Naval architecture, or naval engineering, along with automotive engineering and aerospace engineering, is an engineering discipline branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electronic and safety engineering as applied to the engineering design process, shipbuilding and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, development, design evaluation and calculations during all stages of the life of a marine vehicle. Preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, trials and maintenance, launching and dry-docking are the main activities involved. Ship design calculations are required for ships being modified. Naval architecture involves formulation of safety regulations and damage-control rules and the approval and certification of ship designs to meet statutory and non-statutory requirements; the word "vessel" includes every description of watercraft, including non-displacement craft, WIG craft and seaplanes, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.
The principal elements of naval architecture are: Hydrostatics concerns the conditions to which the vessel is subjected while at rest in water and to its ability to remain afloat. This involves computing buoyancy and other hydrostatic properties such as trim and stability. Hydrodynamics concerns the flow of water around the ship's hull and stern, over bodies such as propeller blades or rudder, or through thruster tunnels. Resistance – resistance towards motion in water caused due to flow of water around the hull. Powering calculation is done based on this. Propulsion – to move the vessel through water using propellers, water jets, sails etc. Engine types are internal combustion; some vessels are electrically powered using solar energy. Ship motions – involves motions of the vessel in seaway and its responses in waves and wind. Controllability -- involves maintaining position and direction of the vessel. While atop a liquid surface a floating body has 6 degrees of freedom in its movements, these are categorized in either rotation or translation.
Fore and aft translation is termed surge. Transverse translation is termed sway. Vertical translation is termed heave. Rotation about a transverse axis is termed pitch. Rotation about a fore and aft axis is termed roll. Rotation about a vertical axis is termed yaw. Longitudinal stability for longitudinal inclinations, the stability depends upon the distance between the center of gravity and the longitudinal meta-center. In other words, the basis in which the ship maintains its center of gravity is its distance set apart from both the aft and forward section of the ship. While a body floats on a liquid surface it still encounters the force of gravity pushing down on it. In order to stay afloat and avoid sinking there is an opposed force acting against the body known as the hydrostatic pressures; the forces acting on the body must be of the same magnitude and same line of motion in order to maintain the body at equilibrium. This description of equilibrium is only present when a floating body is in still water, when other conditions are present the magnitude of which these forces shifts drastically creating the swaying motion of the body.
The buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the body, in other words, the mass of the body is equal to the mass of the water displaced by the body. This adds an upward force to the body by the amount of surface area times the area displaced in order to create an equilibrium between the surface of the body and the surface of the water; the stability of a ship under most conditions is able to overcome any form or restriction or resistance encountered in rough seas. Structures involves selection of material of construction, structural analysis of global and local strength of the vessel, vibration of the structural components and structural responses of the vessel during motions in seaway. Depending on the type of ship, the structure and design will vary in what material to use as well as how much of it; some ships are made from glass reinforced plastics but the vast majority are steel with some aluminium in the superstructure. The complete structure of the ship is designed with panels shaped in a rectangular form consisting of steel plating supported on four edges.
Combined in a large surface area the Grillages create the hull of the ship and bulkheads while still providing mutual support of the frames. Though the structure of the ship is sturdy enough to hold itself together the main force it has to overcome is longitudinal bending creating a strain against its hull, its structure must be designed so that the material is disposed as much forward and aft as possible; the principal longitudinal elements are the deck, shell plating, inner bottom all of which are in the form of grillages, additional longitudinal stretching to these. The dimensions of the ship are in order to create enough spacing between the stiffeners in prevention of buckling. Warships have used a longitudinal system of stiffening that many modern commercial vessels have adopted; this system was used in early merchant ships such as the SS Great Eastern, but shifted to transversely framed structure another concept in ship hull design that p
The Germanischer Lloyd SE was a classification society based in the city of Hamburg, Germany. It ceased to exist as an independent entity on September 2013 as a result of its merger with Norway's DNV to become the present-day DNV GL. Before the merger, as a technical supervisory organization, Germanischer Lloyd conducted safety surveys on more than 7,000 ships with over 100 Mio GT, its technical and engineering services included the mitigation of risks and assurance of technical compliance for oil and industrial installations, as well as wind energy parks. On 16 March 1867, a group of 600 shipowners and insurers met in the big hall of the Hamburg Stock Exchange on the occasion of the founding convention of Germanischer Lloyd. On behalf of the founding committee, the merchant and shipowner August Behn signed the statute of the young institution; the founding committee consisted of representatives of shipowners J. C. Godeffroy & Sohn, A. J. Schön & Co. A. J. Hertz & Söhne, as well as R. M. Sloman; the new society was founded as a non-profit association based in Hamburg.
