San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Walter Herschel Beech was an American aviator and aviation entrepreneur who co-founded the Beech Aircraft Company in 1932 with his wife, Olive Ann Beech, a team of three others. He was born in Pulaski, Tennessee on January 30, 1891. Beech started flying in 1905, at age 14. After flying for the United States Army during World War I, he joined the Swallow Airplane Company as a test pilot, he became general manager of the company. In 1924, he, Lloyd Stearman, Clyde Cessna formed Travel Air Manufacturing Company; when the company merged with Curtiss-Wright, Beech became vice-president. In 1932, he and his wife, Olive Ann Beech, along with Ted Wells, K. K. Shaul, investor C. G. Yankey, co-founded the Beech Aircraft Company in Wichita, Kansas, their early Beechcraft planes won the Bendix Trophy. During World War II, Beech Aircraft produced more than 7,400 military aircraft; the twin Beech AT-7/C-45 trained more than 90 percent of the U. S. Army Air Forces navigator/bombardiers and 50 percent of its multi-engine pilots.
Beech died from a heart attack on November 29, 1950. He and his wife are buried at Old Mission Mausoleum in Wichita. In 1977, Beech was posthumously inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, 1982, he was inducted into the International Air & Space Hall of Fame at the San Diego Air & Space Museum. Biography at Hill Air Force Base website Archive - Walter H. and Olive Ann Beech Collection at Wichita State UniversityWalter Beech at Find a Grave
Manhattan is a city in northeastern Kansas in the United States at the junction of the Kansas River and Big Blue River. It is the county seat of Riley County; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 52,281. The city was founded by settlers from the New England Emigrant Aid Company as a Free-State town in the 1850s, during the Bleeding Kansas era. Nicknamed "The Little Apple" as a play on New York City's "Big Apple", Manhattan is best known as the home of Kansas State University and has a distinct college town atmosphere. Fort Riley, a United States Army post, is located 8 miles west of Manhattan. Before settlement by European-Americans in the 1850s, the land where Manhattan sits was home to Native American tribes. Most from 1780 to 1830 it was home to the Kaw people; the Kaw settlement was called Blue Earth Village. It was named after the river the tribe called the Great Blue Earth River – today known as the Big Blue River – which intersected with the Kansas River by their village. Blue Earth Village was the site of a large battle between the Kaw and the Pawnee in 1812.
The Kaw tribe ceded ownership of this land in a treaty signed at the Shawnee Methodist Mission on January 14, 1846. The Kansas–Nebraska Act opened the territory to settlement by U. S. citizens in 1854. That fall, George S. Park founded the first Euro-American settlement within the borders of the current Manhattan. Park named it Polistra; that same year, Samuel D. Houston and three other pioneers founded Canton, a neighboring community near the mouth of the Big Blue River. Neither Canton nor Polistra grew beyond their original founders. In March 1855, a group of New England Free-Staters traveled to Kansas Territory under the auspices of the New England Emigrant Aid Company to found a Free-State town. Led by Isaac Goodnow, the first members of the group selected the location of the Polistra and Canton claims for the Aid Company's new settlement. Soon after the New Englanders arrived at the site, in April 1855, they agreed to join Canton and Polistra to make one settlement named Boston, they were soon joined by dozens more New Englanders, including Goodnow's brother-in-law Joseph Denison.
In June 1855, the paddle steamer Hartford, carrying 75 settlers from Ohio, ran aground in the Kansas River near the settlement. The Ohio settlers, who were members of the Cincinnati-Manhattan Company, had been headed twenty miles further upstream to the headwaters of the Kansas River, the location today of Junction City. After realizing they were stranded, the Hartford passengers accepted an invitation to join the new town, but insisted that it be renamed Manhattan, done on June 29, 1855. Manhattan was incorporated on May 30, 1857. Early Manhattan settlers sometimes found themselves in conflict with Native Americans, the town was threatened by pro-slavery Southerners. Manhattan was staunchly Free-State, it elected the only two Free-State legislators to the first Territorial Legislature called the "Bogus Legislature." However, nearby Fort Riley protected the settlement from the major violence visited upon other Free-State towns during the "Bleeding Kansas" era. This allowed the town to develop quickly.
