The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
Alton Nehemiah Ellis OD was a Jamaican singer-songwriter. One of the innovators of rocksteady, given the informal title "Godfather of Rocksteady". In 2006, he was inducted into the International World Music Awards Hall Of Fame. Born Alton Nehemiah Ellis in Trenchtown, Jamaica, Ellis was raised within a musical family which included his older brothers Leslie, Irving, a popular singer and steel pan player on Jamaica's North Coast, he learned to play the piano at a young age. He attended Boys' Town schools, where he excelled in both music and sport. While at Boys' Town Ellis performed as a dancer in the first show that a school director called Mr Bailey had organized for Vere Johns, invited down to talent scout, he would compete on Vere Johns' Opportunity Hour. After winning some competitions, he switched to singing, starting his career in 1959 as part of the duo Alton & Eddy with Eddy Parkins. Ellis and Parkins recorded for Coxsone Dodd at Studio One in the R&B style, having a hit in 1960 with "Muriel", a song Ellis had written while working as a labourer on a building site.
This initial success was followed by the release of "My Heaven", which like "Muriel" was a slow R&B ballad with the instrumental triplets and vocal harmonizing common to the ballads of that period. Further releases in the R&B style followed: "Lullabye Angel", "I Know It All", "I'm Never Gonna Cry" and "Yours"; the duo recorded R&B tracks for Vincent Chin's Randy's label including "Let Me Dream". The duo split after Parkins moved to the United States. Ellis remained in Kingston, working as a printer and after losing his job, he restarted his music career forming a new duo with John Holt; when Holt joined The Paragons, Ellis formed The Flames. Ellis continued to work for Dodd and recorded for his arch-rival, Duke Reid on his Treasure Isle label. At the start of his career Ellis recorded with his younger sister Hortense. By the mid-1960s, ska was moving on and the beat was slowing down to rocksteady and becoming associated with the violent rude boy subculture in Jamaican dancehalls. Many artists made records referring to the rude boys, including Ellis, although his records were anti-rudie, including "Don't Trouble People", "Dance Crasher", "Cry Tough".
Releasing records under the name Alton Ellis and The Flames. The release of "Rock Steady" backed by Tommy McCook and the Supersonics, the first song to refer to the name of the new genre, heralded the new direction Jamaican popular music was taking. Ellis continued to have hits for Treasure Isle, his Mr Soul of Jamaica album is regarded as one of the definitive rocksteady albums. Ellis toured the United Kingdom in the 1967 with Ken Boothe and Studio One session band the Soul Vendors and on his return to Jamaica he worked with Dodd, recording the tracks that would be released as his debut album Alton Ellis Sings Rock & Soul. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Ellis recorded for some of Jamaica's top producers including Bunny Lee, Keith Hudson, Herman Chin Loy, he began to produce his own records, including "My Time Is The Right Time" and "The Message". He had two hits with Lloyd Daley in "Deliver Us" and "Back to Africa", both released in the UK on the Gas record label, a subsidiary of Pama Records.
Ellis returned to England, working with several London-based producers and after spending a few years in Canada, from 1972 he based himself permanently in the UK. Ellis continued to record and perform recording in the early 1980s for emerging producers including Henry "Junjo" Lawes, Sugar Minott, King Jammy, he opened up the All-Tone record shop in South London, started a record label of the same name. Ellis continued to be active on the reggae scene, his latest works include performing all over Europe with a French backing-band called ASPO at the beginning of the 21st century. Recorded in Bordeaux, Live with Aspo: Workin' on a Groovy Thing is the only live album Alton Ellis published. In 2004, Ellis was awarded the Order of Distinction by the Jamaican government in recognition of his achievements. In December 2007, he was admitted to hospital in London for treatment of cancer of the lymph glands, but he returned to live performance after receiving chemotherapy. Ellis died of cancer on 10 October 2008 at London.
His death prompted a statement from Jamaica's Minister of Information, Culture and Sports, Olivia "Babsy" Grange, who said "even as we mourn the great Alton Ellis, we must give thanks for his monumental contribution to the development of Jamaica's popular music". A funeral service and celebration of his life was held on 3 November, attended by family, music industry personnel and government ministers, with tribute performances from stars including Mr. Fix It Winston Francis, Tinga Stewart, George Nooks, Tony Gregory, Ken Boothe, Judy Mowatt and Carlene Davis. In 2012 it was announced that the main hall of the new Trench Town Multi-Purpose Building would be named the Alton Ellis Auditorium in his honour, he was
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are identified with a common domain name, published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, amazon.com. Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network, by a uniform resource locator that identifies the site. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are part of an intranet. Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language, they may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.
Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content; some websites require user subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers and smart TVs; the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.
On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server; these protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones.
