies within the historic county of Merionethshire, it lies at the north end of Llyn Tegid, 17 miles north-east of Dolgellau, with a population taken in the United Kingdom Census 2011 of 1,974. It is little more than this being Stryd Fawr; the High Street and its shops can be quite busy in the summer months with many tourists. Bala was ranked as having the 20th highest percentage of Welsh language speakers in Wales by electoral division, in the United Kingdom Census 2011. According to the census, 78.5% of Bala's population can speak Welsh. The Tower of Bala is a tumulus or "moat-hill" thought to mark the site of a Roman camp. In the 18th century, the town was well known for the manufacture of flannel, stockings and hosiery; the large stone-built theological college, Coleg Y Bala, of the Calvinistic Methodists and the grammar school, founded in 1712, are the chief features, together with the statue of the Rev. Thomas Charles, the theological writer, to whom was due the foundation of the British and Foreign Bible Society.
In 1800 a 15-year-old girl, Mary Jones, walked the 25 miles from her home village Llanfihangel-y-Pennant to purchase a bible in Bala. The scarcity of the Bible, along with the determination of Mary to get one, was a major factor in the foundation of the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1804. Betsi Cadwaladr, who worked with Florence Nightingale in the Crimea, who gave her name to the Health Board, came from Bala. Other famous people from the Bala area include Michael D. Jones, Christopher Timothy, Owen Morgan Edwards, born in Llanuwchllyn, T. E. Ellis, born in Cefnddwysarn. Bala hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1967, 1997 and 2009; the 2009 Eisteddfod was notable because the chair was not awarded to any of the entrants as the standard was deemed to be too low. Bala hosted the Eisteddfod Genedlaethol yr Urdd Gobaith Cymru, National Eisteddfod for the Welsh League of Youth, in 2014. On 16 June 2016, Bala's name was changed to Bale temporarily in honour of Real Madrid forward Gareth Bale; this was only for the duration of UEFA Euro 2016.
The Welsh word bala refers to the outflow of a lake. Bala, Canada, was named after the town in 1868, they have become twin towns. Set within the Bala Fault, Bala Lake is the largest natural lake in Wales at 4 miles in length and half a mile wide. At 138 feet, its depths could hide the tower of St Giles Church in Wrexham and still have 3 feet of water above; the lake has been known to freeze over—most in the severe winters of 1947 and 1963. The rare Gwyniad fish — trapped in the lake at the end of the last Ice Age, some 10,000 years ago — is in danger because its natural home is unsuitable. A member of the whitefish family, it is found only in Bala Lake. Cwm Hirnant, a valley running south from Bala, gives its name to the Hirnantian Age in the Ordovician Period of geological time; the town lies on the A494, a major trunk road that leads to Dolgellau, 18 miles to the southwest, to Ruthin and Queensferry to the northwest. The closest major urban areas to Bala are Wrexham at 30 miles, Chester at 40 miles, Liverpool, 52 miles to the northeast.
Nearby villages include Llanfor, Llanycil, Llangywer and Rhos-y-gwaliau. The Afon Tryweryn, a river fed from Llyn Celyn which runs through Bala, is world-famous for its white water kayaking. International governing bodies, the International Canoe Federation, the European Canoe Union and the British Canoe Union all hold national and international events there; the Canolfan Tryweryn National Whitewater Centre has its home in Bala. There are at least three local campsites that cater for the influx of canoeists from many parts of the world. An annual music festival known as'Wa Bala' is held in the town; the venue is similar in format to Dolgellau's Sesiwn Fawr. Nearby are the mountains Aran Fawddwy and Arenig Fawr. Coleg y Bala is at the top of the hill on the road towards Llyn Celyn; the Victoria Hall is a small old cinema, a community hall. There are several chapels: notably Capel Capel Bach; the livestock market on Arenig Street is still going strong. Bro Eryl estate was built just after World War II.