On January 30, 1858, Territorial Governor James W. Denver signed an act naming Manhattan as county seat for Riley County. Ten days on February 9, 1858, Governor Denver chartered a Methodist college in Manhattan, named Blue Mont Central College; the young city received another boost when gold was discovered in the Rocky Mountains in 1859 and Fifty-Niners began to stream through Manhattan on their way to prospect in the mountains. Manhattan was one of the last significant settlements on the route west, the village's merchants did a brisk business selling supplies to miners. Manhattan's first newspaper,The Kansas Express, began publishing on May 21, 1859. In 1861, when the State of Kansas entered the Union, Isaac Goodnow, a teacher in Rhode Island, began lobbying the legislature to convert Manhattan's Blue Mont Central College into the state university; the culmination of these efforts came on February 16, 1863, when the Kansas legislature established Kansas State Agricultural College in Manhattan.
When the college began its first session on September 2, 1863, it was the first public college in Kansas, the nation's first land-grant institution created under the Morrill Act, only the second public institution of higher learning to admit women and men in the United States. By the time the Kansas Pacific Railroad laid its tracks west through Manhattan in 1866, the 11-year-old settlement was permanently ensconced in the tallgrass prairie. Manhattan's population has grown every decade since its founding; the town was named an All-American City in 1952. In 2007 CNN and Money magazine rated Manhattan as one of the ten best places in America to retire young. In 2011, Forbes rated Manhattan No. 1 for "Best Small Communities for a Business and Career." Manhattan's location is 39°11′25″N 96°35′13″W, or about 50 miles west of Topeka on the Kansas River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 18.79 square miles, of which, 18.76 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water.
Manhattan is in Kansas' Flint Hills region, which consists of continuous rolling hills covered in tall grasses. However, the downtown area – Manhattan's original site – was built on a broad, flat floodplain at the junction of the Kansas and Big Blue rivers. Manhattan is the largest town in the Flint Hills, is home
William Edward Boeing was an American aviation pioneer who founded The Boeing Company in 1916. William Boeing was born in Detroit, Michigan, to Marie M. Ortmann, from Vienna and Wilhelm Böing from Hohenlimburg, Germany. From a successful family, Wilhelm Böing emigrated to the United States in 1868 and worked as a laborer, his move to America was not popular with his father and he received no financial support. He made a fortune from North Woods timber lands and iron ore mineral rights on the Mesabi Range of Minnesota, north of Lake Superior. In 1890, at age eight, the younger Boeing lost his father to influenza, his mother soon remarried, he attended school in Europe at Vevey and returned to the U. S. for a year of prep school in Boston. He enrolled at Yale University in Connecticut, he left Yale in 1903 before graduating to go into the lumber business. Boeing moved to the Pacific Northwest at Hoquiam and purchased extensive timberlands around Grays Harbor on the Pacific side of the Olympic Peninsula and bought into lumber operations.
He made a success of the venture, in part by shipping lumber to the East Coast via the new Panama Canal, generating funds that he would apply to a different business. While president of Greenwood Timber Company, who had experimented with boat design, traveled to Seattle, during the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition in 1909, he saw a manned flying machine for the first time and became fascinated with aircraft. Boeing decided to take lessons at the Glenn L. Martin Flying School in Los Angeles and he purchased one of Martin's planes. Martin pilot James Floyd Smith traveled to Seattle to assemble Boeing's new Martin TA hydroaeroplane and continue to teach its owner to fly. Huge crates arrived by train, Smith assembled the plane in a tent hangar erected on the shore of Lake Union. William Boeing became a pilot. Boeing's test pilot, Herb Munter, soon damaged the plane; when he was told by Martin that replacement parts would not become available for months, Boeing told his friend Cdr. George Conrad Westervelt, "We could build a better plane ourselves and build it faster".
