Quaker Oats Company
The Quaker Oats Company, known as Quaker, is an American food conglomerate based in Chicago. It has been owned by PepsiCo since 2001. Quaker Oats was founded in 1901 by the merger of four oat mills: The Quaker Mill Company of Ravenna, which held the trademark on the Quaker name and was acquired in 1901 by Henry Parsons Crowell, who bought the bankrupt Quaker Oat Mill Company in Ravenna, he held the key positions of general manager and chairman of the company from 1888 until late 1943. He was called the cereal tycoon, he donated more than 70% of his wealth to the Crowell Trust. A cereal mill in Cedar Rapids, Iowa owned by John Stuart, his son Robert Stuart, their partner George Douglas. American Oats and Barley Oatmeal Corporation. Formally known as "Good For Breakfast" instant oatmeal mix; the company expanded into numerous areas, including other breakfast cereals and other food and drink products, into unrelated fields such as toys. Quaker Oats in Cedar Rapids, was photographed during the 1930s by Theodor Horydczak, who documented the building and factory workers at the plant.
During World War II, the company, through its subsidiary the Q. O. Ordnance Company, operated the Cornhusker Ordnance Plant, which manufactured millions of pieces of various artillery munitions. In 1968, a plant was built in Illinois; this plant makes Aunt Jemima pancake mixes, Oat Squares, Life Cereals Quaker Oh's, Quisp, King Vitamin Natural Granola Cereals, Chewy granola bars, as well as Puffed Rice for use as an ingredient for other products in other plants. In 1969, Quaker acquired Fisher-Price, a toy company and spun it off in 1991. In the 1970s, the company financed the making of the film Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory, obtaining in return a license to use a number of the product names mentioned in the movie for candy bars. In 1982 Quaker Oats purchased US Games, a company that created games for the Atari 2600, it went out of business after one year. That same year, Quaker Oats acquired Florida-based orange juice plant Ardmore Farms, which it would own until selling it to Country Pure Foods in 1998.
In 1983, Quaker bought Inc. makers of Van Camp's and Gatorade. Quaker sold it to Triarc in 1997 for $300 million. Triarc sold it to Cadbury Schweppes for $1.45 billion in September 2000. It was spun off in May 2008 to Dr Pepper Snapple Group. In 1996, Quaker spun off its frozen food business. In August 2001, Quaker was bought out by Pepsico; the major Canadian production facility for Quaker Oats is located in Ontario. The factory was first established as the American Cereal Company in 1902 on the shores of the Otonabee River during that city's period of industrialization. At the time, the city was known as "The Electric City" due to its hydropower resources, attracting many companies to the site to take advantage of this source; the Trent–Severn Waterway promised to provide an alternate shipping route from inland areas around the city, although it appears this was never used in practice. On 11 December 1916, the factory all but burned to the ground; when the smoke had settled, 23 people had died and Quaker was left with $2,000,000 in damages.
Quaker went on to rebuild the facility incorporating the few areas of the structure that were not destroyed by fire. When PepsiCo purchased Quaker Oats in 2001, many brands were consolidated from facilities around Canada to the Peterborough location—which assumed the new QTG moniker. Local production includes Quaker Oatmeal, Quaker Chewy bars, Cap'n Crunch cereal, Aunt Jemima instant pancake mixes and pancake syrups, Quaker Oat Bran and Corn Bran cereals, Gatorade sports drinks and the Propel fitness water sub-brand, Tropicana juices, various Frito-Lay snack products. Products are identified by the manufactured by address on the packaging; the Peterborough facility exports to the majority of Canada and limited portions of the United States. The Quaker plant sells cereal production byproducts to companies that use them to create fire logs and janks. Starting in 1902, the company's oatmeal boxes came with a coupon redeemable for the legal deed to a tiny lot in Milford, Connecticut; the lots, sometimes as small as 10 feet by 10 feet, were carved out of a 15-acre, never-built subdivision called "Liberty Park".