The reason for forming a German classification society was to achieve transparency. Merchants and insurers used to get little information about the state of a ship; as an independent classification society, Germanischer Lloyd was created to evaluate the quality of ships and deliver the results to shipowners and insurers. First classifications were based on construction rules developed by Friedrich Schüler, a shipbuilder from Stettin-Grabow, Prussia. GL’s first international ship classification register from 1868 reports 273 classed ships – 26 of them under a foreign flag. In 1877, ten times more classed ships were registered; as a consequence, the surveyor network extended rapidly. By 1869, GL had surveyors in a dozen German seaports and outside Germany in St Petersburg, London, Amsterdam, Swatow, St Thomas, Amoy and Singapore. Iron and steam ships became more and more popular replacing wooden sailing vessels. After years of economic difficulties, Imperial Chancellor Bismarck took charge of the situation by announcing a commission.
Its advice: The association ought to turn into a public company. The change was finalised at a general assembly which took place on 5 October 1889. In 1894 as the economic situation improved, Germanischer Lloyd decided to extend its service by teaming up with the German maritime authority “See-Berufsgenossenschaft ”, founded in 1887. While the SeeBG issued rules for accident prevention and checked for their compliance, GL provided support as technical adviser; the collaboration between both parties has lasted until today. As a classification society, Germanischer Lloyd has always focused on ship safety; the importance of the subject became clear with the Titanic disaster in 1912. Two years a GL director attended the “Titanic” conference as representative of the German government. At this point, 10 per cent of the world’s merchant fleet was classed by Germanischer Lloyd; the First World War, was a severe set-back. International relationships were discontinued and foreign ships changed class. After the war things started to improve again.
By 1939, the register contained 4.7 million GT. The Second World War left its mark: the headquarters was destroyed, offices bombed out, overseas agencies lost. Most files were confiscated, but the Allied Control Council allowed advocates from the shipping and ship insurance industry to obtain a temporary licence for the company. Following the war, Germany’s economic recovery led to rapid development: within seven years the classed tonnage increased from 400,000 to three million GT; the company continued to grow. Large-capacity computers enabled the construction of bigger and more modern ships. Container ships were developed to satisfy the increasing consumer demand for goods; these open vessels were a lot more vulnerable to torsion and a particular challenge for design engineers. GL invested in research resulting in new construction rules for container ships. At the beginning of the 1970s, offshore technology became an important field of activity for Germanischer Lloyd. In 1973, working on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the society surveyed the construction of the research platform “North Sea” and supervised its installation to the North West of the German island Helgoland.
GL was involved in the installation of the first German oil production platforms “Mittelplate”, located in the Wadden Sea, “Schwedeneck”, located in the Baltic Sea at the German Bight off Kiel, Germany. Many other offshore technology projects followed and the work continues today. In 1977, wind energy was introduced as a new business segment; this diversification started in the 1960s, prevented the society from being affected by the shipbuilding crisis in the first half of the 1980s. In the autumn of 2006, French rival Bureau Veritas launched a hostile takeover bid but this was defeated through the support of Hamburg-based entrepreneur Günter Herz. Subsequently, 100% of the shares of the company had been acquired by the Herz family office Mayfair. Before the merger, Germanischer Lloyd served from a global network of 176 offices in 80 countries, employing some 7,000 people. 124 flag states had authorized GL to perform statutory duties. According to annually published Port State Control statistics, Germanischer Lloyd has been ranking amongst the top classification societies.
After the acquisition of GL by Günter Herz, the group expanded its activities in the energy markets. The acquisitions of Advantica in 2007 and Trident in 2008 has broadened
Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting of an electric motor or engine turning a propeller, or less in pump-jets, an impeller. Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the engineering design process of marine propulsion systems. Manpower, in the form of paddles, sail were the first forms of marine propulsion. Rowed galleys, some equipped with sail played an important early role; the first advanced mechanical means of marine propulsion was the marine steam engine, introduced in the early 19th century. During the 20th century it was replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, gas turbine engines on faster ships. Marine nuclear reactors, which appeared in the 1950s, produce steam to propel warships and icebreakers. Electric motors using electric battery storage have been used for propulsion on submarines and electric boats and have been proposed for energy-efficient propulsion.
