James Lloyd Spencer was a Major League Baseball first baseman. Born in Hanover, the left-handed Spencer was recognized for his excellent fielding ability, but served in years as a designated hitter. Spencer was drafted by the California Angels in the first round of the 1965 Major League Baseball Draft upon graduation from Andover High School in Linthicum, Maryland. After batting.292 with 28 home runs and 96 runs batted in for the El Paso Sun Kings in 1968, Spencer earned a September call-up to the Angels. In nineteen games, he batted.191 with five RBIs. Spencer began the 1969 season assigned to the Hawaii Islanders, but with former All-Star Dick Stuart not panning out at first base, he was back with the Angels by May. In just his second start of the season, he went four-for-five against the Baltimore Orioles. For the season, he batted.254 with 31 RBIs. While Spencer's offensive numbers improved in 1970, his fielding improved more-so, as he led the American League with 1212 put-outs at first and a.995 fielding percentage to win the Gold Glove award.
Injuries limited Spencer to 82 games in 1972. A month into the 1973 season, Spencer was traded to the Texas Rangers with Lloyd Allen for Mike Epstein, Rich Hand and Rick Stelmaszek. Spencer was batting.300 for the Rangers. He had one at-bat in the game, flew out to left field. Despite the fact that Spencer committed just one error in 1973 and one in 1974, he began seeing more time at DH with Mike Hargrove assuming most of the first base duties, he regained the first base job in 1975 with Hargrove shifting to left field, but after the season, he was dealt back to the Angels for Bill Singer in order to allow Hargrove to shift back to his natural position. A day after acquiring him, the Angels traded Spencer and Morris Nettles to the Chicago White Sox for Steve Dunning and Bill Melton. In 1976, Spencer had career highs in RBIs and stolen bases, he played 143 games, only had 2 errors throughout the season, turning 116 double plays, good for a.998 fielding percentage. On May 14, 1977, Spencer enjoyed eight RBI game against the Cleveland Indians.
He followed that up with a second two home run, eight RBI game on July 2 against the Minnesota Twins. For the season, he batted.247 with eighteen home runs and 69 RBIs, won his second career Gold Glove. Following the season, he was traded with minor leaguers Bob Polinsky and Tommy Cruz to the New York Yankees for Stan Thomas and minor leaguer Ed Ricks. While backing up Chris Chambliss at first base, Spencer saw most of his playing time at DH in New York, he reached the post-season for the first time in his career in 1978. He did not appear in the 1978 American League Championship Series against the Kansas City Royals, however, he appeared in four of the six games of the World Series, had two hits in twelve at-bats. Spencer's career high in home runs came in 1979 with the Yankees, in a year that he only got 295 at-bats, he only had 85 hits on the season, 41 of which were for extra bases, giving him a.593 slugging percentage. His most memorable at-bat of the season occurred on July 13 against Nolan Ryan.
Ryan had a no-hitter going. Centerfielder Rick Miller could not handle it; the official scorer ruled it an error. Reggie Jackson ended Ryan's no-hit bid in the ninth. During Spring training 1981, Spencer was dealt to the Pittsburgh Pirates for Jason Thompson, however the trade was nixed by Commissioner Bowie Kuhn. On May 20, he and pitcher Tom Underwood were dealt to the Oakland Athletics for Mike Patterson, Dave Revering and minor leaguer Chuck Dougherty. Spencer batted only.191 while in Oakland, was released early in the 1982 season. In 1973, Spencer had a.999 fielding percentage with only one error in the 125 games he played at first base. The next year, he had only 1 error in 60 games at a. 998 fielding percentage. On February 10, 2002, Spencer died of a heart attack in Fort Lauderdale, Florida at the age of 54; the night before his death, Spencer played first base in a charity baseball game benefiting the Joe DiMaggio Children's Hospital in Hollywood, Florida. He was buried at the Mount Pleasant United Methodist Church Cemetery in Maryland.
Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube Baseball Gauge Retrosheet Venezuelan Professional Baseball League
Thomas Andrew Brunansky, nicknamed "Bruno", is a former right fielder in Major League Baseball who played from 1981 to 1994 for the California Angels, Minnesota Twins, St. Louis Cardinals, Boston Red Sox, Milwaukee Brewers. In a 14-season career, he batted.245 with 919 RBIs in 1800 games. Brunansky averaged 24 home runs per 162 games, he finished his career with 1543 hits in 6289 at bats, 69 stolen bases, 306 doubles. After being drafted in the 1st round of the 1978 amateur draft by the California Angels organization after his senior year at West Covina High School in California, Brunansky spent the next four years working his way up the Angels' minor league system before appearing in 11 games in 1981 after making his major league debut on 19 April. On May 11, 1982, he was traded by the Angels, along with pitcher Mike Walters, to the Minnesota Twins for pitcher Doug Corbett and infielder Rob Wilfong; the 21-year-old Brunansky was inserted into the Twins' line up where he saw time at all three outfield positions and slugged his way to the first of his 8 consecutive seasons in which he hit at least 20 home runs.
Following the 1982 season, Brunansky became a fixture in right field for the Twins starting there through the 1987 season. In 1982, Brunansky became the only Twin in franchise history to hit a grand slam, inside-the-park home run, he accomplished this in a July 19 home game at the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in the 3rd inning off the Brewers' Jerry Augustine. All four runs were considered unearned because of two Brewers' fielding errors earlier in the inning. Only 40 major league players have hit a grand slam, inside-the-park home run since 1950, he was the Twins sole All-Star representative in 1985 and was a starter for the World Champion 1987 Minnesota Twins during what was arguably his best overall season. Brunansky helped the Twins upset the Detroit Tigers in the American League Championship Series by hitting.412 with 2 home runs and 9 RBI in the 5-game series. He had a somewhat invisibile World Series, only hitting.200 with one RBI. Just months after playing each other in the World Series, the Twins shocked both their fans and Tom Brunansky by trading him on 22 April 1988 to the St. Louis Cardinals for second baseman Tom Herr.
Although the move was meant to strengthen the top of the order, Herr spent one lackluster season with the Twins in which he complained about being in Minnesota, while Brunansky continued his home run hitting ways for six more seasons. On May 4, 1990, he was traded by the Cardinals to the Red Sox for closer Lee Smith. Brunansky played three seasons for the Red Sox, is best remembered by Boston fans for his diving catch of an Ozzie Guillén line drive in the ninth inning of the season ending game that preserved the Red Sox victory, sending them to the 1990 ALCS. However, Brunansky hit.083, the team as a whole hit a pitiful.183, as the Oakland A's swept the Sox in 4 games. At the end of the 1992 season, he became a free agent and signed with the Milwaukee Brewers on 28 January, 1993. Brunansky struggled with the Brewers, batting just.183 with six home runs over 80 games that season. He played only 16 games the following season before being traded back to the Red Sox on June 16, 1994, for Dave Valle.
He put up decent power numbers in Boston, hitting 10 doubles and 10 home runs in 48 games, but the strike-shortened 1994 season would be his last in the majors. Following retirement, Brunansky was hired in 2004 as the coach for the Poway High School baseball team in Poway, California. In July 2010 after finishing his sixth season at Poway, Brunansky accepted a job as the hitting coach for the Twins' Rookie League team, the Gulf Coast League Twins. At the end of the season, he was promoted to be the hitting coach for the Twins' AA League team, the New Britain Rock Cats. On November 1, 2011, Brunansky was again promoted to become the hitting coach for the Rochester Red Wings where he would help the team to their best season since 2008, finishing 72-72. On October 22, 2012, Brunansky was promoted to be the Twins' hitting coach, he was fired after the 2016 season. On May 9, 2012, the Boston Red Sox honored Brunansky for his diving catch that helped the Red Sox clinch the AL East in 1990. List of Major League Baseball career home run leaders Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference MLB.com historical statistics Sons Of Sam Horn: Tom Brunansky
Gary Nathaniel Matthews Sr. nicknamed Sarge, is an American former professional baseball left fielder, who played in Major League Baseball from 1972 through 1987 for the San Francisco Giants, Atlanta Braves, Philadelphia Phillies, Chicago Cubs, Seattle Mariners. After his playing days, Matthews was a color commentator for Phillies broadcasts, he threw right-handed. He is the father of former big league outfielder Gary Matthews Jr; the Matthews are one of seven father/son combinations in Cubs history. Matthews was selected in the first round of the June 1968 draft by the San Francisco Giants, he began his professional career in 1969 playing for the Giants' Decatur Commodores affiliate in Decatur, Illinois. In 1973, his first complete season, he won the National League Rookie of the Year award. Matthews batted.281 during his 16-season major league career with San Francisco, Philadelphia, the Chicago Cubs and Seattle. He recorded 2,011 hits, 234 homers and 978 RBI while scoring 1,083 runs. Matthews was the National League Rookie of the Year in 1973 after batting.300 with 12 homers and 58 RBI for the Giants.