A small number of children residents living near Milford, redeemed their coupons for the free deeds and started paying the small property taxes on the "oatmeal lots". The developer of the prospective subdivision hoped the landowners would hire him to build homes on the lots, although several tracts would need to be combined before building could start; the legal deeds created a large amount of paperwork for town tax collectors, who couldn't find the property owners and received no tax revenue from them. In the mid-1970s, the town put an end to the oatmeal lots with a "general foreclosure" condemning nearly all of the property, now part of a BiC Corporation plant. In 1955, Quaker Oats again gave away land as part of a promotion, this one tied to the Sergeant Preston of the Yukon television show in the United States; the company offered in its Puffed Wheat and Puffed Rice cereal boxes genuine deeds to land in the Klondike. The Quaker Oats logo starting in 1877 had a figure of a Quaker man depicted full-length, sometimes holding a scroll with the word "Pure" written across it, resembl
Hinduism in Gibraltar
Hinduism is a minority faith in Gibraltar followed by 2% of the population. Most of the Hindus in Gibraltar are of Sindhi origin. According to 2000 census Hindus made up 1.8 % of the population of Gibraltar. According to an estimate from 2012, the population of Hindus made up 2%; the demographics of Hindus from 1970 to 2012: The first people in Gibraltar from British India are thought to have arrived in 1870 from the area around Hyderabad taking advantage of the new Suez Canal. The new Sindhi merchants were able to establish businesses with local managers that they could manage remotely. Indians faced some resistance from Gibraltarians and in 1921 the seven Hindu traders required licences to operate. By 1950 the number of licences had tripled but the real demand for assistance was when the border was closed by the Spanish and there were no Spanish shop assistants. There were nearly 300 trading licences by 1970. There was resistance to the Hindu community but arranged marriages were reducing and the community shared common schools with the other groups in Gibraltar.
It was said that the date for deciding whether a person was a true Gibraltarian was designed to exclude as many Indians as possible but by 1973 the local Hindu lawyer Haresh Budhrani assessed that Hindus were able to join in with the community. On the day of Divali in 1993 the community started using the Gibraltar Hindu Temple. By 1999 the decoration was complete and the Prana pratishta ceremony was formally performed by a priest from India; the wider community celebrated the new temple when the Governor of Gibraltar Richard Luce formally opened the temple on 1 March 2000. In 2004 Budhrani was elected the Speaker in the House of Assembly and he became the first speaker of the Gibraltar Parliament. In 2012 the Mayor of Gibraltar made the news when he announced that he was inviting the Hindu community into Gibraltar City Hall to celebrate the Hindu festival of Divali. Hindus have the highest proportion of pupils achieving 5 or more GCSE's, the highest percentage of people of working age with a degree, the lowest crime rate in Gibraltar.
Hinduism in Guadeloupe Hinduism in Reunion Gibraltar Hindu Temple Haller, Dieter: Let it Flow – Economy and Gender in the Sindhi Network. Anthropological Theory 2005 5: 154-175 Haller, Dieter: Space and Ethnicity in Two Merchant Diasporas: a Comparison of the Sindhis and the Jews of Gibraltar, in: GLOBAL NETWORKS: a journal of transnational affairs 2003, Vol 3. No 1: 75-96
Haketia is an endangered Jewish Romance language known as Djudeo Spañol, Ladino Occidental, or Western Judaeo-Spanish. It was spoken by the North African Sephardim in the Moroccan cities of Tétouan, Asilah and the Spanish towns of Ceuta and Melilla. Tetuani Ladino was spoken in Oran, Algeria; the well-known form of Judaeo-Spanish spoken by Jews living in the Balkans, Greece and Jerusalem is "Ladino Oriental". Haketia may be described by contrast as "Ladino Occidental"; the language is a variety of Spanish that borrows from Judeo-Moroccan Arabic. It evidently contains a number of words of Hebrew origin and was written using Hebrew letters. There is some cultural resemblance between the two Judaeo-Spanish dialect communities, including a rich shared stock of Romanzas from medieval Spain, though both words and music differ in detail; the name "Haketia" derived from the Arabic ḥaká حكى, "tell", is therefore pronounced with IPA:, reflecting the Arabic ḥāʾ ح. In some places it is written "Jaquetía" with the same pronunciation.