A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server called an HTTP server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website's users. Apache is the most used web server software and Microsoft's IIS is commonly used; some alternatives, such as Nginx, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are functional and lightweight. A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format, sent to a client web browser, it is coded in Hypertext Markup Language. Images are used to effect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is non-interactive; this type of website displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text and other content and may require basic website design skills and software.
Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, animations, audio/video, navigation menus. Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software: Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are manipulated directly within the editor program WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver, with which the site is edited using a GUI and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages, intro, blogs, an
The Ethiopians was one of Jamaica's best-loved harmony groups during the late ska and early reggae periods. Responsible for a significant number of hits between the mid-1960s and early 1970s, the group was one of the first Jamaican acts to perform in Britain; the Ethiopians was founded by Leonard Dillon with Stephen "Tough Cock" Taylor and Aston "Charlie" Morrison at the tail end of the ska period. Dillon was a stonemason from the small community of Boundbrook, located on the outskirts of the northeast coastal town of Port Antonio, where he was raised by his grandparents in a strict Seventh Day Adventist household. With his grandfather the choirmaster in the local church, Dillon had good grounding in music from an early age. While still attending high school, he performed with a local act known as the Playboys, the mellifluousness of his voice bringing the nickname "Sparrow". Like many of his peers, Dillon moved to Kingston towards the end of his teen years in search of work, staying first in a tiny shack in the west Kingston slum of Back-O-Wall.
He travelled to Fellsmere, Florida in 1963 on a seasonal farm work contract, after returning to Kingston in 1964, he settled in Trench Town, lodging at the home of the aunt of popular sound system deejay King Sporty, who he knew from his days in Port Antonio. In Trench Town, Dillon met Peter Tosh, who introduced him to Bob Marley and Bunny Livingston, his fellow vocalists in the Wailers. An audition was swiftly arranged at Studio One, where the Wailers were recording some of the biggest hits of the day, which led to Dillon voicing his first material. Three songs were backed by the Wailers, including a sound system favourite called "Ice Water", based on lyrics of double entendre, while "Suffering On The Land" and "Beggars Have No Choice" were more concerned with the harshness of life in the ghetto. All of the songs were issued on 7 in 45 rpm singles, credited to Jack Sparrow. Shortly after the release of these singles, through the efforts of the Ethiopian Reorganization Centre in Waterhouse, Dillon entered the Rastafari faith, which he remained committed to thereafter.
Sales of the Jack Sparrow material were not high, the Wailers were focussing on their own careers. Noting that harmony groups were all the rage in Jamaica, Dillon subsequently made an exit from the Studio One stable to form a harmony group of his own with Taylor, a youth known as Foresight, who he encountered on the street in Waterhouse. Foresight dropped out early, so by the time Dillon brought the group back to Studio One, they were a trio, debating whether to call themselves the Heartaches or the Ethiopians, until Studio One founder Clement "Sir Coxsone" Dodd decisively stated that the latter was more distinctive, more fitting for a group, spiritually minded; the first songs the group recorded at Studio One included "Live Good", "Why You Gonna Leave Me Now" and the rocksteady classic "Owe Me No Pay Me", produced by Lloyd Daley, aimed at a man known as Stampede that owed Dillon money. The uncertain nature of the music business caused Morrison to quit the group, since he had a young family to support.
Undaunted by his departure and Taylor went back to Studio One to record another half-dozen tracks, including the boastful "I'm Gonna Take Over Now", a late-ska number called "I Am Free," which castigated an unfaithful lover. Despite the popularity of the material, their earnings were still not sufficient for the group to concentrate on music full-time. Continuing with the masonry led Dillon to the Ethiopians' next phase, once he found a financial backer for the group in the form of real estate speculator, Leebert Robinson, who financed the self-produced single "Train to Skaville", issued in Jamaica on WIRL. Subsequent singles, "The Whip" and "Cool It Amigo", were recorded at WIRL studio with top rocksteady band, Lynn Taitt and the Jets, licensed to Sonia Pottiger for release in Jamaica, as well as Graeme Goodall's Doctor Bird label in Britain. "Train to Skaville" made an impact overseas and brought the Ethiopians to the UK for their first tour in 1968, since the song had appeared in the UK Singles Chart.
The tour lasted three months in 1968, another two months in 1969, was arranged by Commercial Entertainment. Back in Jamaica, Melvin Reid became a temporary member of the group for some recordings made at Federal recording studio, but the group soon reverted to a duo again. "Cut Down" was recorded for Lee "Scratch" Perry, but far more successful work was issued by H. Robinson's Carib Disco company, including "Reggae Hit The Town", celebrating the new beat, the successful "Engine 54", which celebrated a defunct railway engine that used to transport city folk on countryside excursions in Jamaica; the popularity of this track and earlier hit singles led to a debut album, Engine 54, issued by Doctor Bird in the UK. The most solid and lasting working relationship was forged with producer Carl Johnson, yielding a series of hits in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Things started off with "Everything Crash," after Sir JJ told Dillon to write a song with that title when Dillon first appeared at JJ's shop on Orange Street.