He had his best overall season with the Braves in 1979, going to the All-Star Game during a season in which he batted.304 with 27 homers and 90 RBI. Matthews saw postseason action with the Phillies in 1981 and 1983, he homered 7 times in 19 playoff games and was voted the MVP of the 1983 NLCS after leading the Phillies past Los Angeles into the World Series. In the 5-game series, he went 6-for-14 with eight RBIs, he was a key contributor to the Cubs' NL Eastern Division title in 1984, batting.291 with 101 runs scored. He had been acquired with outfielder Bob Dernier and pitcher Porfi Altamirano in a spring training deal with Philadelphia for pitcher Bill Campbell and catcher Mike Diaz. In the first game of the 1984 NL Championship Series against San Diego, he homered twice, he spent three seasons as a starter in left field for the Cubs. Matthews was limited by injuries in 1987 before being traded in mid-season to Seattle for minor league pitcher Dave Hartnett. In his 16-season career, Matthews batted.281 with 978 RBIs in 2033 games.
He finished with 183 career stolen bases, 1083 runs scored and 319 doubles. He had 2011 hits in 7147 at bats, he showed decent plate discipline, with a lifetime.364 OBP, a career high of.410. He posted a.968 fielding percentage as an outfielder. In his last MLB plate appearance, Matthews faced Texas Rangers pitcher Mitch Williams and singled, but was picked off in the next at-bat ending the ballgame. After retiring as a player following the 1987 season, Matthews worked in private industry and broadcasting before joining the Cubs' organization in 1995 as minor league hitting coordinator, a position he held for three years, he left the Cubs in 1998 to become Toronto's hitting coach. Matthews returned to the field in 2002 as Milwaukee's hitting coach and served as a coach for the Cubs in 2003–06. Matthews began his broadcast career as a radio commentator for the Toronto Blue Jays and as a studio analyst on Headline Sports Television, a Canadian cable network based in Toronto. After concluding his coaching career following the 2006 season, Matthews served as a color analyst for the Philadelphia Phillies from 2007 to 2013.
During his first year in Philadelphia's booth, Matthews provided analysis for the entire game alongside Harry Kalas and Chris Wheeler. For the remainder of his Phillies broadcast tenure, Matthews provided analysis for only the middle three innings. Following Phillies victories from 2008 to 2011, Matthews would conduct a brief on-field interview with a player who made a key contribution in that day's game. On January 8, 2014, Matthews and Wheeler were relieved of their commentary duties with the Philadelphia Phillies. Both were assigned other jobs within the organization. Jamie Moyer and Matt Stairs were hired to replace them. List of Major League Baseball career home run leaders List of Major League Baseball career hits leaders List of Major League Baseball career runs scored leaders List of Major League Baseball career stolen bases leaders Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet Gary Matthews at SABR Gary Matthews at Baseball Gauge
Los Angeles Angels
The Los Angeles Angels are an American professional baseball franchise based in Anaheim, California. The Angels compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League West division; the Angels have played home games at Angel Stadium since 1966. The current MLB franchise was established as an expansion team in 1961 by Gene Autry, the team's first owner. Autry was a famous singing cowboy actor in a series of films in the 1930s to 1950s, was the subject of the Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum; the "Angels" name was taken by Autry in tribute to the previous original Los Angeles Angels, a Minor League franchise in the Pacific Coast League, which played in South Central Los Angeles from 1903 to 1957. He bought the rights to the Angels name from Walter O'Malley, the then-Los Angeles Dodgers owner, who acquired the PCL franchise from Philip K. Wrigley the owner of the parent Chicago Cubs at the time, as part of the Dodgers' move to Southern California; the "Los Angeles Angels" name originates from the first Los Angeles-based sports team, the Los Angeles Angels, who took the name "Angels" from the English translation of "Los Angeles", which means "The Angels" in Spanish.