Haketia is considered to have influenced Llanito, the vernacular spoken in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar due to migration of Moroccan Jews. Haketia, unlike other varieties of Judaeo-Spanish, did not develop a literary tradition, so the language remained as a colloquial form of communication and was not used as a vehicle for formal education since in Spanish Morocco, Spanish was used, along with French, at the Alliance Israélite Universelle schools. Due to the influence of the Spanish and French conquests and the large number of Jews from northern Morocco who emigrated to Venezuela and Argentina, the language was levelled with modern Spanish, which has contributed to its extinction. There has been a slow renaissance of the language, helped by musicians such as Doris Benmaman, Mor Karbasi and Kol Oud Tof Trio, among others. Jose Benoliel and Alegría Bendayan de Bendelac have both compiled Spanish-Haketía dictionaries, published in 1977 and 1995, respectively; the Caracas Center of Sephardic Studies publishes articles in Haketia in its magazine Magen-Escudo.
List of articles written in Haketia at eSefarad.com Rodrigues-da-Cunha, Alvaro Fernando: Narrativa na hakitía
History of Gibraltar
The history of Gibraltar, a small peninsula on the southern Iberian coast near the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, spans over 2,900 years. The peninsula has evolved from a place of reverence in ancient times into "one of the most densely fortified and fought-over places in Europe", as one historian has put it. Gibraltar's location has given it an outsized significance in the history of Europe and its fortified town, established in medieval times, has hosted garrisons that sustained numerous sieges and battles over the centuries. Gibraltar was first inhabited over 50,000 years ago by Neanderthals and may have been one of their last places of habitation before they died out around 24,000 years ago. Gibraltar's recorded history began around 950 BC with the Phoenicians; the Carthaginians and Romans worshipped Hercules in shrines said to have been built on the Rock of Gibraltar, which they called Mons Calpe, the "Hollow Mountain", which they regarded as one of the twin Pillars of Hercules. Gibraltar became part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania following the collapse of the Roman Empire and came under Muslim Moorish rule in 711 AD.
It was permanently settled for the first time by the Moors and was renamed Jebel Tariq – the Mount of Tariq corrupted into Gibraltar. The Christian Crown of Castile annexed it in 1309, lost it again to the Moors in 1333 and regained it in 1462. Gibraltar became part of the unified Kingdom of Spain and remained under Spanish rule until 1704, it was captured during the War of the Spanish Succession by an Anglo-Dutch fleet in the name of Charles VI of Austria, the Habsburg contender to the Spanish throne. At the war's end, Spain ceded the territory to Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. Spain tried to regain control of Gibraltar, which Britain had declared a Crown colony, through military and economic pressure. Gibraltar was besieged and bombarded during three wars between Britain and Spain but the attacks were repulsed on each occasion. By the end of the last siege, in the late 18th century, Gibraltar had faced fourteen sieges in 500 years. In the years after Trafalgar, Gibraltar became a major base in the Peninsular War.
The colony grew during the 19th and early 20th centuries, becoming a key British possession in the Mediterranean. It was a key stopping point for vessels en route to India via the Suez Canal. A large British naval base was constructed there at great expense at the end of the 19th century and became the backbone of Gibraltar's economy. British control of Gibraltar enabled the Allies to control the entrance to the Mediterranean during the Second World War, it was attacked on several occasions by German and Vichy French forces, though without causing much damage. The Spanish dictator General Francisco Franco declined to join a Nazi plan to occupy Gibraltar but revived Spain's claim to the territory after the war; as the territorial dispute intensified, Spain closed its border with Gibraltar between 1969 and 1985 and communications links were severed. Spain's position was supported by Latin American countries but was rejected by Britain and the Gibraltarians themselves, who vigorously asserted their right to self-determination.
Discussions of Gibraltar's status have continued between Britain and Spain but have not reached any conclusion. Since 1985, Gibraltar has undergone major changes as a result of reductions in Britain's overseas defence commitments. Most British forces have left the territory, no longer seen as a place of major military importance, its economy is now based on tourism, financial services and Internet gambling. Gibraltar is self-governed, with its own parliament and government, though the UK maintains responsibility for defence and foreign policy, its economic success has made it one of the wealthiest areas of the European Union. The history of Gibraltar has been driven by its strategic position near the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, it is a narrow peninsula at the eastern side of the Bay of Gibraltar, 6 kilometres from the city of Algeciras. Gibraltar is on the far south coast of Spain at one of the narrowest points in the Mediterranean, only 24 kilometres from the coast of Morocco in North Africa.