Development in liquefied natural gas fueled engines are gaining recognition for their low emissions and cost advantages. Stirling engines, which are more efficient, smoother running producing less harmful emissions than diesel engines, propel a number of small submarines, its design has yet to be upscaled for larger surface ships. Until the application of the coal-fired steam engine to ships in the early 19th century, oars or the wind were the principal means of watercraft propulsion. Merchant ships predominantly used sail, but during periods when naval warfare depended on ships closing to ram or to fight hand-to-hand, galley were preferred for their manoeuvrability and speed; the Greek navies that fought in the Peloponnesian War used triremes, as did the Romans at the Battle of Actium. The development of naval gunnery from the 16th century onward vaulted broadside weight ahead of manoeuvrability. In modern times, human propulsion is found on small boats or as auxiliary propulsion on sailboats.
Human propulsion includes the push pole and pedals. Propulsion by sail consists of a sail hoisted on an erect mast, supported by stays, controlled by lines made of rope. Sails were the dominant form of commercial propulsion until the late nineteenth century, continued to be used well into the twentieth century on routes where wind was assured and coal was not available, such as in the South American nitrate trade. Sails are now used for recreation and racing, although innovative applications of kites/royals, rotorsails, wingsails and SkySails's own kite buoy-system have been used on larger modern vessels for fuel savings; the development of piston-engined steamships was a complex process. Early steamships were fueled by wood ones by coal or fuel oil. Early ships used stern or side paddle wheels; the first commercial success accrued to Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat in US in 1807, followed in Europe by the 45-foot Comet of 1812. Steam propulsion progressed over the rest of the 19th century.
Notable developments include the steam surface condenser, which eliminated the use of sea water in the ship's boilers. This, along with improvements in boiler technology, permitted higher steam pressures, thus the use of higher efficiency multiple expansion engines; as the means of transmitting the engine's power, paddle wheels gave way to more efficient screw propellers. Multiple expansion steam engines became widespread in the late 19th century; these engines exhausted steam from a high pressure cylinder to a lower pressure cylinder, giving a large increase in efficiency. Steam turbines were fueled by coal or fuel oil or nuclear power; the marine steam turbine developed by Sir Charles Algernon Parsons raised the power-to-weight ratio. He achieved publicity by demonstrating it unofficially in the 100-foot Turbinia at the Spithead Naval Review in 1897; this facilitated a generation of high-speed liners in the first half of the 20th century, rendered the reciprocating steam engine obsolete. In the early 20th century, heavy fuel oil came into more general use and began to replace coal as the fuel of choice in steamships.
Its great advantages were convenience, reduced manpower by removal of the need for trimmers and stokers, reduced space needed for fuel bunkers. In the second half of the 20th century, rising fuel costs led to the demise of the steam turbine. Most new ships since around 1960 have been built with diesel engines; the last major passenger ship built with steam turbines was Fairsky, launched in 1984. Many steam ships were re-engined to improve fuel efficiency. One high-profile example was the 1968 built Queen Elizabeth 2 which had her steam turbines replaced with a diesel-electric propulsion plant in 1986. Most new-build ships with steam turbines are specialist vessels such as nuclear-powered vessels, certain merchant vessels where the cargo can be used as bunker fuel. New LNG carriers continue to be built with steam turbines; the natural gas is stored in a liquid state in cryogenic vessels aboard these ships, a small amount of'boil off' gas is needed to maintain the pressure and temperature inside the vessels within operating limits.
The'boil off' gas provides the fuel for the ship's boilers, which provide steam for the tu
Österreichischer Lloyd was the largest Austro-Hungarian shipping company. It was founded in 1833, it was based at Trieste in the Austrian Littoral, the main port of the Cisleithanian half of the Dual Monarchy. As a result of the First World War the company was transferred into Italian hands. Operations continued from the port of Trieste under the name Lloyd Triestino, changed to Italia Marittima on 1 March 2006, it is now part of Evergreen Group. In 1833, 19 sea transport insurance companies, banking houses and numerous individual shareholders, among them the Austrian politician Karl Ludwig von Bruck, decided to form the Austrian Lloyd Trieste; the company answered the purpose to exchange information on European maritime trade and oversea markets, modelled on Lloyd's Register in London. Relying on a network of business correspondents and newspapers circulating in the Port of Trieste, it issued shipping news and undertook to provide postal services with sailing vessels supplied by the Austrian Navy.
Within a short period of its formation, the administration applied to Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria for the privilege of steam navigation with the Levant. On 20 April 1836 the steam-navigation department was introduced, during its second meeting on 2 August the same year the department decided to build six steamships. For this reason, 1836 is considered the year. In 1844 the company grew again when it acquired First Danubian Steam Navigation Company's line via Constantinople to Smyrna along with all its equipment. A year Austrian Lloyd was declared the property of the postal service of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. At the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Austrian Lloyd was present with its steamships Pluto and America. Soon after the opening of the Suez Canal, the company launched its Trieste–Bombay line and established a weekly service between Trieste and Port Said. With the opening of the Bombay line, the company acquired an international dimension, further reinforced by the extension of the line to Colombo in autumn 1879 and early in 1880 to Singapore and Hong Kong.