The team name started in 1892. A. through the PCL, now a minor league affiliate of MiLB. The Angels franchise of today was established in MLB in 1961 after former owner Gene Autry bought the rights to continue the franchise name from Walter O'Malley, the former Los Angeles Dodgers owner who had acquired the franchise from Phil Wrigley, the owner of the Chicago Cubs at the time; as stated in the book Under the Halo: The Official History of Angels Baseball, "Autry agreed to buy the franchise name for $350,000, continue the history of the popular Pacific Coast League team as his own expansion team in the MLB." After the Angels joined the Major Leagues, some players from the Angels' PCL team joined the Major League Angels in 1961. As an expansion franchise, the club continued in Los Angeles as the "Los Angeles Angels", played their home games at Los Angeles' Wrigley Field, the home of the PCL Los Angeles Angels; the Angels were one of two expansion teams established as a result of the 1961 Major League Baseball expansion, along with the second incarnation of the Washington Senators.
The team moved in 1962 to newly built Dodger Stadium, which the Angels referred to as Chavez Ravine, where they were tenants of the Los Angeles Dodgers through 1965. The team's founder, entertainer Gene Autry, owned the franchise for its first 36 years. During Autry's ownership, the team never won the pennant; the team has gone through several name changes in their history, first changing their name to the California Angels on September 2, 1965, with a month still left in the season, in recognition of their upcoming move to the newly constructed Anaheim Stadium in Anaheim at the start of the 1966 season. When The Walt Disney Company took control of the team in 1997, it extensively renovated Anaheim Stadium, renamed Edison International Field of Anaheim; the City of Anaheim contributed $30 million to the $118 million renovation with a renegotiated lease providing that the names of both the stadium and team contain the word "Anaheim". The team was renamed the Anaheim Angels and became a subsidiary of Disney Sports, Inc..
Under Disney's ownership and the leadership of manager Mike Scioscia, the Angels won their first pennant and World Series championship in 2002. In 2005, new owner Arturo Moreno added "Los Angeles" to the team's name. In compliance with the terms of its lease with the city of Anaheim, which required "Anaheim" be a part of the team's name, the team was renamed the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Fans and the municipal governments of both Anaheim and Los Angeles all objected to the change, with the City of Anaheim pursuing litigation; the team refers to itself as the Angels or Angels Baseball in its home media market, the words "Los Angeles" do not appear in the stadium, on the Angels' uniforms, or on official team merchandise. Local media in Southern California tend to omit a geographic identifier and refer to the team as the Angels or as the Halos; the Associated Press, the most prominent news service in the U. S. refers to the team as the Angels, or Los Angeles. The team refers to itself as the "Los Angeles Angels" on its social media accounts, including Twitter and Instagram.