Mary Jones World, a heritage centre about Mary Jones and her Bible is located just outside the village. Bala has been served by various railway stations on the Great Western Railway: Bala Lake Halt railway station was Bala's first station, on the Bala and Dolgelly Railway Bala railway station - Bala's second station, on the Festiniog and Blaenau Railway Bala Junction railway station - The meeting point of the Bala and Dolgellau Railway and Bala Railway and the Bala and Festiniog Railway The Bala Lake Railway runs for 4.5 miles from Llanuwchllyn to the edge of the town, along a section of the former trackbed of the Great Western Railway line between Ruabon and Barmouth. It terminates at Bala railway station, which opened in 1976 on the site of the former Lake Halt station. Bala is home to Welsh Premier League football club Bala Town F. C. who play at Maes Tegid. Bala's local rugby club is Bala RFC. Michael D. Jones, a Welsh Congregationalist minister, principal of Bala theological college, a founder of the Welsh settlement in Patagonia and one of the fathers of modern Welsh nationalism, was born in Llanuwchlyn.
Christopher Timothy, born in Bala. As with the rest of the UK, Bala benefi
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Aberdesach is a village in a Welsh speaking area of Gwynedd. It is in the historic county of Caernarfonshire. Www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Aberdesach and surrounding area
North Wales Police
North Wales Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing North Wales. The headquarters are in Colwyn Bay, with divisional headquarters in St Asaph and Wrexham. Gwynedd Constabulary was formed in 1950 by the amalgamation of Caernarfonshire Constabulary, Anglesey Constabulary and Merionethshire Constabulary. In 1974, the Local Government Act 1972 created an administrative county of Gwynedd covering the western part of the police area; as a result of this, the force was renamed North Wales Police on 1 April 1974. Under proposals made by the Home Secretary on 6 February 2006, the force would merge with Dyfed-Powys Police, Gwent Police and South Wales Police to form a single strategic force for all of Wales; the proposals were shelved. The North Wales Police Authority consisted of 17 members, of whom 9 were councillors, 3 were magistrates and 5 were independent members; the councillors were appointed by a Joint Committee of the unitary authority councils of Anglesey, Denbighshire, Flintshire and Wrexham.
The Police Authority was replaced by the Office of the North Wales Police and Crime Commissioner in November 2012. On 4 May 2011, North Wales Police completed a major restructure, moving from 3 territorial divisions to a single North Wales-wide Policing function. North Wales Police is a partner in the following collaboration: North West Police Underwater Search & Marine Unit North Wales and Cheshire Firearms Alliance Wales Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit In recent years North Wales Police has attracted a great deal of media attention above and beyond its size. Many have attributed this phenomenon to its former Chief Constable Richard Brunstrom, who accepts he is obsessed with speeding motorists, he has courted controversy and publicity through his vocal views on speeding motorists and the legalisation of drugs. The Sun newspaper dubbed him the "Mad Mullah of the Traffic Taleban." Despite this negative publicity he has earned respect for learning the Welsh language promoting the normalisation of its use within the force at all levels and conversing publicly through it on numerous occasions.
He is credited with modernising the organisation's infrastructure in comparison with other areas of Britain. In April 2007, Brunstrom came under fire for an incident in which he showed a photograph of the severed head of a biker in a press meeting without the family's permission. Brunstrom maintains that it was a "closed" meeting, a point made both on the invitation and verbally, that no details of the picture should have been leaked, it drew criticism because the photo enabled the media to identify the deceased, since he was wearing a distinctive T-shirt with an anti-police message on it, which gained a lot of attention during the inquest. Motorcycle News magazine handed in a 1,600 signature petition to the Independent Police Complaints Commission in London requesting Brunstrom be removed, The Independent Police Complaints Commission confirmed that it would carry out an independent review into the incident. Other people note that the motorcyclist, killed, caused the accident that disabled the other car driver, so Brunstrom has a valid point that motoring is an important area to focus on.