Other hits to follow incl
Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s. Scholars of religion and related fields have classified it as both a new religious movement and a social movement. There is no central authority in control of the movement and much diversity exists among practitioners, who are known as Rastafari, Rastafarians, or Rastas. Rastas refer to their beliefs, which are based on a specific interpretation of the Bible, as "Rastalogy". Central is a monotheistic belief in a single God—referred to as Jah—who resides within each individual. Haile Selassie, the Emperor of Ethiopia between 1930 and 1974, is given central importance. Many Rastas regard him as an incarnation of Jah on Earth and as the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, another figure whom practitioners revere. Other Rastas regard Haile Selassie not as Jah incarnate but as a human prophet who recognized the inner divinity in every individual. Rastafari is Afrocentric and focuses its attention on the African diaspora, which it believes is oppressed within Western society, or "Babylon".
Many Rastas call for the resettlement of the African diaspora in either Ethiopia or Africa more referring to this continent as the Promised Land of "Zion". Rastas refer to their practices as "livity". Communal meetings are known as "groundations", are typified by music, chanting and the smoking of cannabis, the latter being regarded as a sacrament with beneficial properties. Rastas place emphasis on what they regard as living "naturally", adhering to ital dietary requirements, twisting their hair into dreadlocks, following patriarchal gender roles. Rastafari originated among impoverished and disenfranchised Afro-Jamaican communities in 1930s Jamaica, its Afrocentric ideology was a reaction against Jamaica's then-dominant British colonial culture. It was influenced by both Ethiopianism and the Back-to-Africa movement promoted by black nationalist figures like Marcus Garvey; the movement developed after several Christian clergymen, most notably Leonard Howell, proclaimed that Haile Selassie's crowning as emperor in 1930 fulfilled a Biblical prophecy.
By the 1950s, Rastafari's counter-cultural stance had brought the movement into conflict with wider Jamaican society, including violent clashes with law enforcement. In the 1960s and 1970s it gained increased respectability within Jamaica and greater visibility abroad through the popularity of Rasta-inspired reggae musicians like Bob Marley. Enthusiasm for Rastafari declined in the 1980s, following the deaths of Haile Selassie and Marley, but the movement survived and has a presence in many parts of the world; the Rasta movement is decentralised and organised on a cellular basis. There are several denominations, or "Mansions of Rastafari", the most prominent of which are the Nyahbinghi, Bobo Ashanti, the Twelve Tribes of Israel, each offering a different interpretation of Rasta belief. There are an estimated 700,000 to 1 million Rastas across the world; the majority of practitioners are of black African descent, although a minority come from other ethnic groups. Scholars of religion have categorised Rastafari as a new religious movement, a new social movement, or as a social movement.
The scholar of religion Leonard E. Barrett referred to it as a sect, the sociologist Ernest Cashmore as a cult, while scholar of religion Ennis B. Edmonds argued. Although Rastafari focuses on Africa as a source of identity, the scholar of religion Maboula Soumahoro noted that it was not an "authentic" African religion but an example of creolization, a product of the unique social environment that existed in the Americas. Edmonds suggested that Rastafari was "emerging" as a world religion, not because of the number of adherents that it had, but because of its global spread. Many Rastas themselves, however, do not regard it as a religion, instead referring to it as a "way of life". In 1989, a British Industrial Tribunal concluded that—for the purposes of the Race Relations Act 1976—Rastafarians could be considered an ethnic group because they have a long, shared heritage which distinguished themselves from other groups, their own cultural traditions, a common language, a common religion; the term "Rastafari" derives from the pre-regnal title of Haile Selassie.
It is unknown why the early Rastas adopted this form of Haile Selassie's name as the basis of their religion's name. Many commentators—including some academic sources—refer to the movement as "Rastafarianism"; this term has been used by some practitioners. However, "Rastafarianism" is considered offensive by most Rastafari, being critical of "isms" or "ians", dislike being labelled as an "ism" or "ian" themselves. Cashmore urged fellow academics not to use this term, which he described as "insensitive". Rastafari is a heterogeneous movement, it is thus difficult to make broad generalisations about the movement without obscuring the complexities within it. Rastas refer to the totality of their religion's ideas and beliefs as "Rastalogy"; the scholar of religion Ennis B. Edmonds described Rastafari as having "a cohesive worldview"; because it has no systematic theology or developed institutions, the sociologist of religion Peter B. Clarke stated that it was "extremely difficult to generalise" about Rastas and their beliefs.
Based on his research in Ghana, the scholar of religion Darren J. N. Middleton sugge