In 2013, the team was to drop "of Anaheim" from its name, as part of a new Angel Stadium lease negotiated with the Anaheim city government. The deal was never finalized, though as of 2019, most official sources omit the "of Anaheim" suffix and the official MLB Style Guide has referred to the team as the Los Angeles Angels since the 2016 season; the mantra "Win One for the Cowboy" is a staple, rooted in Angels history for fans. The saying refers to the Angels' founder and previous owner, Gene Autry, who never saw his Angels win a World Series in his 38 years as owner. Years went by. By the Angels' first World Series Championship in 2002, Autry had died, but after winning the World Series, Angels player Tim Salmon ran into the home dugout and brought out one of Autry's signature white Stetson hats in honor of the "singing cowboy". Autry's # 26. Angel Stadium of Anaheim is nicknamed "The Big A." It has a section in
Robert John Valentine, nicknamed "Bobby V", is a former American professional baseball player and manager. He is the athletic director at Sacred Heart University. Valentine played for the Los Angeles Dodgers, California Angels, New York Mets, Seattle Mariners in MLB, he managed the Texas Rangers, the New York Mets, the Boston Red Sox of MLB, as well as the Chiba Lotte Marines of Nippon Professional Baseball. Valentine has served as the Director of Public Safety & Health for the city of Stamford, Connecticut and an analyst for ESPN Sunday Night Baseball. In February 2013, CBSSports.com hired Valentine to represent its Fantasy Sports business, including running a viral marketing campaign in which he made fun of the many times he was fired in his career and gave fans a chance to "Hire or Fire Bobby V" one more time. Valentine was born in Connecticut, to Joseph and Grace Valentine. Valentine was recruited out of Rippowam High School in Stamford, Connecticut by the University of Nebraska, Duke University, the University of Notre Dame and the University of Southern California as a star in football and baseball.
He attended USC. The Los Angeles Dodgers drafted him number five overall in the 1968 Major League Baseball draft. After winning the Pioneer League's MVP award with the Ogden Dodgers in 1968, Valentine debuted with the Dodgers as a September call-up in 1969 at 19 years old. Though he never recorded a major league at-bat that season, he did score three runs as a pinch runner. Back in the Pacific Coast League for 1970, Valentine was again his league's MVP after batting.340 with fourteen home runs for the Spokane Indians. Led by Valentine and manager Tommy Lasorda, Spokane won the league championship over a legendary Hawaii Islanders powerhouse. Valentine made the Dodgers out of spring training in 1971, batted.249 with one home run and 25 runs batted in. The following season, he managed to play in 119 games by playing many different positions—including shortstop, second base and all three outfield positions, his batting average improved to.274 in 1972, but he was not showing his early promise as a major leaguer, following the season, he was packaged in a trade along with Frank Robinson, Billy Grabarkewitz, Bill Singer and Mike Strahler to the California Angels for Andy Messersmith and Ken McMullen.
As a regular starter for the Angels, Valentine was batting.302 when he suffered a multiple compound leg fracture at Anaheim Stadium after his spikes got caught in the outfield's chain link fence while attempting to catch a home run ball hit by Dick Green. He never regained his speed. In 1974, Valentine made 414 plate appearances in the utility role, the second most of his career, batted.261 with three home runs. At the end of the 1975 season, he was traded to the San Diego Padres. Valentine only appeared in 66 games for the Padres when he was part of New York's infamous "Midnight Massacre." On Wednesday, June 15, 1977, the New York Mets traded Dave Kingman to the San Diego Padres for minor league pitcher Paul Siebert and Valentine, sent Tom Seaver to the Cincinnati Reds for Pat Zachry, Doug Flynn, Steve Henderson, Dan Norman, Mike Phillips to the St. Louis Cardinals for Joel Youngblood. Valentine's role with the Mets became more limited, he was released in spring training, 1979, he signed with the Seattle Mariners shortly afterwards, made his debut as a catcher that season.
Following the season, he retired from baseball at 29 years of age. Valentine was serving as a member of the Mets coaching staff when he was tapped by the Texas Rangers to take over managing duties from Doug Rader 32 games into the 1985 season, he was not able to turn the team's fortunes around right away and the Rangers went 53–76 the rest of the way, finishing with an overall record of 62–99. The following season the Rangers finished second in the American League West with a record of 87–75. Valentine finished second for AL Manager of the Year that year. Hopes were high in Arlington after the 1986 season, but his Rangers fell back into sixth place the following two seasons. Unable to replicate his early success, Valentine was fired by managing partner George W. Bush halfway through the 1992 season with a record of 45–41. Toby Harrah took over as manager, led the Rangers to a 77–85 record and a fourth-place finish, he finished his Rangers' managerial career with a record of 581 wins and 605 losses with no post–season appearances.