North Wales Police has attracted attention due to its investigation into allegations of anti-Welsh comments by TV personality Anne Robinson and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair. The force was believed to have carried out these investigations following complaints from members of the public; the 10-month investigation into the Prime Minister was dropped on 11 July 2006 due to a lack of evidence. It had cost £1,656, whereas the Anne Robinson investigation cost £3,800; as with all other territorial police force North Wales Police have police community support officers. As of 31 March 2011 North Wales Police have 159 PCSOs. Unlike the majority of police forces in England and Wales North Wales Police is only one out of three forces that issue its PCSOs hand cuffs The only other forces that do this are Dyfed-Powys Police and British Transport Police; the issuing of handcuffs to PCSOs has been controversial. Sir Philip Myers, 1974 to 1982 David Owen, 1982 to 1994 Michael Argent, 1994 to 2001 Richard Brunstrom, 2001 to 2009 Mark Polin, 2010 to 2018 Gareth Pritchard, Temporary Chief Constable, 2018 to Present List of police forces in Wales sorted by region Policing in the United Kingdom North Wales Fire and Rescue Service North Wales Police North Wales Police and Crime Commissioner North Wales YouTube channel
Bethesda is a town and community on the River Ogwen and the A5 road on the edge of Snowdonia, in Gwynedd, north-west Wales. It is the 5th largest Community in Gwynedd. In 1823, the Bethesda Chapel was built and the town subsequently grew around it; the chapel has now been converted into flats and is known as Arafa Don. The town grew around the slate quarrying industries. At its peak, the town exported purple slate all over the world. Penrhyn Quarry suffered a three-year strike led by the North Wales Quarrymen's Union between 1900 and 1903; this led to the creation of the nearby village of Tregarth, built by the quarry owners, which housed the families of those workers who had not struck. The A5 road runs through Bethesda and marked the border between Lord Penrhyn's land, the freehold land. Most of the town is to the east and north east of the road, with housing packed onto the hillside in irregular rows, built on the commons. On the current high street, all the public houses are found on the north side of the road.
The narrow gauge Penrhyn Quarry Railway opened in 1801 to serve Penrhyn Quarry. It connected the quarry with Port Penrhyn on the coast and operated until 1962. In 1884, a branch of the London and North Western Railway's network from Bangor was opened; the line closed to passengers in 1951 and to freight in 1963. The trackbed of the Penrhyn Quarry Railway towards Porth Penrhyn is taken over by the Lôn Las Ogwen cycle path; the peak population of Bethesda was 10,000. Current opportunities for employment in the town are limited: there are a few manufacturing businesses. For employment with higher earning potential, residents tend to commute to towns along the North Wales coast. Bangor is the most popular destination. Ysgol Dyffryn Ogwen is a bilingual comprehensive school, with 374 pupils, established in 1951. Zip World Velocity in Penrhyn Quarry is the longest zipline in Europe, at just over 1,600 metres long, brings the town hundreds of visitors; the architecture and layout of the town is utilitarian.
Most of the buildings are constructed of stone with slate roofs. Some are constructed wholly of slate blocks, although such buildings tend to suffer from damp and structural slippage because the flat and smooth surfaces of slate do not bind well to mortar; the town has 40 Grade II listed buildings, including three pubs, in addition to the substantial and imposing Grade I listed Nonconformist Jerusalem ChapelThe upper parts of Carneddi and Tan y Foel owe more to stone quarrying on the nearby hills rather than slate quarrying that supported the lower end of the town. At the eastern limits, the town is bounded by the rising land of the Carneddau mountains which form some of the more remote landscapes of Snowdonia. Much of Bethesda once consisted of discrete villages such as Gerlan, Tregarth and Braichmelyn. Bethesda is noted for both the number of chapels in the town; the town was named after the Bethesda Chapel, converted into residential flats. Llanllechid, on the outskirts of Bethesda, is the home of the Popty Bakery, the origins of which date back to the bakery opened by O. J. Williams in the early 1900s.
The product range focuses on traditional Welsh cakes and Bara Brith and these lines are retailed throughout Wales and parts of England through outlets including Aldi, Asda, Co-Op, Morrisons and Tesco. There are ten pubs not including Tregarth; the Douglas Arms, on the High Street, was named after the family which owned the nearby Penrhyn Quarry. Other pubs include the Bull, The Kings Head, Y Sior, The Victoria Arms, the Llangollen; the village has its own micro brewery known as Cwrw Ogwen. It manufactures one beer named Cwrw Caradog, named after the writer Caradog Prichard; the dominant language of the town is Welsh, can be seen written and heard spoken in most settings. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, 77.0% of the residents are Welsh-speaking, higher than the average for both Gwynedd and Wales as a whole. The S4C series Amdani! was based on a fictitious women's rugby team in Bethesda, many of the location shots were filmed in the area. The series was based by Bethan Gwanas, who lived in the town.