Its position on the bay makes it an advantageous natural anchorage for ships. As one writer has put it, "whoever controls Gibraltar controls the movement of ships into and out of the Mediterranean. In terms of military and naval power, few places have a more strategic location than Gibraltar."The territory's area measures only 6.7 square kilometres. Most of the land area is occupied by the steeply sloping Rock of Gibraltar which reaches a height of 426 metres; the town of Gibraltar lies at the base of the Rock on the west side of the peninsula. A narrow, low-lying isthmus connects the peninsula to the Spanish mainland; the North Face of the Rock is a nearly vertical cliff 396 metres high overlooking the isthmus. Gibraltar's geography has thus given it considerable natural defensive advantages, it is impossible to scale the eastern or northern sides of the Rock, which are either vertical or nearly so. To the south, the flat area around Europa Point is surrounded by cliffs which are up to 30 metres high.
The western side is the only practicable area for a landing, but here the steep slopes on which the town is built work to the advantage of a defender. These factors have given it an enormous military significance over the centuries. Gibraltar's appearance in prehistory was different. Whereas today it is surrounded by sea, th
Coat of arms of Gibraltar
The coat of arms of Gibraltar was first granted by a Royal Warrant passed in Toledo on 10 July 1502 by Isabella I of Castile during Gibraltar's Spanish period. The arms consists of an escutcheon and features a three-towered red castle under which hangs a golden key; the arms were described in the Royal Warrant as consisting of: "...an escutcheon on which two thirds of its upper part shall have a white field. The arms consist of a shield parted per fess: 1st Division: Two thirds Argent, a triple-towered castle of Gules and ajouré of Sable. 2nd Division: One third Gules, a key of Or hanging by a chain of Or from the castle. The castle has its roots in the heraldry of the Kingdom of Castile, the largest and most important medieval Spanish kingdom, of which Isabella was Queen; the preamble to the warrant granting the coat of arms to Gibraltar said: "...and we, deeming it right, acknowledging that the said City is strong and by its situation it is the key between these our kingdoms in the Eastern and Western Seas and the sentinel and defence of the Strait of the said Seas through which no ships of peoples of either of these Seas can pass to the other without sighting it or calling at it."
The idea of Gibraltar being the key to Spain or the Mediterranean originated well before the Spanish conquest. The followers of Tariq ibn Ziyad, who invaded Spain via Gibraltar in 711, are said to have adopted the symbol of the key when they settled in Granada; the coat of arms was accompanied by the inscription "Seal of the noble city of Gibraltar, the Key of Spain". Today, the official coat of arms as used by the government of Gibraltar consists of the original coat of arms with the addition of the motto Montis Insignia Calpe, granted by the College of Arms in 1836 to commemorate the 1779-83 Great Siege of Gibraltar, it is the oldest coat of arms in use in an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and is unique in that it is the only armorial insignia that dates from before the period of British colonial administration. The arms differ from the seal of Gibraltar, an image of the Rock of Gibraltar with a sailing ship in the forefront. There is no evidence available as to. From 1982, a banner of the arms has been used as the flag of Gibraltar.
The arms appear in the flag of the governor of Gibraltar. The arms of the government of Gibraltar are the same as the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom combined with a badge featuring the coat of arms of Gibraltar. A similar coat of arms is in use by the nearby Spanish municipality of San Roque, using a different version of the same main heraldic elements, with the addition of the old Spanish Royal Crown above the escutcheon; when Gibraltar was captured by an Anglo-Dutch force on behalf of the pretender to the Spanish Throne, the Archduke Charles, in 1704, the city council and much of the population established a new town near the existing chapel of Saint Roch to the west of Gibraltar, The Royal Warrant of 1502 which granted the coat of arms was taken by the city council to San Roque along with Gibraltar's standard and records, is now in the San Roque municipal archives. The establishment became a new town in 1706, addressed by King Philip V of Spain as "My city of Gibraltar resident in its Campo", becoming the Spanish Gibraltar.