In 1989, while still manager of the Rangers, Valentine worked as an on-the-field analyst for NBC's 1989 ALCS coverage alongside Bob Costas and Tony Kubek. In 1994, Valentine managed the Norfolk Tides. Bobby led the Tides to a 67-75 record, good for fourth in the five-team West Division of the International League. In 1995, Valentine began his first stint as manager of the Chiba Lotte Marines in the Japanese Pacific League; that season, the team surprised most Japanese baseball fans by finishing in second place, a remarkable feat for the Marines who had not won the Japanese Pacific league pennant since 1974. However, he was fired abruptly due to the personal conflict with general manager Tatsuro Hirooka, despite having a two-year contract. Bobby returned to the U. S. and the Norfolk Tides in 1996, managing them to an 82–59 record and second place in the International League's West Division. He was promoted to manager of the Mets with 31 games left in the 1996 season, led them to a 12–19 record the rest of the way.
Over the next two seasons, with Valentine at the helm, the Mets began a resurgence, finishing 14 games over.500 both years. Valentine's mos
Fresno City College
Fresno City College is a community college in Fresno, California. It is part of the State Center Community College District within the California Community Colleges system. Fresno City College operates on a semester schedule, offering Associate certificates; the school's sister colleges in the State Center District are Reedley College, located in Reedley and Clovis Community College in northeastern Fresno (near the adjoining city of Clovis. Additional campuses in the district include the Madera Center and the Oakhurst Center, in the town of Oakhurst; the college is accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. The school offers Associate's Degrees, students can earn a Certificate of Completion, or transfer to a 4-year university of their choice. Students can apply to and attend the on campus Police Academy, a basic police officer academy accredited by California Police Officer Standards and Training; the Fresno City College campus is located near the Tower District in downtown Fresno.
Fresno City College is a part of the State Center Community College District. Dr. Carole Goldsmith is the current President of Fresno City College, Dr. Paul Parnell is the Chancellor of the SCCCD; the Rampage City at a Glance The Ram's Tale IntenseCITY The college athletic teams are nicknamed the Rams. Fresno City has won 53 CCCAA State Championships. Men's Basketball, Women's Soccer, Football, Women's Tennis, Men's Tennis Women's Volleyball, Men's Soccer Wrestling has won 12 CCCAA Duel Championships they have won 15 Team Championships 2005 Fresno City Men's team went Undefeated 34-0 2017 Women's Soccer team went 25-0-2 and was awarded the JC Division III National Championship AcademicsGary Soto, Mexican-American poet and children's author, professor of writing Harry Edwards, African-American sports sociologist and civil rights activistSports peopleLloyd Allen, former Major League Baseball pitcher Rob Deer Former Major League Baseball right fielder, played with the San Francisco Giants, Milwaukee Brewers, Detroit Tigers, Boston Red Sox, Hanshin Tigers, the San Diego Padres Ted Lilly Retired Major League Baseball pitcher, played for the Montreal Expos, Washington Nationals, New York Yankees, Oakland A's, Toronto Blue Jays, Chicago Cubs & Los Angeles Dodgers.
Tom Seaver Major League Baseball Hall of Fame Pitcher Matt Giordano Defensive Back for the St. Louis Rams has played for Indianapolis Colts, Green Bay Packers, Atlanta Falcons, New Orleans Saints & Oakland Raiders Tom Flores 2-Time super bowl champion Head Coach of the Oakland Raiders former Head Coach of the Seattle Seahawks, Flores is a member of the FCC Football Wall of Fame. Maurice Morris NFL Free Agent Running back. Cameron Worrell Free-Agent Defensive Back has played for the Chicago Bears, Miami Dolphins & New York Jets, is the Defensive backs coach for the Fresno City College Football team. Zach Diles NFL Free Agents Linebacker, as played for Houston Texans, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Indianapolis Colts, St. Louis Rams & Tennessee Titans Rafer Alston NBA Free-Agent Jim Merlo Linebacker for the New Orleans Saints Zoila Gurgel professional female mixed martial artist, Won the Bellator Women's 115 lb Championship Greg Boyd- Former NFL Defensive End with the New England Patriots, Denver Broncos, Green Bay Packers, San Francisco 49ers and the Los Angeles Raiders.