The line to Alexandria, modernized in 1894 by the introduction of four new express steamers, the line to Bombay proved to be the most profitable passenger lines in the company's history. Most of the staff of Austrian Lloyd were Croats, 80% of the staff, out of which 33,5% from Bocche di Cattaro; the company started conducting pleasure cruises in 1906 with SS Bohemia followed in 1907 by SS Thalia, built by William Denny and Brothers in 1886 and converted for cruising. The speed of shipping with the Levant increased and the passages to Calcutta were increased from nine to twelve; as a result, the company transferred the headquarters of the administration from Trieste to Vienna where, on 25 May 1907, the first general assembly of Vienna took place. The last expansion in the company's lines took place in 1912 with the Trieste–Shanghai express line
Hulk (ship type)
A hulk is a ship, afloat, but incapable of going to sea. Although sometimes used to describe a ship, launched but not completed, the term most refers to an old ship that has had its rigging or internal equipment removed, retaining only its buoyant qualities; the word hulk is used as a verb: a ship is "hulked" to convert it to a hulk. The verb was applied to crews of Royal Navy ships in dock, who were sent to the receiving ship for accommodation, or "hulked". Hulks have a variety of uses such as housing, salvage pontoons, gambling sites, naval training, or for cargo storage. Although the term hulk can be used to refer to an abandoned wreck or shell, it is much more applied to hulls that are still performing a useful function. In the days of sail, many hulls served longer as hulks. Wooden ships were hulked when the hull structure became too old and weak to withstand the stresses of sailing. More ships have been hulked when they become obsolete or when they become uneconomical to operate. A sheer hulk was used in shipbuilding and repair as a floating crane in the days of sailing ships to place the lower masts of a ship under construction or repair.
Booms known as sheers were attached to the base of a hulk's lower masts or beam, supported from the top of those masts. Blocks & tackle were used in such tasks as placing or removing the lower masts of the vessel under construction or repair; these lower masts were the largest and most massive single timbers aboard a ship, erecting them without the assistance of either a sheer hulk or land-based masting sheer was difficult. The concept of sheer hulks originated with the Royal Navy in the 1690s, persisted in Britain until the early nineteenth century. Most sheer hulks were decommissioned warships. There were at least six sheer hulks in service in Britain at any time throughout the 1700s; the concept spread to France in the 1740s with the commissioning of a sheer hulk at the port of Rochefort. By 1807 the Royal Navy had standardised sheer hulk crew numbers to comprise a boatswain and six seamen, with larger numbers coming aboard only when the sheers were in use. An accommodation hulk is a hulk used as housing when there is a lack of quarters available ashore.
An operational ship may be used for accommodation, but a hulk can accommodate more personnel than the same hull would accommodate as a functional ship. For this role, the hulk is extensively modified to improve living conditions. Receiving hulks and prison hulks are specialized types of accommodation hulks. During World War II, purpose-built barracks ships were used in this role. A receiving ship is a ship used in harbour to house newly recruited sailors before they are assigned to a ship's crew. In the Royal Navy, the use of impressment to collect sailors resulted in the problem of preventing escape of the unwilling "recruits"; the receiving ship was part of the solution. Receiving ships were older vessels that could still be kept afloat, but were obsolete or no longer seaworthy; the practice was common in the age of wooden ships, since the old hulls would remain afloat for many years in still waters after they had become too weak to withstand the rigors of the open ocean. Receiving ships served as floating hospitals as many were assigned in locations without shore-based station hospitals.
The afloat surgeon would take up station on the receiving ship. A prison hulk was a hulk used as a floating prison, they were used extensively in Great Britain, the Royal Navy producing a steady supply of ships too worn-out to use in combat, but still afloat. Their widespread use was a result of the large number of French sailors captured during the Seven Years' War, continued throughout the Napoleonic and French Revolutionary Wars a half-century later. By 1814 there were eighteen prison hulks operating at Portsmouth, sixteen at Plymouth and ten at Chatham. Prison hulks were convenient for holding civilian prisoners, commencing in Britain in 1776 when the American Revolution prevented the sending of convicts to North America. Instead large numbers of British convicts were held aboard hulks in the major seaports and landed ashore in daylight hours for manual labour such as harbor dredging. From 1786 prison hulks were used as temporary gaols for convicts being transported to Australia. A powder hulk was a hulk used to store gunpowder.