Therefore, they kept the old coat of arms granted to Gibraltar in 1502. In 2015, the Commonwealth of the Municipalities of the Campo de Gibraltar adopted a coat of arms and a flag; this new coat of arms shows the elements of the coat of arms of Gibraltar with seven green stars that represent the municipalities of the Commonwealth, two equal horizontal stripes with the colors of this organisation, a bordure Or with its motto PRO GEOGRAPHIA, HISTORIA ET VOLUNTATE CONIVNCTI. The modern Spanish Royal Crown is used as heraldic crest. List of coats of arms of Gibraltar List of coats of arms of the United Kingdom and dependencies History of Gibraltar Spanish heraldry
The Gibraltarians are a cultural group native to Gibraltar, a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. Some Gibraltarians are a racial and cultural mixture of the many immigrants who came to the Rock of Gibraltar over three hundred years. Following its capture by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704, all but 70 of the existing population elected to leave with many settling nearby. Since immigrants from Britain, Malta, Morocco, Minorca and Sephardic Jews from North Africa have settled. Most Gibraltarian surnames are of British extraction; the exact breakdown according to the 1995 Census was as follows: Genoese and Catalans became the core of Gibraltar's first civilian population under Habsburg Gibraltar. Sephardi Jews from Tetouan in Morocco, suppliers to English Tangier, began supplying fresh produce to Gibraltar in 1704. Jews in Gibraltar by 1755 together with the Genoese formed 50% of the civilian population. In 1888 construction of the new harbour at Gibraltar began to provide an additional coaling station on the British routes to the East.
This resulted in the importation of Maltese labour both to assist in its construction, to replace striking Genoese labour in the old coaling lighter-based industry. Maltese and Portuguese people formed the majority of this new population. Other groups include Menorcans, Sardinians and other Italians and British people. Immigration from Spain and intermarriage with Spaniards from the surrounding Spanish towns was a constant feature of Gibraltar's history until General Francisco Franco closed the border with Gibraltar, cutting off many Gibraltarians from their relatives on the Spanish side of the frontier; the Spanish government reopened the land frontier. For the period of World War II the border was closed, although Spain was nominally neutral, as Franco's regime was allied with Nazi Germany. Research by Fiorenzo Toso in 2000 about the names of Gibraltarian families of Genoese origins found that most of the emigration from the Italian region Liguria was from the areas of Genoa and Savona, some surnames such as Caruana believed to be Maltese, originate from Sicilians who emigrated to Malta during the Italian Renaissance).
The following are the most common Genoese surnames according to Toso's research. The number of Gibraltarian residents who have these surnames, according to Gibraltar's Yellow Pages are provided in parenthesis. Parody, Danino, Robba, Chipolina, Ramagge, Isola, Canepa and Bossano. By 1912 the total number of Maltese living in Gibraltar was not above 700. Many worked in the dockyard and others operated businesses which were ancillary to the dockyard. However, the economy of Gibraltar was not capable of absorbing a large number of immigrants from Malta and by 1912 the number of Maltese was in decline as they returned to the Maltese Islands; those who stayed in Gibraltar became much involved in the economic and social life of the colony, most of them being staunch supporters of links with the UK. Below are a list of the most common list of Maltese surnames in Gibraltar along with the current number of Gibraltarians who possess them. Azzopardi, * Barbara, * Borg, * Bugeja, * Buhagiar, * Buttigieg, * Zammit.
Gibraltarians are British citizens, albeit with a distinct identity of their own. Gibraltar is sometimes referred by the younger generation as "Gib", they are colloquially referred to as Llanitos, both locally and in Spain. Additional nicknames exist for them in English for Gibraltar relating to the Rock of Gibraltar. Statistics for the usually-Resident Population and Persons Present in Gibraltar. A usual resident of Gibraltar, for census purposes, is anyone who, on 12 November 2012: was in Gibraltar and had stayed or intended to stay in Gibraltar for a period of 12 months or more, or. Includes all nationalities different from Gibraltarian, UK and other British and Moroccan; the 2012 census showed a total Usually-Resident population of 32,194. There was a small decrease in the proportion of Gibraltarians, an increase in the ratio of "Other British" and a small increase in the ratio of "Other"; the main religion of Gibraltar is Christianity with the majority of Gibraltarians belonging to the Roman Catholic Church.