Westervelt agreed. They soon flew the B & W Seaplane, an amphibian biplane that had outstanding performance. Boeing decided to go into the aircraft business and bought an old boat works on the Duwamish River near Seattle for his factory. In 1916, Boeing went into business with George Conrad Westervelt as "B & W" and founded the Pacific Aero Products Co; the company's first plane was the Boeing Model 1. When America entered the First World War on April 8, 1917, a little more than a month Boeing changed the name from Pacific Aero Products Co. to Boeing Airplane Company and obtained orders from the U. S. Navy for 50 planes. At the end of the war, Boeing began to concentrate on commercial aircraft, he secured contracts to supply airmail service, built a successful airmail operation and passenger service that evolved into United Airlines. In 1921, Boeing married Bertha Marie Potter Paschall, she had been married to Nathaniel Paschall, a real estate broker with whom she had two sons, Nathaniel "Nat" Paschall Jr. and Cranston Paschall, these two became Boeing's stepsons.
The couple had a son of their own, William E. Boeing Jr.. The stepsons went into aviation manufacturing as a career. Nat Paschall was a sales manager for competitor Douglas Aircraft McDonnell Douglas. Bill Jr. became industrial real estate developer. Bertha Potter Paschall Boeing was the daughter of Alice Kershaw Potter. Through her father, Bertha was a descendant of merchant bankers Alexander Brown of Baltimore, James Brown and Brown's son-in-law and partner Howard Potter of New York; the name Boeing had Welsh origins as a patronymic from Owen. The prefix and suffix were included later. In 1929, Boeing joined with Frederick Rentschler of Pratt & Whitney to form United Aircraft and Transport Corporation; the new grouping was a vertically integrated company with interests in all aspects of aviation, intending to serve all aviation markets. In a short time, it bought a host of small airlines, merging them with Boeing's pioneering airline under a holding company, United Air Lines. In 1934, the United States government accused William Boeing of monopolistic practices.
The same year, the Air Mail Act forced airplane companies to separate flight operations from development and manufacturing. William Boeing divested himself of ownership as his holding company, United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, broke into three separate entities: United Aircraft Corporation, holding the former eastern US manufacturing Boeing Airplane Company, with western US manufacturing, which became The Boeing Company United Air Lines for flight operationsHe began investing most of his time in his horses in 1937. Boeing Airplane Company, though a major manufacturer in a fragmented industry, did not become successful until the beginning of World War II. Between 1935 and 1944, William Boeing and his wife Bertha set aside a large tract of land north of the Seattle city limits for subdivision, including the future communities of Richmond Beach, Richmond Heights, Innis Arden, Blue Ridge and Shoreview; the Boeings placed racially restrictive covenants on their land to enforce segregation, forbidding properties from being "sold, rented, or leased in whole or in part to any person not of the White or Caucasian race."
Non-whites could only occupy a property
Clyde Vernon Cessna was an American aircraft designer and founder of the Cessna Aircraft Corporation. Clyde Vernon Cessna was born in Hawthorne, in Montgomery County, Iowa on December 5, 1879. Cessna's family was of German ancestry; when he was 2, he and his family moved to rural Rago in Kingman County, along the Chikaskia River. During his boyhood he used his self-taught innovation and mechanical skills to improve farm machinery and to develop new farming methods, he became a successful car dealer in Enid, Oklahoma. Clyde's interest in aviation began in 1910 after witnessing an aerial exhibition in his home state of Kansas, it was this exhibition. After realizing his interest in aviation, Clyde left Oklahoma and moved to New York where he worked for a short period at the Queen Aeroplane Company where he first learned about the construction of aircraft. In 1911, he set out to build his first airplane, an airplane he named "Silverwing", his first design was a monoplane, constructed of spruce and linen and which took the form of an American version of the Bleriot XI.