The hulk was a floating warehouse which could be moved as needed to simplify the transfer of gunpowder to warships. Its location, away from land reduced the possible damage from an explosion. Hulks were used in pairs during salvage operations. By passing heavy cables under a wreck and connecting them to two hulks, a wreck could be raised using the lifting force of the tide or by changing the buoyancy of the hulks. Service as a coal hulk was but not always, a ship's last. Of the fate of the fast and elegant clipper ships, William L. Carothers wrote, "Clippers functioned well as barges; the ultimate degradation awaited a barge. There was no way up, only down-- down to the category of coal hulks... Having strong solid bottoms... they could handle the great weight of bulk coal which filled their holds. It was a grimy, unglamorous end for any vessel which had seen the glory days."The famed clipper Red Jacket ended her days as a coaling hulk in the Cape Verde Islands. One by one these old Champions of the Seas disappeared.
The Young America was last seen lying o
Trieste is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies immediately south and east of the city, it is located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres south. Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Latin and Germanic cultures. In 2018, it had a population of about 205,000 and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia; the metropolitan population of Trieste is 410,000, with the city comprising about 240,000 inhabitants. Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, belonging to it from 1382 until 1918. In the 19th century the monarchy was one of the Great Powers of Europe and Trieste was its most important seaport; as a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the fin de siècle period at the end of the 19th century it emerged as an important hub for literature and music.
Trieste underwent an economic revival during the 1930s, Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War. The original pre-Roman name of the city, with the -est- suffix typical of Illyrian, is speculated to be derived from a hypothetical Venetic word *terg- "market", etymologically related to Old Church Slavonic tьrgъ "market". Roman authors transliterated the name as Tergestum. Modern names of the city include: Italian: Trieste, Slovene: Trst, German: Triest, Hungarian: Trieszt, Croatian: Trst, Serbian: Трст/Trst, Greek: Τεργέστη/Tergesti and Czech: Terst. Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in northeastern Italy, near the border with Slovenia; the city lies on the Gulf of Trieste. Built on a hillside that becomes a mountain, Trieste's urban territory lies at the foot of an imposing escarpment that comes down abruptly from the Karst Plateau towards the sea; the karst landforms close to the city reach an elevation of 458 metres above sea level.
It lies on the borders of the Italian geographical region, the Balkan Peninsula, the Mitteleuropa. The territory of Trieste is composed of several different climate zones depending on the distance from the sea and elevation; the average temperatures are 24.1 °C in July. The climatic setting of the city is humid subtropical climate. On average, humidity levels are pleasantly low, while only two months receive less than 60 mm of precipitation. Trieste along with the Istrian peninsula has evenly distributed rainfall above 1,000 mm in total. Snow occurs on average 0 – 2 days per year. Temperatures are mild—lows below zero are somewhat rare and highs above 30 °C aren't as common as in other parts of Italy. Winter maxima are lower than with quite high minima. Two basic weather patterns interchange—sunny, sometimes windy but very cold days connected to an occurrence of northeast wind called Bora as well as rainy days with temperatures about 6 to 11 °C. Summer is warm with maxima about 28 °C and lows above 20 °C, with the hot nights being influenced by the warm sea water.
The absolute maximum of the last 30 years is 38.0 °C in 2003, whereas the absolute minimum is −7.9 °C in 1996. The Trieste area is divided into 8a–10a zones according to USDA hardiness zoning; the climate can be affected by the Bora, a dry and cool north-to-northeast katabatic wind that can last for some days and reach speeds of up to 140 km/h on the piers of the port, thus sometimes bringing subzero temperatures to the entire city. Trieste is administratively divided in seven districts: Altipiano Ovest: Borgo San Nazario · Contovello · Prosecco · Santa Croce Altipiano Est: Banne · Basovizza · Gropada · Opicina · Padriciano · Trebiciano Barcola · Cologna · Conconello · Gretta · Grignano · Guardiella · Miramare · Roiano · Scorcola Barriera Nuova · Borgo Giuseppino · Borgo Teresiano · Città Nuova · Città Vecchia · San Vito · San Giusto · Campi Elisi · Sant'Andrea · Cavana Barriera Vecchia · San Giacomo · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore Cattinara · Chiadino · San Luigi · Guardiella · Longera · San Giovanni · Rozzol · Melara Chiarbola · Coloncovez · Santa Maria Maddalena Inferiore · Raute · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore · Servola · Poggi Paese · Poggi Sant'Anna · Valmaura · Altura · Borgo San SergioThe iconic city center is Piazza Unità d'Italia, between the large 19th-century avenues and the old medieval city, composed of many narrow and crooked streets.
Since the second millennium BC, the location was an inhabited site. An Illy