Other Christian denominations include the Church of England, the Gibraltar Methodist Church, the Church of Scotland, various Pentecostal and independent churches influenced by the House Church and Charismatic movements, as well as a Plymouth Brethren congregation. There is a ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Jehovah's Witnesses. There are a number of Hindu Indians, a Moroccan Muslim population, members of the Bahá'í Faith and a long-established Jewish community. English and Spanish are the main languages of Gibraltar. Although English is the official language, Gibraltarians are bilingual, speaking Spanish as fluently as Engli
The Andalusian varieties of Spanish are spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta and Gibraltar. They include the most distinct of the southern variants of peninsular Spanish, differing in many respects from northern varieties, from Standard Spanish. Due to the large population of Andalusia, the Andalusian dialects are among the ones with more speakers in Spain. Within Spain, other southern dialects of Spanish share some core elements of Andalusian in terms of phonetics – notably Canarian Spanish, Extremaduran Spanish and Murcian Spanish as well as, to a lesser degree, Manchegan Spanish. Due to massive emigration from Andalusia to the Spanish colonies in the Americas and elsewhere, most Latin American Spanish dialects share some fundamental characteristics with Western Andalusian Spanish, such as the use of ustedes instead of vosotros for the second person plural, seseo. Many varieties of Spanish, such as Canarian Spanish, Caribbean Spanish and other Latin American Spanish dialects, including their standard dialects, are considered by most to be based on Andalusian Spanish.
Andalusian has a number of distinguishing phonological, morphological and lexical features. However, not all of these are unique to Andalusian, nor are all of these features found in all areas where Andalusian is spoken, but in any one area, most of these features will be present. Most Spanish dialects in Spain differentiate between the sounds represented in traditional spelling by ⟨z⟩ and ⟨c⟩, pronounced /θ/, that of ⟨s⟩, pronounced /s/. However, in many Andalusian-speaking areas, the two phonemes are not distinguished and /s/ is used for both, known as seseo /seˈseo/. In other areas, the sound manifests as, known as ceceo. In still other areas, the distinction is retained. Ceceo predominates in more southerly parts of Andalusia, including the provinces of Cádiz, southern Huelva, most of Málaga and Seville and south-western Granada. A common stereotype about ceceo is that it is found in backward rural areas, but the predominance of ceceo in major cities such as Málaga and Granada is enough proof to refute this.
Seseo predominates in western Huelva. The cities of Seville and Cádiz are seseante, but surrounded by ceceo areas. Distinción is found in the provinces of Almería, eastern Granada, Jaén, the northern parts of Córdoba and Huelva. See map above for a detailed description of these zones. Outside Andalusia, seseo existed in parts of Extremadura and Murcia up to at least 1940; the standard distinction which predominates in Eastern Andalusia is now to be heard in many cultivated speakers of the West among younger speakers in urban areas or in monitored speech. The influence of media and school is now strong in Andalusia and this is eroding traditional seseo and ceceo. Yeísmo, the merging of /ʎ/ into /ʝ/, is general in most of Andalusia. In Western Andalusian, /ʝ/ is an affricate in all instances, whereas in standard Spanish this realisation only occurs after a nasal or pause. Intervocalic / d / is elided for example * pesao for pesado, * a menúo for a menudo; this is common in the past participle. For the -ado suffix, this feature is common to all peninsular variants of Spanish, while in other positions it is widespread throughout most of the southern half of Spain.
This is the continuation of the tendency of lenition in Vulgar Latin which developed into the Romance languages. Compare Latin vīta, Italian vita, Brazilian Portuguese vida with a occlusive, European Portuguese vida, Castilian Spanish vida with an interdental, vivaro-alpine Occitan viá and French vie, where the /d/ is elided as in Andalusian. Intervocalic /ɾ/ is elided, although this tends to occur only in certain environments. For example, parece becomes *paece, quieres becomes *quies and padre and madre may sometimes become *pae and *mae; this feature can be heard in many other parts of Spain, too. Obstruents and sonorants assimilate the place of articulation of the following consonant producing gemination. In Andalusian and Murcian Spanish syllable-final /s/ is unstable. Utterance-final /s/, /x/ and /θ/ are aspirated or deleted. In Eastern Andalusian dialects, including Murcian Spanish, the previous vowel is lowered. Thus, in these varieties one distinguishes la casa and las casas by a final deleted or aspirated /s/ and front vowels, whereas northern Spani