The engine was a modified Elbridge motorboat motor, dubbed the "aero special", a 2-stroke, 4-cylinder engine with a maximum of 40 hp and 1,050 rpm. Upon completion, he sought to test the aircraft at the Great Salt Plains in Alfalfa County, Oklahoma, his first attempt at flight ended in a ground loop. After repairs, Cessna attempted each time ending in some sort of failure. On his 13th attempt, Cessna got a glimpse of hope as his aircraft bounced up into the air for a short time before crashing into the trees as he attempted to turn it. After his crash, Cessna exclaimed in frustration, "I'm going to fly this thing I'm going to set it afire and never have another thing to do with aeroplanes!". In June 1911 Cessna had his first successful flight; the crowds that had scoffed at his failures changed their tone and began calling him a "daring hero" and nicknamed him the "Birdman of Enid". Cessna continued to teach himself how to fly over the next several months until December 1911, when he made a successful 5-mile flight and a successful landing at the point of departure.
He was the first person to build and fly an airplane in the Heartland of the United States—between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. After the success of the Silverwing, Cessna permanently quit his work with the automobile industry to pursue his interests in aviation. Between 1912 and 1915, Cessna developed several new monoplanes, all powered by an Anzani 6-cylinder with 40–60 hp. During this time, Clyde flew his aircraft at holiday events and county fairs, an endeavour that at the time proved to be lucrative, it was in 1916 that Clyde acquired a vacant building to begin building a new aircraft for the 1917 aviation exhibition season. His factory served a dual purpose, as he opened a flight school in which he had five enrolled student pilots. However, in April 1917 when the United States declared war, the exhibition flying market ground to a halt. With his primary source of income grounded, Clyde returned to his old home near Rago, where he resumed his duties on the family farm. In the years following World War I public interest in private flying increased, leading Cessna in 1925, along with Walter Beech and Lloyd Stearman, to found the Travel Air Manufacturing Company in Wichita, Kansas.
While Cessna was president, the company soon became one of the leading US aircraft manufacturers. This success may be attributed to Cessna's advanced design concepts and aircraft that attained international recognition in the course of establishing numerous speed and distance records. After two years, Cessna left the company with plans to start his own firm, due to design disputes with his partners over the monoplane versus the biplane. On September 7, 1927, Cessna and aviation entrepreneur Victor Roos paired to form Cessna-Roos Aircraft. Roos resigned just one month into the partnership, selling back his interest to Cessna, the company changed its name to Cessna Aircraft Corporation in December. In the part of 1927, Cessna struggled to design and build an efficient monoplane; the AW was completed near the end of 1927. Cessna followed the AW with the CW-6, which flew in 1928, the DC-6, which flew in 1929, he collaborated with his son, Eldon, in designing and flying the CR-series racing aircraft.
Despite the success of new models, the Great Depression led to a catastrophic drop in aircraft sales, a bankruptcy filing for the corporation, the complete closure of the company in 1931. In 1934, Cessna reopened his Wichita plant, which he soon sold to his nephews—aeronautical engineer Dwane Wallace and his brother, attorney Dwight Wallace—in 1936. After turning over the Cessna Aircraft Corporation to his nephews and Dwight Wallace, Cessna returned to a life of farming. Clyde operated an early diesel three-track tractor building ponds for local farmers. Upon Dwane's request, he agreed to participate in the company but served in a ceremonial capacity and stayed out of the company's day-to-day business, he died on November 1954, at the age of 74 in Wichita, Kansas. Cessna was posthumously inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1978 and the International Air & Space Hall of Fame in 1983, he was ranked number 27 on Flying magazine's list of the 51 Heroes of Aviation in 2013. Bissionette, The Wichita 4: Cessna, Beech & Stearman.