In June 2012 Tabernacl Cyf. A non-profit co-operative based in the town, was awarded a grant of around £1 million to renovate Neuadd Ogwen, a performance venue on the High Street, it was due to reopen as a community arts centre in June 2013. In the 1970s and 1980s Bethesda developed a reputation as a hub of musical creativity. Jam sessions and small home studios abounded alongside a burgeoning pub rock scene; as well as the now well-established'Pesda Roc' festival, Bethesda has nurtured the Welsh language bands Maffia Mr Huws and experimentalists Y Jeycsyn Ffeif. In more recent years it continues to spring up bands from the local community such as Radio Rhydd. Bobby Atherton - footballer Ellis William Davies - politician Idris Foster - Jesus Professor of Celtic Studies at the University of Oxford David Ffrangcon-Davies - a Welsh operatic baritone Bethan Gwanas - the author lived and worked in Bethesda. Esyllt Harker - singer and storyteller. Mikael Madeg - Breton language writer, French language assistant at Ysgol Dyffryn Ogwen 1971–72 Frederick Llewellyn-Jones - politician Leila Megane - singer Gwenlyn Parry - writer William John Parry - first
Friends of Friendless Churches
The Friends of Friendless Churches is a registered charity formed in 1957 and active in England and Wales. It campaigns for and rescues redundant historic churches threatened by demolition, decay, or inappropriate conversion. To that end, as of September 2018, it owns 51 former churches or chapels, 26 of which are in England, 25 in Wales; the charity was formed in 1957 by Ivor Bulmer-Thomas, a writer, former MP and a high church Anglican, who became its first chairman. The charity campaigned and obtained grants for the repair and restoration of churches within its remit; the 1968 Pastoral Measure established the Redundant Churches Fund, which it was thought would obviate the need for the Friends. However, the Church Commissioners turned down a number of buildings that the executive committee considered worthy of preservation, including Old St Matthew's Church, St Peter's Church, Wickham Bishops; the charity therefore decided in 1972 to change its constitution, allowing it to acquire threatened buildings either by freehold or by lease.
The tower of the church at Lightcliffe was the first property to be vested with the charity. The charity raises money from a number of sources. Since 1999, it has been recognised in Wales as the equivalent of the Churches Conservation Trust, as a consequence receives full funding for taking Anglican churches into its care. Of this, 70% comes from the State via Cadw, 30% from the Church in Wales. In England, grants are sometimes obtained from bodies such as English Heritage, as in the case of St Mary's Church, but otherwise funds are raised by donations and local money-raising campaigns; some of the churches have been supported by the formation of local groups of Friends, such as Caldecote Church Friends, the Friends of St Andrew's, Wood Walton. Members of the public can make donations, become a member of the charity, or leave a legacy in their wills. In addition the charity administers two trusts, one of which, the Cottam Will Trust, was established by Rev S. E. Cottam for "the advancement of religion of objects of beauty to be placed in ancient Gothic churches either in England or Wales".
All the churches owned by the charity are listed buildings, most are former Anglican churches, either from the Church of England or the Church in Wales, although three were private chapels, the Strict and Particular Baptist Chapel, was a Nonconformist chapel, another, St Mary of the Angels Church, was a Roman Catholic church. In the financial year ending 31 March 2010, the income of the charity was £475,367, its expenditure was £509,034; the charity works with the Ancient Monuments Society. As of 2016 its patronage is vacant, following the death of the Marquess of Anglesey in 2013; the ecclesiastical patron is Rev Wyn Evans, Bishop of St David's and the president is the Marquess of Salisbury. In 2007 the charity achieved its 50th anniversary, in celebration of which they published a book entitled Saving Churches, containing details of their history and accounts of their churches; the list is split into one for England and the other for Wales. This division reflects the former management of the English churches by the Church of England, the Welsh churches by the Church in Wales, the different funding arrangements in the two countries.
Key Churches Conservation Trust – the trust for redundant Church of England churches in England Historic Chapels Trust – the trust for redundant non-Anglican places of worship in England A The distinctive characteristic of voluntary sources is that the donor receives nothing in return for the money given. It includes grants from government and other charitable sources, as well as public gifts and legacies. B This is the date of first construction of the existing building. Official website Saunders, Fifty Years of the Friends of Friendless Churches, Historic Churches, Cathedral Communications, retrieved 7 August 2010 Saunders, Protecting the disused but beautiful, 93, Institute of Historic Building Conservation, retrieved 7 August 2010