Andrew Stewart retired NFL and CFL defensive end Alex Stewart, football player Official website
Earned run average
In baseball statistics, earned run average is the mean of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched. It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors are recorded as unearned runs and omitted from ERA calculations. Henry Chadwick is credited with devising the statistic, which caught on as a measure of pitching effectiveness after relief pitching came into vogue in the 1900s. Prior to 1900—and, in fact, for many years afterward—pitchers were expected to pitch a complete game, their win-loss record was considered sufficient in determining their effectiveness. After pitchers like James Otis Crandall and Charley Hall made names for themselves as relief specialists, gauging a pitcher's effectiveness became more difficult using the traditional method of tabulating wins and losses; some criterion was needed to capture the apportionment of earned-run responsibility for a pitcher in games that saw contributions from other pitchers for the same team.
Since pitchers have primary responsibility for putting opposing batters out, they must assume responsibility when a batter they do not retire at the plate moves to base, reaches home, scoring a run. A pitcher is assessed an earned run for each run scored by a batter who reaches base while batting against that pitcher; the National League first tabulated official earned run average statistics in 1912, the American League accepted this standard and began compiling ERA statistics. Written baseball encyclopedias display ERAs for earlier years, but these were computed retroactively. Negro League pitchers are rated by RA, or total runs allowed, since the statistics available for Negro League games did not always distinguish between earned and unearned runs; as with batting average, the definition of a good ERA varies from year to year. During the dead-ball era of the 1900s and 1910s, an ERA below 2.00 was considered good. In the late 1920s and through the 1930s, when conditions of the game changed in a way that favored hitters, a good ERA was below 4.00.
In the 1960s, sub-2.00 ERAs returned, as other influences such as ballparks with different dimensions were introduced. Today, an ERA under 4.00 is again considered good. The all-time single-season record for the lowest ERA is held by Dutch Leonard, who in 1914 had an earned run average of 0.96, pitching 224.2 innings with a win-loss record of 19-5. The all-time record for the lowest single season earned run average by a pitcher pitching 300 or more innings is 1.12, set by Bob Gibson in 1968. The record for the lowest career earned run average is 1.82, held by Ed Walsh, who played from 1904 through 1917. Some researchers dissent from the official Major League Baseball record and claim that the pitcher with the all-time lowest earned run average is Tim Keefe, who had an earned run average of 0.86 in 1880 while appearing in 12 of his team's 83 games and pitching 105 innings. But a purported record based on so few innings pitched is misleading. Over the years, more than a dozen part-time pitchers have pitched 105 or more innings and had an earned run average lower than 0.86.
Major League Baseball recognizes many records from the 19th century—including Will White's 1879 record of 680 innings pitched, Charles Radbourne's 1884 record of 59 wins, Pud Galvin's 1883 record for 75 games started, but does not recognize Keefe as the pitcher having the all-time lowest single season earned run average. Some sources may list players with infinite ERAs; this can happen. Additionally, an undefined ERA occurs at the beginning of a baseball season, it is sometimes incorrectly displayed as zero or as the lowest ranking ERA though it is more akin to the highest. At times it can be misleading to judge relief pitchers on ERA, because they are charged only for runs scored by batters who reached base while batting against them. Thus, if a relief pitcher enters the game with his team leading by 1 run, with 2 outs and the bases loaded, gives up a single which scores 2 runs, he is not charged with those runs. If he retires the next batter, his ERA for that game will be 0.00 despite having surrendered the lead.
Starting pitchers operate under the same rules but are not called upon to start pitching with runners on base. In addition, relief pitchers know beforehand that they will only be pitching for a short while, allowing them to exert themselves more for each pitch, unlike starters who need to conserve their energy over the course of a game in case they are asked to pitch 7 or more innings; the reliever's freedom to use their maximum energy for a few innings, or for just a few batters, helps relievers keep their ERAs down. ERA, taken by itself, can be misleading when trying to objectively judge starting pitchers, though not to the extent seen with relief pitchers; the advent of the designated hitter rule in the American League in 1973 made the pitching environment different. Since pitchers spending all or most of their careers in the AL have been at a disadvantage in maintaining low ERAs, compared to National League pitchers who can get an easy