Deneau, Gerald An Eye to the Sky. 1962, Ce
Boeing-Stearman Model 75
The Stearman Model 75 is a biplane used as a military trainer aircraft, of which at least 10,626 were built in the United States during the 1930s and 1940s. Stearman Aircraft became a subsidiary of Boeing in 1934. Known as the Stearman, Boeing Stearman or Kaydet, it served as a primary trainer for the United States Army Air Forces, the United States Navy, with the Royal Canadian Air Force as the Kaydet throughout World War II. After the conflict was over, thousands of surplus aircraft were sold on the civilian market. In the immediate postwar years they became popular as crop dusters, sports planes, for aerobatic and wing walking use in air shows; the Kaydet was a conventional biplane of rugged construction with a large, fixed tailwheel undercarriage, accommodation for the student and instructor in open cockpits in tandem. The radial engine was uncowled, although some Stearman operators choose to cowl the engine, most notably the Red Baron Stearman Squadron. After World War II, thousands of surplus PT-17s were auctioned off to civilians and former military pilots.
Many were modified for cropdusting use, with a hopper for pesticide or fertilizer fitted in place of the front cockpit. Additional equipment included pumps, spray bars, nozzles mounted below the lower wings. A popular approved modification to increase the maximum takeoff weight and climb performance involved fitting a larger Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior engine and a constant-speed propeller. An iconic movie image is a Stearman cropduster chasing Cary Grant across a field in North by Northwest. Christopher Reeve and Scott Wilson are shown flying 1936 variants in the 1985 movie The Aviator; the U. S. Army Air Forces Kaydet had three different designations based on its power plant: PT-13 with a Lycoming R-680 engine. 2,141 total all models. PT-13 Initial production. R-680-B4B engine. 26 built. PT-13A R-680-7 engine. 92 delivered 1937-38. Model A-75. PT-13B R-680-11 engine. 255 delivered 1939-40. PT-13C Six PT-13Bs modified for instrument flying. PT-13D PT-13As equipped with the R-680-17 engine. 353 delivered.
Model E-75. PT-17 With a Continental R-670-5 engine. 3,519 delivered PT-17A 18 PT-17s were equipped with blind-flying instrumentation. PT-17B Three PT-17s were equipped with agricultural spraying equipment for pest-control. PT-18 PT-13 with a Jacobs R-755 engine, 150 built. PT-18A Six PT-18s fitted with blind-flying instrumentation. PT-27 Canadian PT-17; this designation was given to 300 aircraft supplied under Lend-Lease to the RCAF. The U. S. Navy had several versions including: NS Up to 61 delivered. Powered by surplus 220 hp Wright J-5 Whirlwind. N2S Known colloquially as the "Yellow Peril" from its overall-yellow paint scheme. N2S-1 R-670-14 engine. 250 delivered to the U. S. Navy. N2S-2 R-680-8 engine. 125 delivered to the U. S. Navy. N2S-3 R-670-4 engine. 1,875 delivered to the U. S. Navy. N2S-4 99 US Army aircraft diverted to the U. S. Navy, plus 577 new-build aircraft. N2S-5 R-680-17 engine. 1,450 delivered to the U. S. Navy. Stearman 70 Original prototype, powered by 215 hp Lycoming radial engine. Temporary designation XPT-943 for evaluation.
Model 73 Initial production version. 61 built for U. S. Navy as NS plus export variants. Model 73L3 Version for Philippines, powered by 200 hp R-680C1 engines. Seven built. Model A73B1 Seven aircraft for Cuban Air Force powered by 235 hp Wright R-790 Whirlwind. Delivered 1939–1940. Model A73L3 Improved version for Philippines. Three built. Stearman 75 Evaluated by the U. S. Army as a primary trainer; the X75L3 became the PT-13 prototype. Variants of the 75 formed the PT-17 family. Stearman 76 Export trainer and armed versions of the 75. Stearman 90 and 91 Productionized metal frame version, becoming the XBT-17. Stearman XPT-943 The X70 evaluated at Wright Field. American Airmotive NA-75 Single-seat agricultural conversion of Model 75, fitted with new, high-lift wings. ArgentinaArgentine Air Force Argentine Navy received 16 Model 76D1s 1936 to 1937 and 60 N2S Kaydet post-war. Canada Royal Canadian Air Force received 301 PT-27s under Lend Lease. Republic of China Republic of China Air Force received 150 PT-17s under Lend-Lease, 104 refurbished aircraft post war in Taiwan.
The ROCAF used them until 1958. Colombia Colombian Air Force CubaCuban Air Force Dominican RepublicDominican Air Force GreeceHellenic Air Force GuatemalaGuatemalan Air Force HondurasHonduran Air Force Iran Imperial Iranian Air Force Israel Israeli Air Force purchased 20 PT-17s. Mexico Mexican Air Force Nicaragua Nicaraguan Air Force Paraguay Paraguayan Air Force Peru Peruvian Air Force Philippines Philippine Army Air Corps Philippine Air Force United States United States Army Air Corps/United States Army Air Forces United States Marine Corps United States Navy Venezuela Venezuelan Air Force Yugoslavia Yugoslav Air Force A considerable number of Stearmans remain in flying condition throughout the world, as the type remains a popular sport plane and warbird. ArgentinaAn N2S-5 is at the Argentine Naval Aviation Museum in flight condition. BrazilA PT-17 is displayed at the Museu Aeroespacial in Rio de TAM Museum in São Carlos. CanadaA PT-27 is maintained in operating condition at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum in Hamilton, Ontario.
1941 Stearman PT-17 owned & operated by Bruce Bond of Sarnia, Ontario China/TaiwanOne PT-17 of the ROCAF is shown at Aviation Education Exhibition Hall. ColombiaTwo PT-17s remain in active service for display (serials FA
The Stearman-Hammond Y-1 was a 1930s American utility monoplane built by the Stearman-Hammond Aircraft Corporation and evaluated by the United States Navy and the British Royal Air Force. In the early 1930s Dean Hammond designed the Hammond Model Y, a low-wing monoplane twin-boom pusher monoplane. Hammond cooperated with the aircraft designer Lloyd Stearman to develop the type for production, they formed the Stearman-Hammond Aircraft Corporation in 1936 to build the aircraft as the Stearman-Hammond Y-1. The first aircraft was powered by a 125 hp Menasco C-4 piston engine driving a pusher propeller; the performance was not impressive so it was re-engined with a 150 hp Menasco C-4S and re-designated the Y-1S. Although designed to be easy to fly the high price meant only 20 aircraft were produced; the aircraft had no rudder as such, the tailplane fins being fixed in flight. Turning was by differential elevator alone. In 1934 the Bureau of Air Commerce held a competition for a practical $700 aircraft.
In 1936 the winner of the competition was the Stearman-Hammond Y-1, incorporating many of the safety features of the Ercoupe W-1. Two other winners were the Waterman Aeroplane and a roadable autogyro from the Autogiro Company of America- the AC-35. 25 examples were ordered by the bureau at a price of $3190 each. The first delivery was considered unnacceptable in finish, prompting the production of the re-engineered Y-S model. Two Y-1S, serial numbers 0908 and 0909, were used for radio controlled development trials by the United States Navy as the JH-1. A successful unmanned radio-controlled flight was made with a JH-1 drone on 23 December 1937 at the Coast Guard Air Station, Cape May, N. J. Takeoff and landing was controlled via a landbased radio set. KLM purchased a Y-1 for use in training their pilots in tricycle undercarriage; the Royal Air Force evaluated a former KLM Y-1S in the 1940s. Hammond Model Y Prototype for the 1934 Bureau of Air Commerce safe airplane competition. Stearman-Hammond Y-1 Prototype aircraft with a 125hp Menasco C-4 engine.
Stearman-Hammond Y-1S Production aircraft with a 150hp Menasco C-4S engine. JH-1 United States Navy designation for two Y-1S used for tests. Netherlands KLM United KingdomRoyal Air Force United StatesUnited States Navy NC15522, a Y-1S at the Hiller Aviation Museum, San Carlos, United States. Data from Smithsonian Institution's National Air & Space MuseumGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 1 Length: 26 ft 11 in Wingspan: 40 ft 0 in Height: 7 ft 7 in Empty weight: 1,400 lb Gross weight: 2,150 lb Powerplant: 1 × Menasco C-4S piston engine, 150 hp Performance Maximum speed: 113 kn.